The siege of Kut Al Amara known as the First Battle of Kut, was the besieging of an 8,000 strong British Army garrison in the town of Kut, 160 kilometres south of Baghdad, by the Ottoman Army. In 1915 its population was around 6,500. Following the surrender of the garrison on 29 April 1916, the survivors of the siege were marched to imprisonment at Aleppo, during which many died. Historian Christopher Catherwood has called the siege "the worst defeat of the Allies in World War I". Ten months the British Indian Army, consisting entirely of newly recruited troops from the Western India, conquered Kut and other regions in between in the Fall of Baghdad; the 6th Division of the Indian Army, under Major-General Charles Townshend, had fallen back to the town of Kut after retreating from Ctesiphon. The British Empire forces arrived at Kut around 3 December 1915, they had suffered significant losses. General Townshend chose to stay and hold the position at Kut instead of continuing the march downriver towards Basra.
Contained within a long river loop, Kut offered a good defensive position although supply lines from distant Basra were stretched. The pursuing Ottoman forces under Halil Pasha arrived on 7 December 1915. Once it became clear the Ottomans had enough forces to lay siege to Kut, Townshend ordered his cavalry to escape south, which it did, led by Lieut. Colonel Gerard Leachman; the Ottoman forces numbered around 11,000 men and were increasing with additional reinforcements arriving constantly. They were commanded by the respected but elderly German general and military historian Baron von der Goltz. Goltz knew the Ottoman army well, as he had spent 12 years working on modernizing it, from 1883 to 1895. After three attacks in December, Goltz directed the building of siege fortifications facing Kut, he prepared for an attack from Basra, using the Tigris River, by building defensive positions further down the river designed to cut off a river-borne relief. After a month of siege, Townshend wanted to break out and withdraw southwards but his commander, General Sir John Nixon saw value in tying down the Ottoman forces in a siege.
Nixon had ordered transports from London. The War Office was in the process of reorganizing military command. However, when Townshend—inaccurately—reported that only one month of food remained, a rescue force was hastily raised, it is not clear why Townshend reported he only had enough food for one month when he had food for more than four months, but Townshend would not attempt an infantry retreat unprotected through hostile tribal lands without river transport. Nixon had ordered this with reinforcements, commanded by his son, but by December they were still only in the Suez Canal; the confusing communications would prove a critical delay. Medical facilities in Kut were headed by Major General Patrick Hehir; the first relief expedition comprised some 19,000 men under Lieutenant-General Aylmer and it headed up the river from Ali Gharbi in January 1916. The first attempt to relieve Kut came on 6 January. Aylmer's advance force was two, under Major-General George Younghusband. Part of the cause of delay was the debate in Cabinet over whether one division would be an adequate force, or whether two divisions should be sent.
Deliberations were painfully slow. The ageing General Maurice insisted on being informed at every turn as the evidence came into the Committee of Imperial Defence. At least three urgent memoranda were sent from General Nixon demanding transports to evacuate Townshend's division. By Christmas his health had broken down, he requested a return to Bombay. Nixon's replacements with additional staff as a mandatory requirement moved forward from Ali Al Gharbi towards Sheikh Sa'ad along both banks of the Tigris. Younghusband's column made contact with the Ottomans on the morning of 6 January 5.6 km east of Sheikh Sa'ad. British efforts to defeat the Ottomans were unsuccessful; the following day, on 7 January, Aylmer arrived with the main body of his forces and ordered a general attack. Younghusband led the attack on the left bank and Major-General Kemball took the right. After heavy fighting all day, Kemball's troops had overrun Ottoman trenches on the right bank, taking prisoners and capturing two guns.
However, the Ottoman left bank held firm and they carried out supporting manoeuvres from the north. After little change on 8 January, renewed British attacks on 9 January resulted in the Ottomans retiring from Sheikh Sa'ad. Over the following two days the Ottomans were followed by Aylmer's force but heavy rains made the roads impassable; the Ottomans retreated for about 16 km from Sheikh Sa'ad to a tributary of the Tigris on the left bank known by the Arabic toponym as the Wadi. The Ottomans made their camp on the other side of the Tigris opposite the Wadi. On 13 January, Aylmer attacked the Ottoman Wadi position on the left bank with all of his forces. After putting up a stiff resistance the Ottomans retreated 8 km to the west and they were followed by Aylmer's troops; the Ottomans made their camp upstream of the Wadi at the Hanna defile, a narrow strip of dry land between the Tigris and the Suwaikiya Marshes. British losses at the Battle of Hanna amounted to 2,700 killed and wounded, disastrous for the garrison in Kut.
At this point, Khalil Pasha (the Ottoman commander of the whole reg
Street Genius is a popular science TV series that airs on National Geographic Channel. It features scientific experiments related to physics and engineering performed by British presenter and engineer Tim Shaw to regular passers-by; the show is currently available on Netflix in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama. In each episode, Tim Shaw walks about the streets inviting people to participate in or observe a scientific experiment. After the experiment is explained to them, Tim asks. Once all participants or observers have given their opinions, Tim asks the viewers which, out of those predictions, will prove to be the correct one. "None of the above" is one of the multiple choice options presented, being the inspiration for the original title of the series in season 1. After the experiment is done, Tim proceeds to explain why the correct option was right and the others were wrong accompanied by on-screen graphical explanations and demonstrations in the form of images and animations. Official Street Genius site at National Geographic Channel US Official Street Genius site at National Geographic Channel UK Old Official None of the Above site at National Geographic Channel UK None of the Above/Street Genius at IMDb
Kofi Adu, a.k.a. Agya Koo, is an comedian from Ghana, he has appeared in over 200 Ghanaian movies including popular movies among Ghanaians such as Obaatanpa, Away Bus,Black Star and Ma Trick Wo. Adu is from the Ashanti Region of Ghana, but lived in a suburb in Accra Newtown called Asantewaa, he worked as a cobra. Adu was discovered on a Ghanaian comedy show on GTV at the National Theater in Accra, where he worked as a comedian warming up the crowd. In July 2008, he was awarded a National Award by then-Ghanaian President John Agyekum Kufuor. Although he journeyed to Accra to sing, Agya Koo has been featured in over 90 Ghanaian movies, 15 of which remain his favorite. In June 2016, Adu got remarried to Rita Asiedu in UK after dating for 4 years, he was married to Victoria Owusu Adomako but divorced. Avoiding the normal procedure of reading a script before acting in films, he told Joy FM's former morning show host Kojo Oppong Nkrumah that while actors and actresses are given scripts two weeks before they begin shooting, his God-given talent allows him to improvise without a script.
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