Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad. The principal divisions of the company are Industry, Energy and Infrastructure & Cities, which represent the main activities of the company; the company is a prominent maker of medical diagnostics equipment and its medical health-care division, which generates about 12 percent of the company's total sales, is its second-most profitable unit, after the industrial automation division. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Siemens and its subsidiaries employ 385,000 people worldwide and reported global revenue of around €87 billion in 2019 according to its earnings release. Siemens & Halske was founded by Werner von Siemens and Johann Georg Halske on 1 October 1847. Based on the telegraph, their invention used a needle to point to the sequence of letters, instead of using Morse code; the company called Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske, opened its first workshop on 12 October.

In 1848, the company built the first long-distance telegraph line in Europe. In 1850, the founder's younger brother, Carl Wilhelm Siemens Sir William Siemens, started to represent the company in London; the London agency became a branch office in 1858. In the 1850s, the company was involved in building long distance telegraph networks in Russia. In 1855, a company branch headed by another brother, Carl Heinrich von Siemens, opened in St Petersburg, Russia. In 1867, Siemens completed the monumental Indo-European telegraph line stretching over 11,000 km from London to Calcutta. In 1867, Werner von Siemens described a dynamo without permanent magnets. A similar system was independently invented by Charles Wheatstone, but Siemens became the first company to build such devices. In 1881, a Siemens AC Alternator driven by a watermill was used to power the world's first electric street lighting in the town of Godalming, United Kingdom; the company diversified into electric trains and light bulbs. In 1887, it opened its first office in Japan.

In 1890, the founder retired and left the running of the company to his brother Carl and sons Arnold and Wilhelm. Siemens & Halske was incorporated in 1897, merged parts of its activities with Schuckert & Co. Nuremberg in 1903 to become Siemens-Schuckert. In 1907, Siemens had 34,324 employees and was the seventh-largest company in the German empire by number of employees. In 1919, S & H and two other companies jointly formed the Osram lightbulb company. During the 1920s and 1930s, S & H started to manufacture radios, television sets, electron microscopes. In 1932, Gebbert & Schall, Phönix AG and Siemens-Reiniger-Veifa mbH merged to form the Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG, the third of the so-called parent companies that merged in 1966 to form the present-day Siemens AG. In the 1920s, Siemens constructed the Ardnacrusha Hydro Power station on the River Shannon in the Irish Free State, it was a world first for its design; the company is remembered for its desire to raise the wages of its under-paid workers only to be overruled by the Cumann na nGaedheal government.

Siemens exploited the forced labour of deported people in extermination camps. The company owned a plant in Auschwitz concentration camp. During the final years of World War II, numerous plants and factories in Berlin and other major cities were destroyed by Allied air raids. To prevent further losses, manufacturing was therefore moved to alternative places and regions not affected by the air war; the goal was to secure continued production of important everyday goods. According to records, Siemens was operating 400 alternative or relocated manufacturing plants at the end of 1944 and in early 1945. In 1972, Siemens sued German satirist F. C. Delius for his satirical history of the company, Unsere Siemenswelt, it was determined much of the book contained false claims although the trial itself publicized Siemens' history in Nazi Germany; the company supplied electrical parts to Nazi concentration camps and death camps. The factories had poor working conditions, where death were common; the scholarship has shown that the camp factories were created and supplied by the SS, in conjunction with company officials, sometimes high-level officials.

Siemens businessman and Nazi Party member John Rabe is, credited with saving many Chinese lives during the infamous Nanking Massacre. He toured Germany lecturing on the atrocities committed by Japanese forces in Nanking. In the 1950s, from their new base in Bavaria, S&H started to manufacture computers, semiconductor devices, washing machines, pacemakers. In 1966, Siemens & Halske, Siemens-Schuckertwerke and Siemens-Reiniger-Werke merged to form Siemens AG. In 1969, Siemens formed Kraftwerk Union with AEG by pooling their nuclear power businesses; the company's first digital telephone exchange was produced in 1980. In 1988, Siemens and GEC acquired the UK technology company Plessey. Plessey's holdings were split, Siemens took over the avionics and traffic control businesses—as Siemens Plessey. In 1985, Siemens bought Allis-Chalmers' interest in the partnership company Siemens-Allis which supplied electrical control equipment, it was incorporated into Siemens' Energy and Automation division. In 1987, Siemens reintegrated Kraftwerk Union, the unit

Melingriffith Water Pump

Melingriffith Water Pump is a water-driven water pump, built by Watkin George, of Cyfartha, around 1793 to return precious water from the Melingriffith Tin Plate Works to the Glamorganshire Canal. The water pump is a scheduled monument and has been restored twice since it ceased operation in the 1940s. For many years it was believed to be designed by the canal engineer John Rennie; when the Glamorganshire Canal was built it drew water from the same feed as the Melingriffith Tin Plate Works to operate the Melingriffith lock. The lock drew so much water that the works had to cease operation in dry weather, despite a clause in the Glamorgan Canal Navigation Act requiring the company to protect the water supplies of local industries; the ensuing legal battle led to an agreement to pump water from the tail race of the tin plate works to a height of 12 feet back into the canal. The canal company installed the pump, the tin plate works contributed to its maintenance; the pump is driven by an undershot paddle wheel.

The wheel comprised three cast iron hoops mounted on a solid oak axle, with 30 blades mounted on the cast iron hoops. The wheel is 18 feet 6 inches in diameter with a width of 12 feet 6 inches; the paddles are 22 inches deep. The paddle wheel is connected to two rocking beams of oak which are 22 feet long by 1 foot 2 inches by 1 foot 4 inches; the connecting rods, made of cast iron, are 18 feet 5 inches long, with a cross section of 4 inches by 5 inches. The rocking beams are supported on an oak frame of 1 foot by 1 foot timber; the other ends of the two rocking beams are connected to the vertical pumping cylinders by a chain mechanism. The cylinders have a bore of a stroke of 5 feet; the pistons in each cylinder include triangular weighted flaps of iron with leather hinges. In 1808 John Rennie and William Jessop were consulted about problems with the pump, they recommended a "fire engine" but it appears that the tin plate works owners would not contribute to the costs. The pump continued to operate continually until 1927, after that until the canal closed in 1942.

The pump remained standing until restoration was started in 1974. Scrap merchants failed to dismantle the pump in the 1950s. Melingriffith Water Pump was first restored between 1974–89 by the Inland Waterways Association and Oxford House Industrial Archaeology Society, with cooperation from Cardiff City Council, some timber components including the axle were replaced by steel; the tinplate works were replaced by a housing estate. The Welsh Development Agency kept the feeder from the weir across the River Taff so the restored water pump could be operated; when the restoration was completed in 1989 the pump was put in the care of Cardiff City Council. Further restoration work was carried out in 2009–11. Bats roosting in the rocker beams delayed the restoration but the pump ran again on 1 July 2010, now operated by electric power; the restoration work, costing £100,000 was funded by Cadw and Cardiff Council and was carried out by Penybryn Engineering with project management by Opus International Consultants.

The pump is now operated regularly. The pump is a scheduled monument and the centrepiece of the Melingriffith Water Pump Conservation Area, designated in 1975. Pont-y-Cafnau – an iron bridge designed by Watkin George Melingriffith Water Pump. National Monuments Record of Wales. Cadw. Cadw Id: GM312. "Melingriffith Water Pump". Engineering timelines. London. Retrieved 30 April 2016. Malaws, B. A.. "Melingriffith Waterpump". National Monuments Record of Wales. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales. NPRN 34441. Retrieved 16 April 2016 – via coflein. Wilkins, Stephanie. "Melingriffith Water Pump Reinstalled". Living Magazines Cardiff. Retrieved 1 May 2016. Williams, Robin. "Melingriffith Water Pump". In Briggs, C Stephen. Welsh Industrial Heritage: a review. London: Council for British Archaeology. ISBN 1 872414 13 3. CBA Research Report 79. Retrieved 30 April 2016 – via Archaeology Data Service. "No. 46662". The London Gazette. 18 August 1975. P. 10543. Opus International Consultants Ltd. Melingriffith Water Pump: Conservation and Refurbishment Works.

Cardiff: Cardiff County Council. Retrieved 16 April 2016 – via coflein. Friends of Melingriffith Water Pump "Melingriffith Water Pump, Melingriffith: Online Images". Coflein. RCHAWM. "Isometric view of conservation work". Coflein. RCHAWM. 2011. "Cast lead counter balance weights within pump cylinders". Coflein. RCHAWM. 2011. "Detailed plan of proposed conservation works". Coflein. RCHAWM. 2011. "Melingriffith Conservation Area Appraisal". Cardiff City Council. 2007

Kiah Stokes

Kiah Irene Stokes is an American basketball player for the New York Liberty of the Women's National Basketball Association. She was chosen by the Liberty with the No.11 pick in the first round of the 2015 WNBA Draft at Mohegan Sun Arena. She played four years at the University of Connecticut where she was part of four consecutive Final Four teams and won three straight national championships, from 2013 to 2015. Prior to enrolling at UConn she played for Linn-Mar High School in Iowa, she played on the USA Basketball U16 National Team, where she helped the team win the FIBA Americas U16 Championship Gold Medal. She is the daughter of former NBA player Greg Stokes. Stokes has one brother, Darius, her father was an all-American basketball player at the University of Iowa, played for the Philadelphia 76ers and won gold with the 1983 USA Pan American Games Team. When Stokes was only four years old, her father signed her up for a YMCA track team, designed for five and six-year-olds. Despite being a year or two younger than everyone else she competed in the 60 yard dash and beat everyone by 20 yards.

That's. Stokes attended Linn-Mar High School in Iowa. Stokes was a three-year starter at Linn-Mar High School in Marion, where she has started in 52 of 76 games played. In her freshman year in 2007-08, started in one of 25 games played and averaged 7.4 points, 8.2 rebounds and 4.0 blocks to help Linn-Mar to a 22-3 record. She shot 60.0 percent from 56.5 percent from the free throw line. As a sophomore, she had two triple doubles, averaged 15.7 ppg. 12.5 rpg. and 6.7 bpg. to help Linn-Mar to a 24-1 record the 4A state semifinals. Stokes holds state sophomore and school record with 160 blocks in 2008-09. During her junior year, she averaged 19.9 ppg. 13.5 rpg. and 5.8 bpg. to help Linn-Mar to a 26-0 record and Iowa 4A state title. As a senior, Stokes averaged 25.0 points, 14.8 rebounds and 5.1 blocks per game in her final year at Linn-Mar High School. She was named the Iowa's 2010 Gatorade State Player of the year and honored as a 2011 McDonald's, Parade Magazine, WBCA All-American, she compiled 1,079 points, 867 rebounds and 515 career blocks, the Iowa high school record for career blocked shots.

In addition to basketball, she participated in volleyball finished third at nationals in 2008. Stokes was selected to be a member of the first U16 team for USA Basketball; the team competed in the First FIBA Americas U16 Championship For Women held in Mexico City, Mexico in August 2009. Stokes averaged 3.3 rebounds per game. She helped the team to a 5 -- the Gold medal at the competition; the win secured an automatic bid to the 2010 FIBA U17 World Championship. Stokes ended her freshman campaign averaging 4.5 points and 4.5 rebounds in her 13.4 minutes per game. Stokes was second on the team in blocks, she led the Huskies in blocks in 13 of 38 contests. Stokes shot 60 percent from 65.3 percent from the free throw line. She was named to the All-BIG EAST Rookie Team along with teammate Kaleena Mosqueda-Lewis; as a sophomore in 2012-13, aided Connecticut to a 35-4 record and the 2013 NCAA National Championship. Stokes saw time in 32 games, averaging 3.5 rebounds in 10.7 minutes per contest. She was third on the team with 39 blocks, as an efficient 35-53 from the field and dished-out 21 assists against 20 turnovers.

Stokes recorded double-digit minutes in 17 games. Stokes helped lead her team to the 2014 National Championship. Stokes started two of 39 games and averaged 4.5 points and was third on the squad at 7.1 rebounds in only 18.5 minutes per contest. She recorded four double-doubles, after posting just one in her first two years, with double-digit rebounds on eight occasions, she had seven or more rebounds 21 times during the season. In two seasons, she has averaged 58.8 % in field goals, 65.4 % in free throws, 6.3 points per game. Kiah Stokes and the New York Liberty played in the 2016 WNBA playoffs. Kiah Stokes' podcast Hangtime on the Underdog Sports Podcast Network is the first podcast hosted by a WNBA player. Named to the 2009 Iowa Newspaper Association and Des Moines Register 4A All-State first team in 2009 and 2010. Selected to the 2009 all-state tournament team. Named to the Iowa Girls Coaches Association 2009 4A All-State first team. Honored as an all-metro first team selection in 2009. 2010—Parade Magazine All-America fourth team honors.

2010—Gatorade State Player of the Year. 2010—ESPN All-America second team. Tabbed 2010 All-Mississippi Valley Conference first team in 2009 and 2010 and all-conference second team in 2008. 2015—First Team Senior CLASS Award All-American 2015—WNBA All-Rookie Team 2015—WNBA All-Defensive Second Team