A biome /ˈbaɪoʊm/ is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in, and can be found over a range of continents. Spanning continents, biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate, biome is a broader term than habitat, any biome can comprise a variety of habitats. While a biome can cover large ares, a microbiome is a mix of organisms that coexist in a space as well. For example, the microbiome is the collection of bacteria, viruses. The biotas of the Earth make up the biosphere, the term was suggested in 1916 by Clements, originally as a synonym for biotic community of Möbius. In 1935, Tansley added the climatic and soil aspects to the idea, the International Biological Program projects popularized the concept of biome. However, in contexts, the term biome is used in a different manner. Both includes many biomes in fact and their boundaries must therefore be drawn arbitrarily and their characterization made according to the average conditions that predominate in them.
A1978 study on North American grasslands found a positive correlation between evapotranspiration in mm/yr and above-ground net primary production in g/m2/yr. These findings help explain the categories used in Holdridge’s bioclassification scheme, Holdridge uses the four axes to define 30 so-called humidity provinces, which are clearly visible in his diagram. While this scheme largely ignores soil and sun exposure, Holdridge acknowledged that these were important and his scheme can be seen as a simplification of Holdridges, more readily accessible, but missing Holdridges greater specificity. Whittaker based his approach on theoretical assertions and empirical sampling and he was in a unique position to make such a holistic assertion because he had previously compiled a review of biome classifications. Physiognomy, the apparent characteristics, outward features, or appearance of communities or species. Biome, a grouping of terrestrial ecosystems on a continent that are similar in vegetation structure, features of the environment.
Formation, a kind of community of plants on a given continent. Biome-type, grouping of convergent biomes or formations of different continents, whittakers distinction between biome and formation can be simplified, formation is used when applied to plant communities only, while biome is used when concerned with both plants and animals. Whittakers convention of biome-type or formation-type is simply a method to categorize similar communities. Whittaker considered four main ecoclines in the terrestrial realm, changes in physiognomic complexity vary with how favorable of an environment exists
Laguna, officially known as the Province of Laguna, is a province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon. Its capital is Santa Cruz and the province is situated southeast of Metro Manila, south of the province of Rizal, west of Quezon, north of Batangas, Laguna hugs the southern shores of Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. As of the 2015 census, the total population is 3,035,081. Laguna is notable as the birthplace of Jose Rizal, the national hero. Laguna de Bay, in turn, was named after the town of Bay, captain Juan de Salcedo with a band of one hundred Spanish-Mexican soldiers conquered the province and its surrounding regions for Spain in 1571. Seven years later, two Franciscan friars started the work of Christianization, in 1577, the Franciscan missionaries arrived in Manila, and in 1578 they started evangelizing Laguna, Morong and the Bicol Peninsula. Juan de Plasencia and Diego de Oropesa were the earliest Franciscans sent to these places, from 1580, the towns of Bay, Majayjay, Liliw, Santa Cruz, Lumban and Siniloan were founded.
In 1678, Fray Hernando Cabrera founded San Pablo de los Montes and built a wooden church, in 1670, delimitation of borders were made between Lucban and Cavite. The populous town at that time was Bay, the capital of the province until 1688, when the seat of the government was moved to Pagsanján. In 1754, the Province of Laguna and Tayabas were divided, with the Malinao River separating the towns of Majayjay, the province became a bloody battle ground for the Chinese during the two instances that they rose in revolt against Spain. In 1603, the Chinese made their last stand in the mountains of San Pablo, the natives of Laguna proved loyal to the Spanish crown during the British invasion when thousands rallied to its defense. For his heroism, San Juan was made a brigade commander, the peoples loyalty gradually degenerated into bitter hostility. Grave abuses by the colonizers, especially those of the clergy, in 1840 for instance, religious intolerance led the people of Majayjay, Bay, and Biñan to join the revolt of Hermano Pule of Lucban, Tayabas.
Laguna was exposed to the aspirations of its most famous son, Dr. José Rizal, the persecution of the Rizal family, along with their fellow landowners toward the end of the century further aggravated the situation. In 1896, thousands of inhabitants, especially of Bay, Los Baños, Magdalena, Santa Cruz, the ill-equipped revolutionaries fought the well-armed enemy until on August 31,1898, when the last Spanish garrison surrendered to the victorious patriots in Santa Cruz. The province was cleared of Spaniards, there had been only one respite, the Pact of Biak-na-Bato on December 14 to 15,1897. Laguna actively supported the First Philippine Republic proclaimed at Malolos on January 23,1899 and its two delegates to the Malolos Congress were Don Higino Benítez and Don Graciano Cordero, both natives of Pagsanján. Upon the outbreak of the Filipino-American War, Generals Juan Cailles and Paciano Rizal led the defense of Laguna until June 30,1901, Cailles became the first Filipino Governor of Laguna under the American flag
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Rizal, officially known as the Province of Rizal is a province in the Philippines located in the CALABARZON region, just 16 kilometres east of Manila. The province is named after José Rizal, one of the national heroes of the Philippines. Rizal is bordered by Metro Manila to the west, Bulacan to the north, Quezon to the east, the province lies on the northern shores of Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. Rizal is a mountainous province perched on the slopes of the southern portion of the Sierra Madre mountain range. Antipolo offers a view of Metro Manila and is the location of the Hinulugang Taktak. Tagalog settlement arrived some time in the pre-Spaniard period, the provincial territory began with the organization of the Tondo province and Laguna province during the Spanish administration. Some of the towns like Pasig, Parañaque and Cainta were already thriving. From the reports of the Encomiendas in 1582-1583, the Encomiendas of Moron was under the jurisdiction of La Laguna and, in 1853, a new political subdivision was formed.
This district was changed to Distrito Politico-Militar de Morong after four years. In 1860, by virtue of Circular No,83, dated September 2,1859, the Province of Tondo became the Province of Manila. All its towns were placed under the administration, fiscal supervision, the town of Mariquina became the capital of the Province of Manila during the tenure of the revolutionary government of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. The Province of Morong had for its capital the town of Antipolo for the period 1898-1899, the first Philippine Commission, headed by William Howard Taft and composed of Commissioners Luke E. Wright, Henry C. Ide, Bernard Moses and Dean C, discussed with the Assembly the issue of whether or not to write the Province of Manila with Morong Province, was not self-sufficient to operate as a separate province. Although the delegates from Morong, Hilarion Raymundo and José Tupas, objected to the proposal, after much acrimonious debate and upon the suggestion of Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera the body agreed on the creation of a new province independent of the Province of Manila.
The new province was named after Jose Rizal, the countrys national hero. The new province was composed of 29 municipalities,17 from the old Province of Manila, the City of Manila from the old Province of Manila was treated as a separate entity. The seat of the government was Pasig. In year 1939, Quezon City was established, which included parts of Caloocan, during World War II, Japanese fighter and bomber planes rained explosives on the province in December 1941
These 5 provinces, plus Metro Manila and Pampanga, sum to 30.7 million residents as of the newly counted census of 2015. The region is the center of culture, education, NCR is one of the 12 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines according to the National Economic and Development Authority. Designated as a global city, NCR exerts a significant impact on commerce, media, fashion, technology, education. It is the home to all the consulates and embassies in the Philippines and its economic power makes the region the countrys premier center for finance and commerce. NCR accounts for 37. 2% of the domestic product of the Philippines. The Province of Manila, the progenitor to the present-day Metro Manila, is one of the eight provinces that revolted against the Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines. The province was honored as one of the sun rays in the Flag of the Philippines, a historical province known as Manila encompasses the former pre-Hispanic kingdoms of Tondo and Maynila. It became the capital of the colonial Philippines, with Manila serving as the center of colonial power, in 1898, it included the City of Manila and 23 other municipalities.
Mariquina served as the capital from 1898-1899, just as when the sovereignty of the Philippines was transferred to the United States, the province was dissolved and most of it was incorporated to the newly created province of Rizal in 1901. Since the Spanish colonial period, Manila was considered as one of the global cities. Pasig serves as its provincial capital, in 1939, President Quezon established Quezon City with a goal to replace Manila as the capital city of the country. A masterplan for Quezon City was completed, the establishment of Quezon City meant demise of the grand Burnham Plan of Manila, with funds being diverted for the establishment of the new capital. World War II further resulted in the loss most of the developments in the Burnham Plan, but more importantly, on, Quezon City eventually declared as the national capital from 1948-1976. The tile was re-designated back to Manila through Presidential Decree No.940 owing to its significance as the seat of government of the Philippines since the Spanish colonial period.
During the war, President Manuel L. Jorge Vargas was appointed as its mayor, Mayors in the cities and municipalities included in the City of Greater Manila served as vice mayors in their town. This was in order to ensure Vargas, who was Quezons principal lieutenant for administrative matters, the City of Greater Manila was abolished by the Japanese with the formation of the Philippine Executive Commission to govern the occupied regions of the country. The City of Greater Manila served as a model for the present-day Metro Manila, on November 7,1975, Metro Manila was formally established through Presidential Decree No.824. The Metropolitan Manila Commission was created to manage the region, on June 2,1978, through Presidential Decree No
A mountain range is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains. A mountain system or system of ranges, sometimes is used to combine several geological features that are geographically related. Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys, individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology. They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earths land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the worlds longest mountain system. The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, the belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges. The Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, mountain ranges outside of these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains.
If the definition of a range is stretched to include underwater mountains. The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, the sub-range relationship is often expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, and the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians. The position of mountains influences climate, such as rain or snow, when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the side, it warms again and is drier. Often, a shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are constantly subjected to forces which work to tear them down. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted and long after until the mountains are reduced to low hills, rivers are traditionally believed to be the principle erosive factor on mountain ranges, with their ability of bedrock incision and sediment transport.
The rugged topography of a range is the product of erosion. The basins adjacent to a mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. The early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example and this mass of rock was removed as the range was actively undergoing uplift
Bulacan is a province in the Philippines, located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon,11 kilometres north of Manila, and part of the Metro Luzon Urban Beltway Super Region. Bulacan was established on August 15,1578 and it has 569 barangays from 21 municipalities and three component cities. Bulacan is located north of Metro Manila. Bordering Bulacan are the provinces of Pampanga to the west, Nueva Ecija to the north and Quezon to the east, Bulacan lies on the north-eastern shore of Manila Bay. In the 2015 census, Bulacan had a population of 3,292,071 people, the highest in Region III, Bulacans most populated city is San Jose del Monte, the most populated municipality is Santa Maria while the least populated is Doña Remedios Trinidad. In 1899, the historic Barasoain Church in Malolos was the birthplace of the First Constitutional Democracy in Asia, pre colonial Bulacan is not much documented as others in the Visayas region. It was said that Bulacan were administered by the Royal Natives from Tondo ruled by Lakandulas, in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription mentioned some settlements such as Gatbuka, Binaungan.
Other pre colonial accounts on Bulacan was the ancient village called by Chinese traders Lihan as mentioned by Ferdinand Blumentritt is the present day Malolos, the Conquest of Bulacan traces to the first years of the Spanish in the Philippines. Upon the defeat of the Macabebe and Hagonoy natives led by Bambalito in the Battle of Bangkusay in June 3,1571 that caused Martin de Goiti to move up north first to Lubao in September 1571. In April 5,1572, the Encomiendas of Calumpit and Malolos were unified co-administered by Moron, on that year Alcaldia de Calumpit was formed which the areas of Macabebe, Apalit in Pampanga and the settlements of Meyto, Panducot and Malolos. And in December 28,1575 Governor - General Francisco Sande order to include Hagonoy in Calumpit and it was gone and recreated in 1997 upon the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Parish of Our Lady of Presentacion in Malolos. In April 30,1578 Bulakan town was established by the Augustinians with Fray Diego Vivar as its first prior.
It was reported that the part of the present-day Bulacan was to be very well populated. No exact date and year when Alcaldia de Calumpit was dissolved and it was only documented that Malolos were first to be appeared as part of Alcaldia de Bulacan was in 1582. It may assumed that reorganization of encomiendas has been occurred between 1580-1582 at the time of Governor General Gonzalo Ronquillo de Penalosa, the establishment and development of southern part of the present-day Bulacan was not simultaneous and identified with the West. It was because this part of the Province was established by group of missionaries. In 1578 Order of Friars Minor headed by Juan de Plasencia and Diego Oropesa arrived in the area called Toril, in 1578 Plasencia established the Town of Meycauayan. Where in fact Bulacan the town was already a visita of Tondo in 1575 and Calumpit where Malolos and it was the towns of Bocaue, San Jose del Monte, Santa Maria de Pandi and Marilao)
Mount Guiwan is a mountain in the Sierra Madre range in Alfonso Castañeda, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines. It is probably the highest peak of Sierra Madre mountain range with a height of 1,915 metres above sea level according to NAMRIA topographic map, bugkalots have long established trails which they use when hunting. Its streams still have abundant eels, a waterfalls estimated to be one km long from its first drop down to the bottom flows from near the summit of the mountain. In October 2012, Zamora and another climber, with guides from the Bugkalot tribe and successfully summitted the mountain passing through a mossy forest and it took them three days to hike from the jump-off point in Alfonso Castaneda. Underneath Mt. Guiwan, a tunnel that diverts water from the Casecnan River in Brgy, pelaway to Pantabangan Dam in Nueva Ecija was constructed by the Casecnan Multi-Purpose Transbasin and Power project contracted by California Energy
CALABARZON, formally known as Southern Tagalog Mainland and designated as Region IV-A, is an administrative region in the Philippines. The region comprises five provinces, Laguna, Batangas and its regional center is Calamba City in Laguna. Prior to its creation as a region, together with Mimaropa, formed the region known as Southern Tagalog. The region is home to some of the most important Philippine historical figures, most notable of which is the Philippines national hero, Jose Rizal, who was born in Calamba. On June 5,1901, a convention was called on whether or not the province of Manila should annex the province of Morong, the new province comprised 29 municipalities,17 from Manila and 12 from Morong. In 1902, Macario Sakay, a veteran Katipunan member, established the Tagalog Republic in the mountains of Rizal. Ultimately, Sakays Tagalog Republic ended in 1906 when he and his men were betrayed under the guise of holding an assembly aimed at the self-determination of the Filipino people. On September 7,1946, the Third Philippine Republic enacted Republic Act No,14, which renamed the province of Tayabas to Quezon, in honor of Manuel Quezon.
Quezon was the second President of the Philippines and a native of Baler, in 1951, the northern part of Quezon became the sub-province Aurora, named after Quezons wife. On September 24,1972, President Ferdinand Marcos enacted Presidential Decree No,1, which organized the provinces into 11 regions as part of Marcos Integrated Reorganization Plan. The IRP created Region IV, known as the Southern Tagalog region, at this time, Region IV consisted of Batangas, Laguna, Oriental Mindoro, Occidental Mindoro, Rizal and Palawan. In 1979, Aurora formally became an independent of Quezon and was included in Region IV. 103, dated May 17,2002, made changes to the Southern Tagalog region. Due to its size, Region IV was split into two regions, Region IV-A and Region IV-B. Aurora was transferred to Region III, Central Luzon,246, dated October 28,2003, President Gloria Arroyo declared Calamba as the regional center of the region. Calabarzon comprises five provinces,1 highly urbanized city,18 component cities and 4,011 barangays.
Antipolo is the most populous city in CALABARZON Region and is the seventh most populous city in the Philippines while San Pedro City is the most densely populated city in the whole region. A large section of Calabarzon is considered part of the Greater Manila Area, Calabarzon has a gross regional product of ₱1.65 trillion, which accounts for 17% of the national GDP
USS Harnett County (LST-821)
She was named for Harnett County, North Carolina and was the only U. S. Naval vessel to bear the name. She served the US Navy in World War II and the Vietnam War and she was transferred to South Vietnams Republic of Vietnam Navy, which named her RVNS My Tho. After the Vietnam War, Harnett County was transferred to the Philippine Navy, during World War II, LST-821 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto from April through June 1945. Following the War, she performed duty in the Far East until early December 1945. LST-821 returned to the United States and was decommissioned in March 1946, on 1 July 1955 all remaining LSTs were given names of U. S. counties, LST-821 was named USS Harnett County. The ship not on-station was undergoing repairs in the Western Pacific. USS Harnett County reported on-station to CTF116 on 12 January 1967, LST-821 earned one battle star for World War II service. Additionally, Harnett County earned nine battle stars, two awards of the Presidential Unit Citation, and four awards of the Navy Unit Commendation for the Vietnam War.
The US transferred Harnett County to the Republic of South Vietnam under the Security Assistance Program on 12 October 1970 and my Tho was one of the flotilla of thirty-five Republic of Vietnam Navy ships that sailed for Subic Bay after the fall of Saigon in April 1975. She was transferred to the Philippines on 5 April 1976, which named her BRP Sierra Madre, in 1999, the Philippine Navy intentionally ran her aground on the Ayungin Shoal in order to maintain the Philippines territorial claim in the area. Since a detachment of Filipino marines have been stationed on board the Sierra Madre to provide a military presence at the site. The Chinese coast guard patrols the area and attempts to prevent the resupply of these Filipino marines. In 2013, the New York Times reported on the life of the handful of marines stationed on board the Sierra Madre at Second Thomas Shoal and the vessels role in the geopolitics of the South China Sea. One may infer from the article that Sierra Madre will never sail again, the List of ships of the Philippine Navy no longer carries her as being in commission, however she has not officially been decommissioned either.
This was the first time that Chinese forces had interfered with resupply, on 13 March the Philippines conducted an aerial resupply mission to the marines on Sierra Madre. Then on 1 April 2014, the Philippine Navy succeeded in getting a boat with resupply and replacement marines past the Chinese blockade. The ship is described as in a condition, The ship’s sides are peppered with massive holes. Waves slosh through them right into the ship’s hold, in July 2015, Philippine Navy spokesman Colonel Edgardo Arevalo said that they are currently doing a maintenance repair on the ship to ensure the vessels minimum habitability