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Sierre

Sierre is the capital of the district of Sierre in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of 16,332. Sierre is nicknamed City of the Sun for its average of 300 days of sunshine a year, it is the last official French speaking city in Valais before the French–German language border of the canton located at the forêt de Finges, few kilometres after the town. A German-speaking minority lives in Sierre. Sierre is first mentioned about 800 as Sidrium, though a 12th-century document refers to the village being founded in 515. In 1179 it was mentioned in 1393 as Syder; the area around the modern town Gerunden hill, was settled early. Archeological sites on Gerunden hill have produced neolithic objects and grave goods, Bronze Age weapons and jewelry, Early Iron Age objects and Roman era inscriptions, jars and coins. A soapstone pot from the Early Middle Ages and a gold signet ring with the name Graifarius from the 6th century have been found. Other sites on nearby hills and near the chapel of Saint-Ginier, the Château de Villa, the churches of Sainte-Croix, Grands-Prés, Muraz and Bernunes have yielded up graves originating from the Bronze Age to the Carolingian era.

In Grands-Prés there is a fire pit from the beginning of the Late Iron Age. During the Roman era it appears that there was no major population center, but rather several scattered groupings of separate, upper class dwellings. Under the chapel of Saint-Ginier, the remains of a Roman era house or estate have been discovered. Other Roman ruins have been found near the Château de Villa, in the church of Sainte-Croix, in Grands-Prés by Muraz another house and in Gerunden the remains of buttress reinforced masonry indicate that a public or government building once stood there. Five altars were found in Saint-Ginier, along with another two in the scattered settlements, one of, dedicated to Mercury. During the early imperial period, the duumvir or mayor of the Civitas Vallensium, Caius Cominus Chiu, lived in Sierre. In the late imperial period, the family of the senator of Vinelia Modestina lived in the area; the chapel of Saint-Félix was built in the beginning of the 6th century on Gerunden hill. In 515 the estate at Sierre was given by the King of Burgundy Sigismund to the Abbey of Saint-Maurice to hold as a fief.

By the 11th century, the fief of Sierre was owned by the Bishop of Sion. The aristocratic families and the residents of the fief lived on the Gerunden, Vieux-Sierre and Plantzette hills. On each of these hills there was a castle that served as the residence for the Bishop's representatives and as a refuge for the population; the castles were razed in the mid-14th century when the noble families stood with the Bishop in his war with the Zenden of the Upper Valais and Counts of Savoy. The demolished castles and villages were abandoned and most residents settled farther north, in plan-Sierre; the only castle that survived the wars of the 14th century was Goubing Castle, southeast of Sierre, which belonged to the lords of Granges. The Contrée of Sierre was a group the managed the commons; as vassals of the Bishop, they had the right to assemble twice a year to regulate the management of the common lands and the affairs of the local police. In the 14th and 15th century this cooperative adopted a larger political role as they started to administer more of the daily affairs in the villages and acquired the right to appoint their own judges.

This grew into the Noble Contrée which formed the core of Sierre Zenden from which the city of Sierre developed. The town of Plan-Sierre soon took over the leadership role in the Noble Contrée; until 1798, the Noble Contrée was appointed by a council of village representatives, under the leadership of the Bishop's representative. In 1559, Plan-Sierre divided into four quarters Monderèche, La Salla and Glarey. In 1620, the town hall was built; as the capital of a Zenden, Sierre fought the French in the 1798–99 invasion. In 1799, the city was occupied by Vaudois troops; the French set up their headquarters in Sierre. In the conflicts between the conservative Upper Valais and the liberal Lower Valais, Sierre served as the seat of government in 1839–40. After 1848, the villages of the Noble Contrée became municipalities under the Valais cantonal constitution; the Zenden of Sierre became the District of Sierre with Sierre as the capital. The new city executive council had nine members, while of the General Council had 60.

The majority of the power was held by the Conservatives. In 1913, they were joined in 1945 the Social Democrats and in 2004 the Greens. At the beginning of the 20th century, Sierre became economically important as early aluminium smelting is enabled by its access to hydroelectricity. Today the aluminium industry Novelis and Alcan employs 1,200 workers in Sierre. In 2007, the agglomeration of Sierre/Crans-Montana was formed to address created to common problems in the fields of tourism and transportation. Sierre has an area, as of 2009, of 19.2 square kilometers. Of this area, 6.61 km2 or 34.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 4.1 km2 or 21.4% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 6.6 km2 or 34.4% is settled, 1.31 km2 or 6.8% is either rivers or lakes and 0.6 km2 or 3.1% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 5.4% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 10.3% and transportation infrastructure made up 10.3%. Powe

Tyringham, Massachusetts

Tyringham is a town in Berkshire County, United States. It is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 327 at the 2010 census. Founded as Housatonic Township Number 1, the land which became Tyringham and Monterey was first settled in 1735; the two main villages were set up along two waterways, Hop Brook to the north and the Konkapot River to the south. In 1750, Adonijah Bidwell, a Yale Divinity School graduate from the Hartford region, became the first minister of Township No. 1. When a meetinghouse was founded in the south, it led to a buildup in the north, by 1767 the town was incorporated and named for Tyringham, a village in Buckinghamshire, England; the town was home to the Tyringham Shaker Settlement Historic District, with the Shaker holy name of "Jerusalem", which lay just south of the town center. The town of Monterey was set off and incorporated as its own town in 1847; the town was the site of several small country estates for the wealthy, most of which are long gone, leaving Tyringham as a small, rural community.

The town of Tyringham began with an agricultural economy which soon shifted to include cottage industries and manufacturing. In 1786, the town had 182 dwelling houses, forty shops, two tanneries, four potash works, two iron works, four grist and saw mills; the townspeople made 1185 barrels of cider that year. More than ten thousand acres of the uplands were woodlands or unimproved land, but about 2500 acres had been improved for tillage. About two thousand acres were mowed for hay, more than three thousand acres were used as pasturage for the townspeople’s five hundred horses, eight hundred swine, 178 oxen, five hundred cattle, 541 milk cows. By 1837, Tyringham farmers had incorporated sheep into their economy and owned 1678 Merino sheep as well as 598 sheep of other breeds, produced more than 6500 pounds of wool. One tannery was still in operation, their manufactories made boots, iron castings, wooden ware, palm-leaf hats, rakes and corn brooms. The biggest business, a paper mill, employed seven men and nineteen women, made fifty tons of paper valued at $21,000.

Over the next three decades, Tyringham farmers diversified further, though they maintained about 1800 acres for making hay. In 1865, 63 farms employed 200, their tillage produced Indian corn, barley, buckwheat and corn. Vegetable crops included potatoes, onions and cabbage. Most of their crops were suited to the chilly climate and short growing season of a hilltown; the Shakers raised garden seeds, devoting only three acres to those crops but selling the seeds for $2,000. Someone devoted five acres to tobacco and raised nine thousand pounds valued at $1,800. Tyringham farmers had brought 1800 apple trees and fifty pear trees into production, their livestock had declined in numbers, but their 317 milk cows gave enough milk to make 8,000 pounds of butter and 40,000 pounds of cheese which sold for $8,000. Tyringham farmers sold more than a hundred thousand pounds of dressed beef, mutton and pork, they made five thousand pounds of maple sugar and four hundred gallons of maple molasses valued at $1,500.

This was a cash crop for the Shakers as well as many upland farmers with slopes too steep to plow and covered with the maple trees which are a significant part of Massachusetts forests. Manufacturing continued to grow; the Shakers' rake factory employed nine men and made thirty thousand rakes in 1865. Two paper mills employing 22 men and 41 women made more than $110,000 worth of paper. In addition, Tyringham townspeople worked in two blacksmith shops, a boot and shoe factory, five sawmills. After the Tyringham Shakers left in 1875, their businesses closed and their farms were sold. One Shaker family's buildings on Jerusalem Road became a summer resort known as Fernside. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 18.9 square miles, of which 18.6 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles, or 1.20%, is water. The town is four-sided, bordered by Lee to the north and Otis to the east, Monterey to the south, Great Barrington to the west. Tyringham is located 16 miles south of Pittsfield, 39 miles west-northwest of Springfield, 125 miles west of Boston.

Tyringham is located in the Hop Brook Valley in the Berkshire Hills. To the northeast of the valley, Baldy Mountain rises to a large plateau which stretches into the neighboring towns, includes Goose Pond. To the southwest of the valley, two mountain peaks - Mount Wilcot and Hunger Mountain - rise in a plateau in neighboring Monterey; the Appalachian Trail passes through the town, winding down Sky Hill sweeps through the valley and over Baldy Mountain and towards Becket Mountain. Tyringham is one of just fifteen towns in Massachusetts, not served by any state routes of any type. Interstate 90 and U. S. Route 20 pass just north of the town's northeast corner, Massachusetts Route 23 passes through neighboring Monterey to the south; the main road through town passes between this route to the south and Route 102 in Lee, just south of the point where it meets Route 20 at I-90 Exit 2. There are no rail or bus services in the town, with the nearest regional service for both being in Great Barrington.

The nearest national air service can be reached at Bradley International Airport in Connecticut. As of the census of 2000, there were 350 people, 133 households, 98 families residing in the town. By population, the town ranks 30th out of 32 cities and towns in Berkshire County, 345th out of the 351 in Massachusetts; the population density w

Nils Petter Gleditsch

Nils Petter Gleditsch is a Norwegian sociologist and political scientist. He is Research Professor at the Peace Research Institute Oslo. In 2009, Nils Petter Gleditsch was awarded the annual Award for Outstanding Research by the Research Council of Norway, he won the Norwegian Sociological Association’s Lifetime Achievement Award in 2018. In 1982 he was convicted in Norway of a violation of the national security paragraphs of the penal code, in the Wilkes/Gleditsch trial, his prison sentence was suspended. Nils Petter Gleditsch is the son of Kristian Gleditsch and Nini Haslund Gleditsch, the nephew of Ellen Gleditsch, the father of Kristian Skrede Gleditsch. Following studies in philosophy and economy Gleditsch became mag.art. in sociology at the University of Oslo. In 1966-67 he read sociology, social psychology and international relations at the University of Michigan in United States, he graduated from University of Oslo in 1968 with a Master degree. Since 1964, Gleditsch has been at the Peace Research Institute Oslo, first as a student as researcher and research leader.

He was Director of PRIO in 1972 and 1977-78. From 2002-2008 he led the working group'Environmental Factors of Civil War' at PRIO's Centre for the Study of Civil War, appointed Centre of Excellence by the Research Council of Norway. Since 1993 he has been Professor at NTNU. Gleditsch was editor of Journal of Peace Research 1983-2010, succeeded by Henrik Urdal. Gleditsch served as President for the International Studies Association 2008-09, he is a member of the Norwegian Academy of Letters. Staff page at PRIO