A mesh strainer known as sift known as sieve, is a device for separating wanted elements from unwanted material or for characterizing the particle size distribution of a sample using a woven screen such as a mesh or net or metal. The word "sift" derives from "sieve". In cooking, a sifter is used to separate and break up clumps in dry ingredients such as flour, as well as to aerate and combine them. A strainer is a form of sieve used to separate solids from liquid; some industrial strainers available are simplex basket strainers, duplex basket strainers, Y strainers. Simple basket strainers are used to protect valuable or sensitive equipment in systems that are meant to be shut down temporarily; some used strainers are bell mouth strainers, foot valve strainers, basket strainers. Most processing industries will opt for a self-cleaning strainer instead of a basket strainer or a simplex strainer due to limitations of simple filtration systems; the self-cleaning strainers or filters are more efficient and provide an automatic filtration solution.

Sieving is a simple technique for separating particles of different sizes. A sieve such as used for sifting flour has small holes. Coarse particles are separated or broken up by grinding against one the screen openings. Depending upon the types of particles to be separated, sieves with different types of holes are used. Sieves are used to separate stones from sand. Sieving plays an important role in food industries where sieves are used to prevent the contamination of the product by foreign bodies; the design of the industrial sieve is of primary importance here. Triage sieving refers to grouping people according to their severity of injury; the mesh in a wooden sieve might be made from wicker. Use of wood to avoid contamination is important. Henry Stephens, in his Book of the Farm, advised that the withes of a wooden riddle or sieve be made from fir or willow with American elm being best; the rims would be made of fir, oak or beech. A sieve analysis is a practice or procedure used to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material.

Sieve sizes used in combinations of four to eight sieves. Chinois, or conical sieve used as a strainer sometimes used like a food mill Cocktail strainer, a bar accessory Colander, a bowl-shaped sieve used as a strainer in cooking Flour sifter or bolter, used in flour production and baking Graduated sieves, used to separate varying small sizes of material soil, rock or minerals Mesh strainer, or just "strainer" consisting of a fine metal mesh screen on a metal frame Laundry strainer, to drain boiling water from laundry removed from a Wash copper with a wooden frame to facilitate manual handling with hot contents Riddle, used for soil Spider, used in Chinese cooking Tamis known as a drum sieve Tea strainer intended for use when making tea Zaru, or bamboo sieve, used in Japanese cooking A common term used in Trash-talk for a Goaltender in Ice Hockey that lets in too many goals. Cheesecloth Cloth filter Filter Gold panning Gyratory equipment Mechanical screening Molecular sieve Separation process Sieve analysis Soil gradation Media related to Sieves at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of sieve at Wiktionary Quotations related to Sieve at Wikiquote

Performance-based contracting

Performance based contracting known as performance-based logistics or performance-based acquisition, is a product support strategy used to achieve measurable supplier performance. A PBC approach focuses on developing strategic performance metrics and directly relating contracting payment to performance against these metrics. Common metrics include availability, maintainability and total cost of ownership; the primary means of accomplishing this are through incentivized, long-term contracts with specific and measurable levels of operational performance defined by the customer and agreed on by contracting parties. The incentivized performance measures aim to motivate the supplier to implement enhanced practices that offer improved performance and cost effective; this stands in contrast to the conventional transaction-based, or waterfall approach, where payment is related to completion of milestones and project deliverables. In PBC, since a part or the whole payment is tied to the performance of the provider and the purchaser does not get involved in the details of the process, it becomes crucial to define a clear set of requirements to the provider.

Governments fail to define the requirements clearly. This leaves room for providers to, either intentionally or unintentionally, misinterpret the requirements, which creates a game like situation. Recent studies highlighted that the shift from transaction-based to outcome-based relationship requires a business model innovation. Performance-Based approaches are most used the defense industry, but can be applied across any spend category. PBC is about buying performance, not transactional goods and services, through an integrated acquisition and logistics process delivering improved capability to a range of products and services. PBC is a support strategy that places primary emphasis on optimising system support to meet the needs of the user. PBCs delineate outcome performance goals, ensure that responsibilities are assigned, provide incentives for attaining these goals, facilitate the overall life-cycle management of system reliability and total ownership costs. A PBC in practice involves a contractor.

Several other parties are involved, including subcontractors, a legal team and consultants. These parties work for both contracting agency and contractor completing various elements of work associated with contract development, contracted work completion or performance management / measurement. United States federal law defines performance-based acquisition and treats it as "the preferred method for acquiring services". A typical process for implementing a PBC is as follows: Business Case – a document which reviews potential risks and other potential impacts of a PBC presented to senior managers to aid in their decision making Outcomes – a short statement reflecting the desired result or final deliverable of the contract Measures – define a set of performance measures that collectively measure the organisations performance against the outcome statement Levels – set performance levels for the performance measures, i.e. how well the contractor needs to perform Payment – develop a set of payment curves which set out the pay for performance regime i.e. how much the contractor gets paid for their performance level Incentives – set out a group of incentives that encourage positive behaviours and discourage negative behaviours Contract – draft, review and finalise a contract which covers all aspects of the performance and terms and conditions of the relationship Review – conduct an analysis of the outcomes of the PBC, taking into account the differing definitions of success from the different groups involved in the contract.

PBC is the name used in Australia, New Zealand and Canada to describe the practice of attaching contract payment to a set of performance metrics. It is known as performance-based logistics in the US and Contracting for Availability or Contractor Logistics Support in the UK. Although it was developed in the US for defence applications, is most applied there, PBC strategies are growing in popularity around the world and in industry sectors other than defence. In particular, PBC frameworks are becoming popular in shipping, health services and the energy sector. Alternative terms include: Performance-based life-cycle product support Contracting for Availability Contractor Logistics Support Contracting for Capability Power-By-The-Hour Managed Services Facilities Management contracts Outcome Based Contracting, Pay for Performance PBC is applied in the Australian defence sector by the major acquisition and support organisation, the Defence Material Organisation, it is useful in the defence environment because of the inherent complexity and large scale of the projects.

Australian Defence has initiated an escalation of the use of PBCs with the strategic aims of improving capability outcomes and reducing total cost of ownership. In Australia and the US, PBC frameworks are most applied in Defence situations. PBC frameworks are being used in numerous Defence related projects, including: BAE Systems Hawk Eurofighter Typhoon Anzac class frigates Royal Australian Armoured Corps vehicles Collins class submarines GE Aviation Lockheed Martin Although it is applied in the defence environment, PBC is becoming more popular in a broader range of private and public sector organisations as they seek to reduce costs and create a closer link between expenditure and performance goals. Areas outside defenc

Spitfire (comics)

Spitfire is a fictional superheroine appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was created by Frank Robbins, her character was first introduced in the Invaders comic book series as an intended replacement for the Union Jack character, but the costume design did not fit the female torso so the character of Spitfire, named after the Supermarine Spitfire fighter plane, was created. Roy Thomas and Frank Robbins featured Jacqueline Falsworth, in Invaders #7-9. Thomas and Robbins concluded the plot-line in Invaders #11. Thomas and Robbins continued including. Thomas and Robbins featured her in What If? #4. Thomas and Robbins continued including. Roger Stern and John Byrne gave her a contemporary appearance as an aging dowager whose powers have faded for Captain America Vol. 1 #253-254. She makes a brief appearance in Fabian Nicieza and Kieron Dwyer's story "The Establishment" for Marvel Comics Presents Vol. 1 #42. While Scott Lobdell and Ian Akin featured her in "Ember When" for the Marvel Super-Heroes Winter Special Vol 2.

#4. John Byrne featured her again in a fiftieth anniversary celebration in Namor the Sub-Mariner Vol. 1 #12. Byrne reused the character as support in subsequent volumes. Dan Slott and Rita Fagiani featured her and her son Kenneth in "Young Blood" for Marvel Comics Presents Vol. 1 #89. While Ron Marz and Tom Raney featured her in "Good Girl" for Namor the Sub-Mariner Annual Vol. 1 #2. She makes a brief supporting appearance in Fabian Nicieza and Craig Brasfield's New Warriors Vol. 1 #35-36. She appears as a supporting character in Nicholas Vince and Mark Buckingham's four-issue Mortigan Goth: Immortalis mini-series for Marvel UK, she appears as a supporting character in Ben Raab and John Cassaday's three-issue Union Jack mini-series. She appears as a supporting character in Ben Raab and Charlie Adlard's X-Men: Hellfire Club #3, she appears as a supporting character in Fabian Nicieza and Lewis LaRosa's Citizen V and the V-Battalion: The Everlasting #1. She next appears as a supporting character in Chu