Avery Brundage was the fifth President of the International Olympic Committee, serving from 1952 to 1972. The only American to attain that position, Brundage is remembered as a zealous advocate of amateurism and for his involvement with the 1936 and 1972 Summer Olympics, both held in Germany. Brundage was born in Detroit in 1887 to a working-class family; when he was five years old, his father moved his family to Chicago and subsequently abandoned his wife and children. Raised by relatives, he attended the University of Illinois to study engineering and became a track star, he competed in the 1912 Summer Olympics, where he participated in the pentathlon and decathlon, but did not win any medals. He won national championships in track three times between 1914 and 1918 and founded his own construction business, he earned his wealth from this company and from investments, never accepted pay for his involvement in sports. Following his retirement from athletics, Brundage became a sports administrator and rose through the ranks in United States sports groups.
As leader of America's Olympic organizations, he fought zealously against a boycott of the 1936 Summer Olympics, awarded to Germany before the rise of the Nazi Germany and its subsequent, escalating persecution of Jews. Brundage prevented a US boycott of the Games, he was elected to the IOC that year, he became a major figure in the Olympic movement and was elected IOC president in 1952. As President of the American Olympic Committee, Brundage fought for amateurism and against the commercialization of the Olympic Games as these stands came to be seen as incongruous with the realities of modern sports; the advent of the state-sponsored athlete of the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage. 1972 Summer Olympics at Munich, Germany were his final Games as president of the IOC. The event was marred by controversy. Eleven Israeli team members were murdered by Palestinian terrorists. At the memorial service, Brundage decried the politicization of sports and refused to cancel the remainder of the Olympics, declaring "the Games must go on".
Although Brundage's statement was applauded by those in attendance, his decision to continue the Games has since been harshly criticized, his actions in 1936 and 1972 were seen as evidence of anti-Semitism. In retirement, Brundage married a German princess, he died in 1975 at age 87. Avery Brundage was born in Detroit, Michigan, on September 28, 1887, the son of Charles and Minnie Brundage. Charles Brundage was a stonecutter. Avery and his younger brother, were raised by aunts and uncles. At age 13 in 1901, Brundage finished first in an essay competition, winning a trip to President William McKinley's second inauguration. Avery attended Sherwood Public School and R. T. Crane Manual Training School, both in Chicago. Crane Tech was a journey of 7 miles by public transportation, which he undertook only after completing a newspaper delivery route. Though the school had no athletic facilities, Brundage made his own equipment in the school's workshop and by his final year was written of in the newspapers as a schoolboy track star.
According to sportswriter William Oscar Johnson in a 1980 article in Sports Illustrated, Brundage was "the kind of man whom Horatio Alger had canonized—the American urchin and deprived, who rose to thrive in the company of kings and millionaires". After he graduated from Crane Tech in 1905, Brundage enrolled at the University of Illinois, where he undertook an arduous schedule of civil engineering courses, he received an honors degree in 1909. He continued his involvement in sports. Brundage played basketball and ran track for Illinois, participated in several intramural sports. In his senior year, he was a major contributor to Illinois' Western Conference championship track team, which defeated the University of Chicago. After graduation, Brundage began work as a construction superintendent for the leading architectural firm of Holabird & Roche. In the three years he worked for the firm, he supervised the construction of $7.5 million in buildings—3 percent of the total built in Chicago in that time-frame.
He disliked the corruption of the Chicago building trades. Brundage's biographer, Allen Guttmann, points out that the young engineer was in a position to benefit from influence if he had wanted to, as his uncle, Edward J. Brundage, was by Republican leader of Chicago's North Side and would become Attorney General of Illinois. Brundage had been successful in a number of field events while at Illinois. In 1910, as a member of the Chicago Athletic Association, he finished third in the national all-around championships, sponsored by the Amateur Athletic Union, continued training, aiming at the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm. At Stockholm, Brundage finished sixth in 16th in the decathlon. Far behind on points, after eight events he dropped out of the decathlon, he moved up one spot in the standings in each event when his fellow American, Jim Thorpe, who had won both events, was disqualified after it was shown that he had played semi-professional baseball: this meant Thorpe was considered a professional, not an amateur as was required for Olympic participation.
Throughout his tenure as president, Brunda
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin was a French educator and historian, founder of the International Olympic Committee, its second President. He is considered one of the fathers of the modern Olympic Games. Born into a French aristocratic family, he became an academic and studied a broad range of topics, most notably education and history, he graduated with a degree in public affairs Paris Institute of Political Studies. It was at Sciences Po; the Pierre de Coubertin medal is an award given by the International Olympic Committee to athletes who demonstrate the spirit of sportsmanship in the Olympic Games. Pierre de Frédy was born in Paris on 1 January 1863, into an aristocratic family, he was the fourth child of Baron Charles Louis de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin and Marie–Marcelle Gigault de Crisenoy. Family tradition held that the Frédy name had first arrived in France in the early 15th century, the first recorded title of nobility granted to the family was given by Louis XI to an ancestor named Pierre de Frédy, in 1477.
But other branches of his family tree delved further into French history, the annals of both sides of his family included nobles of various stations, military leaders and associates of kings and princes of France. His father Charles was a staunch royalist and accomplished artist whose paintings were displayed and given prizes at the Parisian salon, at least in those years when he was not absent in protest of the rise to power of Louis Napoleon, his paintings centred on themes related to the Roman Catholic Church and nobility, which reflected those things he thought most important. In a semi-fictional autobiographical piece called Le Roman d'un rallié, Coubertin describes his relationship with both his mother and his father as having been somewhat strained during his childhood and adolescence, his memoirs elaborated further, describing as a pivotal moment his disappointment upon meeting Henri, Count of Chambord, whom the elder Coubertin believed to be the rightful king. Coubertin grew up in a time of profound change in France: France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the Paris Commune, the establishment of the French Third Republic, the Dreyfus affair.
But while these events were the setting of his childhood, his school experiences were just as formative. In October 1874, his parents enrolled him in a new Jesuit school called Externat de la rue de Vienne, still under construction for his first five years there. While many of the school's attendees were day students, Coubertin boarded at the school under the supervision of a Jesuit priest, which his parents hoped would instill him with a strong moral and religious education. There, he was among the top three students in his class, was an officer of the school's elite academy made up of its best and brightest; this suggests that despite his rebelliousness at home, Coubertin adapted well to the strict rigors of a Jesuit education. As an aristocrat, Coubertin had a number of career paths from which to choose, including prominent roles in the military or politics, but he chose instead to pursue a career as an intellectual and writing on a broad range of topics, including education, history and sociology.
The subject which he seems to have been most interested in was education, his study focused in particular on physical education and the role of sport in schooling. In 1883, he visited England for the first time, studied the program of physical education instituted by Thomas Arnold at the Rugby School. Coubertin credited these methods with leading to the expansion of British power during the 19th century and advocated their use in French institutions; the inclusion of physical education in the curriculum of French schools would become an ongoing pursuit and passion of Coubertin's. Coubertin is thought to have exaggerated the importance of sport to Thomas Arnold, whom he viewed as "one of the founders of athletic chivalry"; the character-reforming influence of sport with which Coubertin was so impressed is more to have originated in the novel Tom Brown's School Days rather than in the ideas of Arnold himself. Nonetheless, Coubertin was an enthusiast in need of a cause and he found it in England and in Thomas Arnold.
"Thomas Arnold, the leader and classic model of English educators," wrote Coubertin, "gave the precise formula for the role of athletics in education. The cause was won. Playing fields sprang up all over England". Intrigued by what he had read about English public schools, in 1883, at the age of twenty, Frédy went to Rugby and to other English schools to see for himself, he described the results in a book, L'Education en Angleterre, published in Paris in 1888. This hero of his book is Thomas Arnold, on his second visit in 1886, Coubertin reflected on Arnold's influence in the chapel at Rugby School. What Coubertin saw on the playing fields of Rugby and the other English schools he visited was how "organised sport can create moral and social strength". Not only did organised games help to set the mind and body in equilibrium, it prevented the time being wasted in other ways. First developed by the ancient Greeks, it was an approach to education that he felt the rest of the world had forgotten and to whose revival he was to dedicate the rest of his life.
As a historian and a thinker on education, Coubertin romanticised ancient Greece. Thus, when he began to develop his theory of physical education, he looked to the example set by the Athe
1932 Summer Olympics
The 1932 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held from July 30 to August 14, 1932, in Los Angeles, United States. The Games were held during the worldwide Great Depression and some nations were unable to pay for the trip to Los Angeles. U. S. President Herbert Hoover failed to put in an appearance at the Games; the organizing committee did not record the finances of the Games in their report, although contemporary newspapers claimed that the Games had made a profit of US$1,000,000. The selection of the host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics was made at the 23rd IOC Session in Rome, Italy, in 1923. Remarkably, the selection process consisted of a single bid, from Los Angeles, as there were no bids from any other city, Los Angeles was selected by default to host the 1932 Games. An Olympic Village was built in Baldwin Hills, occupied by the male athletes. Female athletes were housed at the Chapman Park Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard; the victory podium was used for the first time.
The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum was known in 1932 as Olympic Stadium. Tenth Street, a major thoroughfare in Los Angeles, was renamed Olympic Boulevard in honor of the Games of the Tenth Olympiad. Babe Didrikson won two gold medals in the hurdles event, she competed in a jump-off for a silver in the high jump. Her technique in the jump-off was ruled leaving Didrikson with second place. Paavo Nurmi was suspended from competition by the IAAF for alleged violation of amateur rules. Finns charged that the Swedish officials had used devious tricks in their campaign against Nurmi's amateur status, ceased all athletic relations with Sweden. A year earlier, controversies on the track and in the press had led Finland to withdraw from the Finland-Sweden athletics international. After Nurmi's suspension, Finland did not agree to return to the event until 1939. In field hockey, only three nations took part; the host nation still won a bronze medal. Poland's Stanisława Walasiewicz won the gold medal in the women's 100 m.
After her death in 1980, it was discovered that she was intersex and would have been ineligible to participate. Eddie Tolan won both the 100 m and 200 m sprint events. Romeo Neri won three gold medals in gymnastics. Helene Madison won three gold medals in swimming, while the Japanese upset the men's events and took all but one title. Takeichi Nishi was the gold medalist with his horse Uranus in the equestrian show jumping individual event. Nishi's gold medal is Japan's only gold medal in the equestrian event to this day. Nishi would die in 1945 as an officer stationed in the defense of the island of Iwo Jima, as such is an important character in Clint Eastwood's film, Letters from Iwo Jima. Kusuo Kitamura won the gold medal in the men's 1500 meter freestyle swimming race, he was and continues to be the youngest male swimmer to win a gold medal at the Olympic Games. Dunc Gray won Australia's first cycling gold medal; the Dunc Gray Velodrome, built for the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, was named after him.
Due to an official's error, the 3,000 m steeplechase went for one extra lap. 117 events in 20 disciplines, comprising 14 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1932. In one of two Equestrian jumping events no medals were awarded; the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. American football Lacrosse The Art competitions at the 1932 Summer Olympics awarded medals for works inspired by sport-related themes in five categories: architecture, music and sculpture. Fifteen sports venues were used for there 1932 Summer Olympics. In order to control cost in the wake of the Great Depression, existing venues were used, they included two golf courses, two city parks, three public highways, a city road. The Swimming Stadium was the only new venue constructed for these games; the Rose Bowl, constructed in 1921, was made into a temporary velodrome for track cycling events under the auspices of the Union Cycliste Internationale. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, constructed in 1923, was used as the Olympic Stadium.
The Olympic Auditorium was constructed in 1924 in preparation for Los Angeles being awarded the Games. Long Beach Marine Stadium was created in 1925 when Alamitos Bay was dredged further dredged seven years in time for the 1932 Games. Elysian Park, the oldest city park in Los Angeles, was founded in 1886, has been part of the Los Angeles Police Department training academy since 1925; the Riviera Country Club opened in 1926 as the Los Angeles Athletic Club Golf Course and was renamed Riviera by the time of the 1932 Games. The swimming stadium, constructed adjacent to the Coliseum in 1932, was intended to be a temporary structure. Riverside Drive, Los Angeles Avenue, Vineyard Avenue, the Pacific Coast Highway were common driving routes in California at the time of the 1932 Games; the Coliseum was the first home for the Dodgers Major League Baseball team when it moved from Brooklyn, New York in the 1958 season. The following year, it hosted the World Series. Once Dodger Stadium was completed in 1962, the Dodgers moved there.
The Los Angeles Rams National Football League team used the Coliseum as its host stadium from 1946 to 1980 when it moved to Anaheim, located southeast of Los Angeles. It hosted wha
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Chalmers University of Technology
Chalmers University of Technology is a Swedish university located in Gothenburg that focuses on research and education in technology, natural science, architecture and other management areas. The university was founded in 1829 following a donation by William Chalmers, a director of the Swedish East India Company, he donated part of his fortune for the establishment of an "industrial school". Chalmers was run as a private institution until 1937, when the institute became a state-owned university. In 1994, the school was incorporated as an aktiebolag under the control of the Swedish Government, the faculty and the Student Union. Chalmers is one of only three universities in Sweden which are named after a person, the other two being Karolinska Institutet and Linnaeus University. Beginning 1 May 2017, Chalmers has 13 departments. Architecture and Civil Engineering Biology and Biological Engineering Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Communication and Learning in Science Computer Science and Engineering Electrical Engineering Industrial and Materials Science Mathematical Sciences Mechanics and Maritime Sciences Microtechnology and Nanoscience Physics Space and Environment Technology Management and EconomicsFurthermore, Chalmers is home to eight Areas of Advance and six national competence centers in key fields such as materials, mathematical modelling, environmental science, vehicle safety.
Chalmers University of Technology's research infrastructure includes everything from advanced real or virtual labs to large databases, computer capacity for large-scale calculations and research facilities. Chalmers Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, C3SE Chalmers Mass Spectrometry Infrastructure, CMSI Chalmers Power Central Chalmers Materials Analysis Laboratory Chalmers Simulator Centre Chemical Imaging Infrastructure Facility for Computational Systems Biology HSB Living Lab Nanofabrication Laboratory Onsala Space Observatory Revere – Chalmers Resource for Vehicle Research The National laboratory in terahertz characterisation Approximately 40% of Sweden's graduate engineers and architects are educated at Chalmers; each year, around 250 post graduate degrees are awarded as well as 850 graduate degrees. About 1,000 post-graduate students attend programmes at the university, many students are taking Master of Science engineering programmes and the Master of Architecture programme.
Since 2007, all master's programmes are taught in English for both national and international students. This was a result of the adaptation to the Bologna process. About 10% of all students at Chalmers come from countries outside Sweden to enroll in a master's or PhD program. Around 2,700 students attend Bachelor of Science engineering programmes, merchant marine and other undergraduate courses at Campus Lindholmen. Chalmers shares some students with Gothenburg University in the joint IT University project; the IT University focuses on information technology and offers bachelor's and master's programmes with degrees issued from either Chalmers or Gothenburg University, depending on the programme. Chalmers confers honorary doctoral degrees to people outside the university who have shown great merit in their research or in society. Chalmers is an aktiebolag with 100 shares à 1,000 SEK, all of which are owned by the Chalmers University of Technology Foundation, a private foundation, which appoints the university board and the president.
The foundation has its members appointed by the Swedish government, the departments appoints one member, the student union appoints one member and the president automatically gains one chair. Each department is led by a department head a member of the faculty of that department; the faculty senate represents members of the faculty. In 1937, the school moved from the city center to the new Gibraltar Campus, named after the mansion which owned the grounds, where it is now located; the Lindholmen College Campus is located on the island Hisingen. Campus Johanneberg and Campus Lindholmen, as they are now called, are connected by bus lines. Traditions include the Cortège procession, an annual public event. Chalmers Students' Union Chalmers Aerospace Club – founded in 1981. In Swedish also referred to as Chalmers rymdgrupp. Members of CAC led the ESA funded CACTEX project where the thermal conductivity of alcohol at zero gravity was investigated using a sounding rocket. Chalmers Alternative Sports - Student association organizing trips and other activities working to promote alternative sports.
Each year arranges the Chalmers Wake a Pond wakeboard contest in the fountain outside the architecture building at Chalmers. Chalmers Ballong Corps Chalmers Baroque Ensemble Chalmers Business Society CETAC Chalmers Choir Chalmers Film and Photography Committee Chalmersspexet – Amateur theater group which has produced new plays since 1948 Chalmers International Reception Committee XP - Committee, responsible for the experimental workshop, a workshop open for students. Chalmers Program Committee – PU Chalmers Students for Sustainability – promoting sustainable development among the students and runs projects and lectures. Föreningen Chalmers Skeppsbyggare, Chalmers Naval Architecture Students' Society Chalmers Sailing Society RANG - Chalmers Indian Association Chalmers has partnerships with major industries in the Gothenburg region such as Ericsson, SKF; the University has general exchange agreements with many European and U. S. universities a
Ruth Randall Edström
Ruth Miriam Edström was an American peace activist and fighter for women's rights. She worked with the pre-work for the third peace conference in The Hague, she participated in the international women's congress in 1915. Ruth was the wife of the head of J. Sigfrid Edström. Ruth Randall was the eldest of seven siblings in Wilmington, the daughter of Oscar Theodore Randall and Jane Mariah Randall; the family settled in a suburb a few miles from the city center. The year after their move the great Chicago fire happened with 250 people dead and 95.000 people homeless, however the Randall's house survived the fires but their shop did not make it and was burnt to the ground. The Randall family belong to the Reformed Church. One day when Ruth was sixteen years old her father brought her and her oldest siblings to a new chapel were Jenkin Lloyd Jones preached; the priest talked about Jesus and his message of love and peace. Jones had like Oscar experienced the horrors of war; the Randalls started to attend service at the Unity Chapel that belonged to All Souls Unitarian Church.
They participated as well in philosophical education. The students were educated in the Unitarian belief system and became friends with the author Ralph Waldo Emerson and Robert Browning and many others; the year of studies ended with a historical party with dramas of Charles Dickens and Charles Kingsley. The latter wrote the female philosopher and mathematician. Ruth got to select the actors and direct the play. Randall educated herself to be a teacher, worked for the Unitarian Church and got herself big cultural and esoterian interests, she got a job at Forestville School in Chicago. In the summer of 1896 the teachers of the school went on a trip to Europe, they traveled by the new atlantic steam boat Etruria. Onboard was the Swedish engineer Sigfrid Edström en route to work for an electric company in Cleveland, Ohio. Randall and Edström wed on June 24, 1899, at her home in Chicago; the honeymoon was in Gothenburg. They resided in Switzerland were Sigfrid work for a tramway company in Zürich, his wife liked to live in their first own home in the city, but after one year the couple moved to Sweden where Edström was named the head of Gothenburg's tramway system.
In the summer of 1903, her husband and their two children, Miriam and Björn, moved to Västerås, where Sigfrid got to work for the stock company Asea. The company grow and with it came money, the Randalls started building a house in Stallhagen, they named the house Villa Asea; when the house was ready in 1908 the couple made a big opening for the city major. After her death in 1944 in Stockholm a memory fund for Ruth Randall Edström was created