Bonnington is a district of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The area centres upon an original village which grew up around a ford on the Water of Leith on the old boundary between Edinburgh and the port of Leith. Before the creation of Leith Walk the road via the villages of Broughton and Bonnington, or Wester Road as it appears on some old maps, was one of two roads connecting Edinburgh to Leith; the district lies between the districts of Newhaven. The land and mills of Bonnytoun formed part of the Barony of Broughton mentioned in King David I’s confirmation charter to the Abbey of Holyrood in 1143. Like the nearby village of Canonmills, Bonnington was a milling village making use of the river’s water-power; the village suffered in 1544 when the Earl of Hertford’s army passed through on its way to attack Edinburgh and again in 1547 after the Scottish defeat in the Battle of Pinkie, both events in the period of conflict known as the Rough Wooing. In 1617 the land and mills were sold to the Town Council of Edinburgh by the landowners, the Logans of Restalrig.
At the Council’s invitation, a Dutchman Jeromias van der Heill was installed in 1621 as a dyer to teach his craft locally. The house built for him, named Bonnyhaugh by a occupant, still stands; when the mill buildings were demolished in the face of local protests in the 1980s, the house was saved and converted into private apartments. The low cottage at its side was the original dying room and became a blacksmith’s smiddy. A waterwheel of the ‘undershot’ type, from the Bonnington Mills, has been saved and in the 1980s was moved to a new position on the site of the mill lade; the water level in the lade was controlled by a sluice gate at the nearby weir at Redbraes. The water power generated was used to weave cloth, tan leather and manufacture paper. Bonnington Road became a toll road at the end of the 18th century, hence the name Bonnington Toll at the Newhaven Road junction; the old toll house at the Leith end still exists, an abandoned two storey stone house on the edge of the Swanfield Industrial Estate.
A bridge over the ford was built in 1812 and replaced by the present bridge in 1902-03. In 1832, Robert Burns’ skinworks occupied the site of Bonnington Mills; the Burns tenement, built on Newhaven Road to house the tannery workers, was renovated in the 1970s. A stone tablet on the tenement depicts the tools of the tanner's trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the area on the north side of Bonnington Road stretching eastwards to Leith became one of mixed types of industrial and retail premises, including a major printer’s works, sugar bond and engineering works; some of these premises have been converted to new uses in recent decades. One of the larger developments in the area from the 1980s is the storage depot of the John Lewis Partnership in Bonnington Road Lane; the former Bonnington Church united with North Leith Parish Church in 1968, with the united congregation thenceforth using the North Leith Parish Church building in Madeira Street, Leith. New housing built along the river bank has changed the face of the area around Bonnington Mills and necessitated work on improving flood defences.
The former Bonnington Primary School reopened on 16 August 2013 as Bun-sgoil Taobh na Pàirce: Edinburgh's first Gaelic Medium School. A core of industries and businesses lay on either side of the Water of Leith; the original Chancelot Mill Dofos dog food factory Powderhall Bronze, a modern foundry The Scottish tachometer centre Dulux Paints Farmer Jacks A huge whisky bond at Anderson Place Pringles Woollen Mills A stone and marble yard The cardboard box factory on Bonnington Road. Graham Street was cleared of traditional tenements in the 1960s to build low-grade industry but by 2000 was rebuilt as housing, including an unusual white block for Port of Leith Housing Association. Whilst industrial uses were protected in the area, recent planning changes have led to residential uses being to take over altogether. Leslie Balfour-Melville Robert Keith H Coghill, Discovering The Water of Leith, John Donald 1988 J M Wallace, Historic Houses Of Edinburgh, John Donald 1987
Abbeyhill is an area of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. As with many other parts of the city, the area has varying definitions, it may be taken to mean the part of town lying between Holyrood Park to the south. It is in the locale of the constructed Scottish Parliament building, contains several old churches and other historic sites, looks onto the Palace of Holyroodhouse. Abbeyhill is one of the oldest parts of the city, taking its name from Holyrood Abbey, a major historic religious site; the main east-west thoroughfare through the area is London Road, laid in the 1820s as part of the Calton development of the New Town. This superseded an older road to Haddington which still skirts the north side of the King's Park, now named Holyrood Park; the suburb is composed of streets of tenement housing, such as Waverley Park and Milton Street, built in the mid-1890s on the grounds of Comely Gardens, a pleasure garden belonging to a local mansion, which operated along the same lines as London's Vauxhall Gardens.
It was from here that James Tytler made Britain's first hot-air balloon flight in 1784, landing about half a mile away in Restalrig. Another area of distinctive character is "the rows", several streets of colony houses on the north side of London Road, it is not a major commercial area. Apart from Meadowbank Retail Park, there are only some small local shops centred on London Road and the top of Easter Road, but the area is close to city centre facilities; the south side of Lower London Road, sloping down to Meadowbank, is a mix of earlier small-scale industrial premises and newer residential housing. Abbeyhill station closed in 1964 as a result of the Beeching cuts. Bartholomew's Chronological map of Edinburgh
Alnwickhill is a suburb of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It is on the southern edge of the city four miles from the city centre, it neighbours the areas of Kaimes. The area is now residential, but was the site of Backside Lee Farm until the 1970s when the land was sold to Crudens for development
Christopher Brookmyre is a Scottish novelist whose novels mix comedy, social comment and action with a strong narrative. He has been referred to as a Tartan Noir author, his debut novel was Quite Ugly One Morning and subsequent works have included One Fine Day in the Middle of the Night, which he said "was just the sort of book he needed to write before he turned 30", All Fun and Games until Somebody Loses an Eye. Between April 2008 and December 2015, he was the President of Humanist Society Scotland. Brookmyre was born in Glasgow and raised and schooled in Barrhead, attending St. Mark's Primary School and St. Luke's High School, before attending the University of Glasgow. Brookmyre is married to an anaesthetist with whom he has a son, supports St Mirren F. C. references to Scottish football featuring in his books. Brookmyre has been a guest on BBC Scotland's Sportscene Results programme during the football season. Eight of Brookmyre's novels centre on the investigative journalist Jack Parlabane.
Parlabane stars in the short stories Bampot Central, Place B. and The Last Day of Christmas with the latter serving as a short prelude to Dead Girl Walking. Three of Brookmyre's novels feature the character of counterterrorism officer Angelique de Xavia: A Big Boy Did It and Ran Away, The Sacred Art of Stealing, A Snowball in Hell. A Big Boy Did It and Ran Away and A Snowball in Hell pit Xavia against international terrorist-for-hire Simon Darcourt. A Snowball in Hell was due to be titled The Great Grease-Tailed Shaven Pig Hunt. Three of Brookmyre's novels feature the characters Jasmine Sharp, a private detective, Catherine McLeod, a police investigator: Where the Bodies Are Buried, When the Devil Drives, Flesh Wounds. Catherine McLeod features in the short story Siege Mentality, has minor roles in Dead Girl Walking and Black Widow Bedlam was released in 2013; the book has been turned into a video game written by Brookmyre. In 2018 Brookmyre wrote The Way of All Flesh with Dr. Marisa Haetzman.
It was published under the pseudonym Ambrose Parry. Quite Ugly One Morning, 1996 Country of the Blind, 1997 Not the End of the World, 1998 One Fine Day in the Middle of the Night, 1999 Boiling a Frog, 2000 A Big Boy Did It and Ran Away, 2001 The Sacred Art of Stealing, 2003 Be My Enemy, 2004 All Fun and Games until Somebody Loses an Eye, 2005 A Tale Etched in Blood and Hard Black Pencil, 2006 The Attack of the Unsinkable Rubber Ducks, 2007 A Snowball in Hell, 2008 Pandaemonium, 2009 Where the Bodies Are Buried, 2011 When the Devil Drives, 2012 Jaggy Splinters, 2012 Bedlam, 2013 Flesh Wounds, 2013 The Last Day of Christmas, 2014 Dead Girl Walking, 2015 Black Widow, 2016 Want You Gone, 2017 Siege Mentality, 2017 Places in the Darkness, 2017 The Way of All Flesh, 2018 Brookmyre has said that the inspiration for Jack Parlabane was Ford Prefect from Douglas Adams' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy series; the name Parlabane is taken from the works of Robertson Davies as are the names of several other characters in Brookmyre's works, indicating another of the author's influences.
Music is featured in several books. Art Alexakis of the band Everclear has been thanked by Brookmyre inside the front cover of two of his books - Be My Enemy and The Sacred Art Of Stealing. Brookmyre has said that Sacred Art was inspired by the Everclear song'Unemployed Boyfriend' from the album Songs from an American Movie Vol. One: Learning How to Smile; this is the song which Zal Innez, discusses with Angelique De Xavia. De Xavia is stated by her brother to spend her evenings alone "drinking supermarket merlot and listening to that depressing Mogwai rubbish" in The Sacred Art of Stealing; the first name for Innez, as well as the inspiration for the costumes worn by his gang of bank robbers, are taken from Zal Cleminson, guitarist for The Sensational Alex Harvey Band, who always wore Pierrot makeup on stage. Parlabane is a fan of Skids and Big Country and Jasmine Sharp goes to see Twin Atlantic perform live in one of her books; the character Jane Fleming in All Fun and Games until Somebody Loses an Eye visits King Tut's Wah Wah Hut in Glasgow, witnessing a performance by Afghan Whigs frontman Greg Dulli's side-project The Twilight Singers which references lines from the Twilight Singers' song "Teenage Wristband".
Dulli is the rock-star on whose NME-emblazoned face Matt Black signs an autograph in One Fine Day in the Middle of the Night. In 2003, Quite Ugly One Morning was dramatised in two parts by ITV, with the lead played by Irish actor James Nesbitt. None of Brookmyre's other novels have been adapted for television, but his short story Bampot Central was rewritten as a radio play by the author for BBC Radio 3. In 2004, actor David Tennant narrated the audiobook of Quite Ugly One Morning. In 2007, actor Billy Boyd narrated the audiobook of Attack of the Unsinkable Rubber Ducks. With the possible exceptions of Pandaemonium and Bedlam, Brookmyre's books are all set in the same "universe" and contain a number of recurring characters the appearance or mention of major characters in incidental roles in other sto
The Taliban or Taleban, who refer to themselves as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, are a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement and military organization in Afghanistan waging war within that country. Since 2016, the Taliban's leader is Mawlawi Hibatullah Akhundzada; the leadership is based in Pakistan. From 1996 to 2001, the Taliban held power over three quarters of Afghanistan, enforced there a strict interpretation of Sharia, or Islamic law; the Taliban emerged in 1994 as one of the prominent factions in the Afghan Civil War and consisted of students from the Pashtun areas of eastern and southern Afghanistan, educated in traditional Islamic schools, fought during the Soviet–Afghan War. Under the leadership of Mohammed Omar, the movement spread throughout most of Afghanistan, sequestering power from the Mujahideen warlords; the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was established in 1996 and the Afghan capital was transferred to Kandahar. It held control of most of the country until being overthrown after the American-led invasion of Afghanistan in December 2001 following the September 11 attacks.
At its peak, formal diplomatic recognition of the Taliban's government was acknowledged by only three nations: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates. The group regrouped as an insurgency movement to fight the American-backed Karzai administration and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force in the War in Afghanistan; the Taliban have been condemned internationally for the harsh enforcement of their interpretation of Islamic Sharia law, which has resulted in the brutal treatment of many Afghans women. During their rule from 1996 to 2001, the Taliban and their allies committed massacres against Afghan civilians, denied UN food supplies to 160,000 starving civilians and conducted a policy of scorched earth, burning vast areas of fertile land and destroying tens of thousands of homes. According to the United Nations, the Taliban and their allies were responsible for 76% of Afghan civilian casualties in 2010, 80% in 2011, 80% in 2012. Taliban has engaged in cultural genocide, destroying numerous monuments including the famous 1500-year old Buddhas of Bamiyan.
The Taliban's ideology has been described as combining an "innovative" form of sharia Islamic law based on Deobandi fundamentalism and the militant Islamism and Salafi jihadism of Osama bin Laden with Pashtun social and cultural norms known as Pashtunwali, as most Taliban are Pashtun tribesmen. The Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence and military are alleged by the international community and the Afghan government to have provided support to the Taliban during their founding and time in power, of continuing to support the Taliban during the insurgency. Pakistan states. In 2001 2,500 Arabs under command of Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden fought for the Taliban; the word Taliban is طالبان ṭālibān, meaning "students", the plural of ṭālib. This is a loanword from Arabic طالب ṭālib, using the Persian plural ending -ān ان. In Arabic طالبان ṭālibān means not "students" but "two students", as it is a dual form, the Arabic plural being طلاب ṭullāb—occasionally causing some confusion to Arabic speakers.
Since becoming a loanword in English, besides a plural noun referring to the group, has been used as a singular noun referring to an individual. For example, John Walker Lindh has been referred to as "an American Taliban", rather than "an American Talib". In the English language newspapers of Pakistan, the word Talibans is used when referring to more than one Taliban; the spelling Taliban has come to be predominant over Taleban in English. After the Soviet Union intervened and occupied Afghanistan in 1979, Islamic mujahideen fighters engaged in war with those Soviet forces. Pakistan's President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq feared that the Soviets were planning to invade Balochistan, Pakistan, so he sent Akhtar Abdur Rahman to Saudi Arabia to garner support for the Afghan resistance against Soviet occupation forces. A while the US CIA and Saudi Arabic General Intelligence Directorate funneled funding and equipment through the PakistanI Inter-Service Intelligence Agency to the Afghan mujahideen. About 90,000 Afghans, including Mohammed Omar, were trained by Pakistan's ISI during the 1980s.
The British Professor Carole Hillenbrand concluded that the Taliban have arisen from those US-Saudi-Pakistan-supported mujahideen: "The West helped the Taliban to fight the Soviet takeover of Afghanistan". After the fall of the Soviet-backed regime of Mohammad Najibullah in 1992, many Afghan political parties, but not Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezb-e Islami, Hizb-e Wahdat, Ittihad-i Islami, in April agreed on a peace and power-sharing agreement, the Peshawar Accord, which created the Islamic State of Afghanistan and appointed an interim government for a transitional period. Hekmatyar's Hezb-e Islami party refused to recognize the interim government, in April infiltrated Kabul to take power for itself, thus starting this civil war. In May, Hekmatyar started attacks against Kabul. Hekmatyar received operational and military support from Pakistan's ISI. With that help, Hekmatyar's forces were able to destroy half of Kabul. Iran assisted the Hizb-e Wahdat forces of Abdul Ali Mazari. Saudi Arabia supported the Ittihad-i Islami faction.
The conflict between these militias escalated into war. Due to this sudden initiation of civil war, working g
Comely Bank is an area of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It is situated between Stockbridge and Craigleith; the ground was part of Sir William Fettes' estate. The original development was a terrace of Georgian town-houses built to face the main east-west road leading to Stockbridge; this still stands today. The Victorian writer Thomas Carlyle lived in Comely Bank Road between 1819 and 1821 before achieving literary success. At that time, the terrace at the western end of the road was the last row of houses in Edinburgh before the village of Blackhall. Although there was a burst of tenemental construction in the late 19th century, due to other more prestigious developments around the city the area was not built out until the 1930s. Flora Stevenson School 1900 by John Alexander Carfrae St Stephen's Church 1901 by J. N. Scott & Alexander Lorne Campbell St Ninian's Episcopal Church 1921 by John More Dick Peddie & Walker Todd Thomas Carlyle Rev James Browne DD author, lived at 11 Comely Bank John Wilson Ewbank RSA, lived at 5 Comely Bank The cemetery was begun in 1896 and laid out by George Washington Browne.
The cemetery has lost its original southern entrance and its ornate gate piers now lead only into a modern housing estate. It is now only accessible on Crewe Road. There has been much vandalism in the cemetery, it is notable due to an abnormally high number of war graves, due to its juxtaposition to two of the city's hospitals in WW2. This includes Britain's youngest in-service death: Reginald Earnshaw only 14 years old. There are few graves of note:- Jeannie Cockburn a rare female war grave from WW1 Clive Franklyn Collett MC and bar WW1 flying ace Sir Patrick George Don-Wauchope Baronet Reginald Earnshaw Merchant Navy. UK's youngest war grave William Miller Frazer RSA, landscape artist William Murray Frier centenarian Alexander Gamley and Fanny Vince Gamley stone by Henry Snell Gamley John Adam Porter Scotland's first Isle of Man TT winner Thomas Ross architect and partner in MacGibbon & Ross Dr Arthur Wilson sculpture by Henry Snell Gamley
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi