Giovanni dalle Bande Nere
Lodovico de' Medici known as Giovanni dalle Bande Nere was an Italian condottiero. Giovanni was born in the Northern Italian town of Forlì to Giovanni de' Medici and Caterina Sforza, one of the most famous women of the Italian Renaissance. From an early age, he demonstrated great interest and ability in physical activity the martial arts of the age: horse riding, sword-fighting, etc, he committed his first murder at the age of 12, was twice banished from the city of Florence for his unruly behavior, including involvement in the rape of a sixteen-year-old boy, Giovanni being about thirteen at the time. He had a son, who went on to become the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Giovanni became a condottiero, or mercenary military captain, in the employ of Pope Leo X and on March 5, 1516 led the war against Francesco Maria I della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, he thenceforth formed a company of his own, mounted on light horses and specializing in fast but devastating skirmishing tactics and ambushes. In 1520 he defeated several rebel barons in the Marche.
The following year Leo X allied with Emperor Charles V against King Francis I of France to regain Milan and Piacenza. As a symbol of mourning for the death of Pope Leo X, Giovanni added black stripes to his insignia, whence comes his nickname, Giovanni dalle Bande Nere. In August 1523 he was hired by the Imperial army, in January 1524 he defeated the French and the Swiss at Caprino Bergamasco. In the same year another Medici, Giulio di Giuliano, became Pope, took the name of Clement VII; the new Pope paid all of Giovanni's debt, but in exchange ordered him to switch to the French side of the ongoing conflict. He did not take part in the battle of Pavia, but was soon wounded in a skirmish and had to move to Venice to recuperate from his wounds. In 1526, the War of the League of Cognac broke out; the League's captain general, Francesco Maria I della Rovere, abandoned Milan in the face of the overwhelming superiority of the Imperial army led by Georg von Frundsberg. Giovanni was able to defeat the Landsknechts rearguard, at the confluence of the Mincio with the Po River.
On the evening of 25 November he was hit by a shot from a falconet in a battle near Governolo. According to a contemporary account by Luigi Guicciardini, the ball shattered his right leg above the knee and he had to be carried to San Nicolò Po, near Bagnolo San Vito, where no doctor could be found, he was taken to Aloisio Gonzaga's palace, marquis of Castel Goffredo, in Mantua, where the surgeon Abramo, who had cared for him two years earlier, amputated his leg. To perform the operation Abramo asked for 10 men to hold down the stricken condottiero. Pietro Aretino, eyewitness to the event, recalled in a letter to Francesco Albizi:'Not twenty' Giovanni said smiling'could hold me', he took a candle in his hand, so that he could make light onto himself, I ran away, shutting my ears I heard only two voices, calling, when I reached him he told me:'I am healed', turning all around he rejoiced. Despite the surgery Giovanni de' Medici died five days supposedly of septicemia, on 30 November 1526. Giovanni's body was exhumed in 2012 along with that of his wife to preserve the remains, which were damaged in the 1966 flood of the Arno river, to ascertain the cause of his death.
Preliminary investigation revealed. No damage was found to the thigh, where the shot hit; the tibia and fibula, the bones of the lower leg, were found sawed off from the amputation. There was no damage to the femur, it is now thought. Giovanni's premature death metaphorically signaled the end of the age of the condottieri, as their mode of fighting was rendered obsolete by the introduction of the mobile field cannon, he is therefore known as the last of the great Italian condottieri. His lasting reputation has been kept alive in part thanks to Pietro Aretino, the Renaissance author, playwright and "scourge of the princes", Giovanni's close friend and accompanied him on some of his exploits. A cruiser of the Regia Marina was named after Giovanni delle Bande Nere in 1930. Ermanno Olmi's 2001 film The Profession of Arms, faithfully follows Giovanni dalle Bande Nere in his last week of life, as he engages in battle with the Imperial forces amidst the cold, damp fields of the Lombard countryside. Italian Wars Condottieri Black Bands
Hedwig of the Palatinate-Sulzbach
Marie Hedwig Auguste of Sulzbach was a Countess Palatine of Sulzbach by birth and by marriage, Archduchess of Austria and by her second marriage, Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg. Hedwig was a daughter of the Duke and Count Palatine Christian August of Sulzbach from his marriage to Amalie daughter of Count John VII of Nassau-Siegen, she married on 3 June 1665 per cura in the court chapel of Sulzbach to Archduke Sigismund Francis of Austria-Tyrol, who had, after his brother's unexpected death, resigned from his ecclesiastical positions, in order to marry. He could not consummate his marriage, he was travelling to meet his bride, but fell ill and died in Innsbruck, twelve days after the marriage. Hedwig's second husband was on 9 April 1668 in Sulzbach Duke Julius Francis of Saxe-Lauenburg, her father had a memorial stone erected in the parish church in Sulzbach in 1668 to commemorate her second marriage. Hedwig had been assured an annual income of 20000guilders at her first marriage. Hedwig was buried in the White Castle at Ostrov.
Hedwig from her second marriage had the following children: Anna Maria Theresia Anna Maria Franziska married firstly in 1690 Count Palatine Philip William of Neuburg married secondly 1697 Grand Duke Gian Gastone de' Medici of Tuscany Sybille married in 1690 Margrave Louis William of Baden-Baden Theologische Quartalschrift, vol. 50, H. Laupp, 1868, p. 106 Digitized Johann Samuel Ersch: Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste, section 2 part 28, J. f. Gleditsch, 1851, p. 363
Joanna of Castile
Joanna, known as Joanna the Mad, was Queen of Castile from 1504, of Aragon from 1516. Modern Spain evolved from the union of these two crowns. Joanna was married by arrangement to Philip the Handsome, Archduke of the House of Habsburg, on 20 October 1496. Following the deaths of her brother, Prince of Asturias, in 1497, her elder sister Isabella in 1498, her nephew Miguel in 1500, Joanna became the heir presumptive to the crowns of Castile and Aragon; when her mother Queen Isabella I of Castile died in 1504, Joanna became Queen of Castile, while her father, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, proclaimed himself'Governor and Administrator of Castile'. In 1506 Archduke Philip became King of Castile jure uxoris, initiating the rule of the Habsburgs in Spain, died that same year. Despite being the ruling Queen of Castile, she had little effect on national policy during her reign as she was declared insane and imprisoned in Tordesillas under the orders of her father, who ruled as regent until his death in 1516, when she inherited his kingdom as well.
From 1516, when her son Charles I ruled as king, she was nominally co-monarch but remained imprisoned until her death. Joanna was born in the city of the capital of the Kingdom of Castile, she was the third child and second daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon of the royal House of Trastámara. She had a fair complexion, blue eyes and her hair colour was between strawberry-blonde and auburn, like her mother and sister Catherine, her siblings were Queen of Portugal. Joanna was an excellent student, she was educated and formally trained for a significant marriage that, as a royal family alliance, would extend the kingdom's power and security as well as its influence and peaceful relations with other ruling powers. As an infanta she was not expected to be heiress to the throne of either Castile or Aragon, although through deaths she inherited both, her academic education consisted of canon and civil law and heraldry, history, mathematics, reading and writing. She read an impressive list of authors of classical literature that included the Christian poets Juvencus and Prudentius, Church fathers Saint Ambrose, Saint Augustine, Saint Gregory, Saint Jerome, the Roman statesman Seneca.
In the Castilian court her main tutors were the Dominican priest Andrés de Miranda, the respected educator Beatriz Galindo, a member of the queen's court, her mother the queen. Joanna's royal education included court etiquette, drawing, equestrian skills, good manners and the needle arts of embroidery and sewing, she excelled in all of the Iberian Romance languages: Castilian, Galician-Portuguese, Catalan and became fluent in French and Latin. She learned outdoor pursuits such as hunting. Praise was given to her for being a talented musician. By 1495 Joanna showed signs of religious skepticism and little devotion to worship and Catholic rites; this alarmed her mother Queen Isabella, who had established the Spanish Inquisition in 1478, Joanna was afraid of her. Indeed, letters of Mosen Luis Ferrer, gentleman of the bed chamber of Ferdinand, refer to the coercive punishment known as "La cuerda", which Juana was subjected to; this involved being suspended by a rope with weights attached to the feet, endangering life and limb.
In the background was the'Holy' Inquisition. Two thousand men and women were burned, a still greater number condemned to perpetual imprisonment, while immense numbers fled to France and other countries; the Queen declared. Deviance by a child of the Catholic Monarchs would not be much less heresy. Sub-Prior Friar Tomas de Matienzo and Friar Andreas complained of her refusal to confess - or to write to him or her mother - and accused her of corruption by Parisian'drunkard' priests. In 1496, Joanna, at the age of seventeen, was betrothed to the eighteen year old Philip of Flanders, in the Low Countries. Philip's parents were Duchess Mary of Burgundy; the marriage was one of a set of family alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámaras designed to strengthen both against growing French power. Joanna entered a proxy marriage at the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Castile. In August 1496 Joanna left from the port of Laredo in northern Spain on the Atlantic's Bay of Biscay. Except for 1506, when she saw her younger sister Catherine, Princess Dowager of Wales, she would not see her siblings again.
Joanna began her journey to Flanders in the Low Countries, which consisted of parts of the present day Netherlands, Luxembourg and Germany, on 22 August 1496. The formal marriage took place on 20 October 1496 in Lier, north of present-day Brussels. Between 1498 and 1507, she gave birth to six children, two boys and four girls, all of whom grew up to be either emperors or queens; the death of Joanna's brother John, the stillbirth of John's daughter and the deaths of Joanna's older sister Isabella and Isabella's son Miguel made Joanna heiress to the Spanish kingdoms. Her remaining siblings were Maria and Catherine, younger than Joanna by three and six years, respectively. In 1502, the Castilian Cortes of Toro recognised Joanna as heiress to the Castilian throne and Philip as her consort, she was named Princess of Asturias, the title trad
Anne of Foix-Candale
Anna of Foix-Candale was Queen of Hungary and Bohemia as the third wife of King Vladislaus II. Anne was the daughter of Count of Candale and Infanta Catherine of Navarre, her mother was the youngest daughter of Queen Eleanor of Navarre, Gaston IV, Count of Foix. Anne grew up at the French royal court in Blois, she was educated in the Classics. The nephew of the French monarch, the Duke of Longueville, is reported to have been in love with her and wished to marry her, but he was prevented because a political marriage was planned for Anne; the elderly, twice-divorced and childless king Vladislaus II of Hungary of the Jagiellon dynasty had been searching a wife capable of giving him a son. His sights were set on a powerful alliance, Anne related to French royalty, was a good choice. So Anne got engaged in 1500, the marriage contract confirmed in 1501, she wed Vladislaus by proxy at the French court in Blois in 1502. On her way to Hungary, she was much celebrated in Italy and in Venice, causing a conflict between France and Hungary over who should pay the expenses.
On 29 September 1502, Anne wed Vladislaus in Székesfehérvár and she was crowned Queen of Hungary there that same day. Anne brought French advisors with her to Hungary; the relationship was happy at least from the king's view, he is reported to have regarded her as a friend, assistant and a trusted advisor. She was said to favour this city all her life. In 1506, her signature was placed on a document alongside the king's regarding an alliance with the Habsburgs. On July 23, 1503 Anne gave birth to a daughter, known as Anna Jagellonica, on July 1, 1506 to the long-awaited male heir, the future king Louis II, she enjoyed great popularity. She died in Buda on July 26, 1506, a little more than three weeks after the birth of her son due to complications from delivery, she was 22. Although Anna was Vladislaus II's third wife, she gave birth to his only surviving legitimate children, both of whom were born in Buda: Anna of Bohemia and Hungary Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia. Married Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, they inherited Bohemia and what was left of Hungary.
Louis II of Hungary, born on July 1, 1506, killed at the Battle of Mohács on August 29, 1526. Married Mary of Habsburg. Cazacu, Matei. Reinert, Stephen W. ed. Dracula. Brill. Previte-Orton, C. W.. The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. II. Cambridge at the University Press. Anthony, Raoul: Identification et Etude des Ossements des Rois de Navarre inhumés dans la Cathédrale de Lescar. Paris. Masson. 1931 Birkás, Géza: Francia utazók Magyarországon. Acta Universitatis Szegediensis: Sectio philologica, Tomus 16. Szeged. 228 pp. 1948 Byrne, Francis John: Irish Kings and High-Kings. London: Batsford. 1973 ISBN 0-7134-5882-8 Dobosy, Tibor: Pierre Choque, Anna magyar királyné francia kísérője. Budapest. 1940 Fógel, József: II. Ulászló udvartartása. MTA. Budapest. 166 pp. 1913 Kšír, Josef: K původu české královny Anny. Genealogické a heraldické listy 21. 40-47. Prague. 2001 Macek, Josef: Tři ženy krále Vladislava. Prague. Mladá fronta. 1991 Marczali, Henrik: Candalei Anna II. Ulászló neje, magyarországi útjának és a menyegzői ünnepélyek leírása.
Magyar Történelmi Tár 23. 97-113. 1877 Solymosi, László: Magyarország történeti kronológiája I. A kezdetektől 1526-ig. Főszerk.: Kálmán Benda. Budapest. 1981 Wenzel, Gusztáv: II. Ulászló magyar és cseh királynak házas élete. Századok. 631-641, 727-757 és 816-840. 1877 Váralljai Csocsány, Jenő: A magyar monarchia és az európai reneszánsz Kráter Egyesület Kiadó, 2005 Cawley, Medieval Lands/Navarre Kings Genealogy, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Cawley, Medieval Lands/Irish Kings & High Kings Genealogy, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Cawley, Medieval Lands/Wales Genealogy, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Cawley, Medieval Lands/Foix Genealogy, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Cawley, Medieval Lands/De La Pole Genealogy, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Seigneurs de Grailly Généalogie Marek, Miroslav. "Albret Genealogy 2". Genealogy.euweb.cz. Marek, Miroslav. "Foix Genealogy 3".
Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Cosimo I de' Medici was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title he held until his death. Cosimo was born in Florence on 12 June 1519, the son of the famous condottiere Ludovico de' Medici and his wife Maria Salviati, herself a granddaughter of Lorenzo the Magnificent, he was the Countess of Forlì and Lady of Imola. Cosimo came to power in 1537 at age 17, just after the 26-year-old Duke of Florence, Alessandro de' Medici, was assassinated. Cosimo was from a different branch of the Medici family, descended from Giovanni il Popolano, the great-grandson of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, founder of the Medici Bank, it was necessary to search for a successor outside of the "senior" branch of the Medici family descended from Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici, since the only male child of Alessandro, the last lineal descendant of the senior branch, was born out-of-wedlock and was only four years' old at the time of his father's death. Up to the time of his accession, Cosimo had lived only in Mugello and was unknown in Florence.
However, many of the influential men in the city favoured him as the new duke. Several hoped to rule through him. However, as the Florentine literatus Benedetto Varchi famously put it, "The innkeeper's reckoning was different from the glutton's." Cosimo proved strong-willed and ambitious and soon rejected the clause he had signed that entrusted much of the power of the Florentine duchy to a Council of Forty-Eight. When the Florentine exiles heard of the death of Alessandro, they marshalled their forces with support from France and from disgruntled neighbors of Florence. During this time, Cosimo had an illegitimate daughter, portrayed shortly before her premature death in a marvelous painting by Bronzino. Toward the end of July 1537, the exiles marched into Tuscany under the leadership of Bernardo Salviati and Piero Strozzi; when Cosimo heard of their approach, he sent his best troops under Alessandro Vitelli to engage the enemy, which they did at Montemurlo. After defeating the exiles' army, Vitelli stormed the fortress, where Strozzi and a few of his companions had retreated to safety.
It fell after only a few hours, Cosimo celebrated his first victory. The prominent prisoners were subsequently beheaded in the Bargello. Filippo Strozzi's body was found with a bloody sword next to it and a note quoting Virgil, but many believe that his suicide was faked. In 1537, Cosimo sent Bernardo Antonio de' Medici to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to gain recognition for his position as head of the Florentine state; that recognition came in June 1537 in exchange for help against France in the course of the Italian Wars. With this move, Cosimo restored the power of the Medici, who thereafter ruled Florence until the death of the last of the Medici ruler, Gian Gastone de' Medici, in 1737; the help granted to Charles V allowed him to free Tuscany from the Imperial garrisons and to increase as much as possible its independence from the overwhelming Spanish influence in Italy. Cosimo next turned his attention to Siena. With the support of Charles V, he defeated the Sienese at the Battle of Marciano in 1554 and laid siege to their city.
Despite the inhabitants' desperate resistance, the city fell on 17 April 1555 after a 15-month siege, its population diminished from forty thousand to eight thousand. In 1559, the last redoubt of Sienese independence, was annexed to Cosimo's territories. In 1569, Pope Pius V elevated him to the rank of Grand Duke of Tuscany. In the last 10 years of his reign, struck by the death of two of his sons by malaria, Cosimo gave up active rule of the Florentine state to his son and successor Francesco I, he retreated to live in the Villa di Castello, outside Florence. Cosimo was an authoritarian ruler and secured his position by employing a guard of Swiss mercenaries. In 1548, he managed to have his relative Lorenzino, the last Medici claimant to Florence who had earlier arranged the assassination of Cosimo's predecessor Alessandro, assassinated himself in Venice. Cosimo was an active builder of military structures, as a part of his attempt to save the Florentine state from the frequent passage of foreign armies.
Examples include the new fortresses of Siena, Sansepolcro, the new walls of Pisa and Fivizzano and the strongholds of Portoferraio on the island of Elba and Terra del Sole. He laid heavy tax burdens on his subjects. Despite his economic difficulties, Cosimo was a lavish patron of the arts and developed the Florentine navy, which took part in the Battle of Lepanto, which he entrusted to his new creation, the Knights of St. Stephen. Cosimo is best known today for the creation of the Uffizi. Intended as a means of consolidating his administrative control of the various committees and guilds established in Florence's Republican past, it now houses one of the world's most important collections of art, much of it commissioned and/or owned by various members of the Medici family, his gardens at Villa di Castello, designed by Niccolò Tribolo when Cosimo was only seventeen years old, were designed to announce a new golden age for Florence and to demonstrate the magnificence and virtues of the Medici.
They were decorated with fountains, a labyrinth, a grotto and ingenious ornamental water features, were a prototype for the Italian Renaissance garden. They had a profound influence on Italian and French gardens through the eighteenth century. Cosimo finished the Pitti Palace as a home for the Medici and created the ma
Further Austria, Outer Austria or Anterior Austria was the collective name for the early possessions of the House of Habsburg in the former Swabian stem duchy of south-western Germany, including territories in the Alsace region west of the Rhine and in Vorarlberg. While the territories of Further Austria west of the Rhine and south of Lake Constance were lost to France and the Swiss Confederacy, those in Swabia and Vorarlberg remained under Habsburg control until the Napoleonic Era. Further Austria comprised the Alsatian County of Ferrette in the Sundgau, including the town of Belfort, the adjacent Breisgau region east of the Rhine, including Freiburg im Breisgau after 1368. Ruled from the Habsburg residence in Ensisheim near Mühlhausen were numerous scattered territories stretching from Upper Swabia to the Allgäu region in the east, the largest being the margravate of Burgau between the cities of Augsburg and Ulm. During the Habsburg Monarchy they were humorously called "tail feathers of the Imperial Eagle".
Some estates in Vorarlberg possessed by the Habsburgs were considered part of Further Austria, though they were temporarily directly administered from Tyrol. The original home territories of the Habsburgs, the Aargau with Habsburg Castle and much of the other original possessions south of the High Rhine and Lake Constance were lost in the 14th century to the expanding Swiss Confederacy after the battles of Morgarten and Sempach; these territories were never considered part of Further Austria – except for the Fricktal region around Rheinfelden and Laufenburg, which remained a Habsburg possession until 1797. From 1406 until 1490 Further Austria together with the Habsburg County of Tyrol was included in the definition of "Upper Austria". From 1469 to 1474 Archduke Sigismund gave large parts in pawn to the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold. At the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the Sundgau became part of France. After the Ottoman wars many inhabitants of Further Austria were encouraged to emigrate and settle in the newly acquired Transylvania region, people that were referred as Danube Swabians.
In the 18th century, the Habsburgs acquired a few minor new Swabian territories, such as Tettnang in 1780. In the reorganization of the Holy Roman Empire in the course of the French Revolutionary Wars, much of Further Austria, including the Breisgau, was by the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville granted as compensation to Ercole III d'Este, former duke of Modena and Reggio, who however died two years later, his heir as his son-in-law was Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, the uncle of Emperor Francis II. After the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz and the Peace of Pressburg in 1805, Further Austria was dissolved and the former Habsburg territories were assigned to the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Kingdom of Württemberg and the Kingdom of Bavaria, as rewards for their alliance with Napoleonic France. Minor estates passed to the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Fricktal had become a French protectorate in 1799 and part of the Helvetic Republic in 1802, incorporated into the Swiss canton of Aargau the next year.
After the defeat of Napoleon, there was some discussion at the Congress of Vienna of returning part of all of the Vorlande to Austria, but in the end only Vorarlberg returned to Austrian control, as Foreign Minister Klemens von Metternich did not want to offend the rulers of the South German states and hoped that removing Austria from its advanced position on the Rhine would reduce tensions with France. As of 1790 Further Austria was subdivided into ten districts: Breisgau at Freiburg Offenburg: several localities in the present Ortenaukreis, the Imperial city of Offenburg not included Hohenberg, present Ostalbkreis, former county, at Rottenburg am Neckar Nellenburg, former landgraviate, at Stockach Altdorf, today Weingarten Tettnang, former County of Montfort Günzburg, former Margraviate of Burgau Winnweiler in the Palatinate, former County of Falkenstein the former Imperial city of Konstanz Bregenz, present-day Vorarlberg administrated from Tyrol. Politically, the Further Austrian territories were held by the Habsburg Dukes of Austria from 1278 onwards.
Upon the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, they together with Carinthia, Styria and Tyrol fell to the Leopoldian line: Leopold III, until 1386 William, son, 1386–1406Further divided into Inner Austria proper and Upper Austria, ruled by: Frederick IV, younger brother of William, 1406-1439 Frederick V, nephew of William, ruler of Inner Austria, 1439-1446 Sigismund, son of Frederick IV, 1446–1490In 1490 all Habsburg possessions were re-unified under the rule of Frederick V, Holy Roman Emperor since 1452. Upon the death of Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg in 1564, Further Austria and Tyrol was inherited by his second son: Ferdinand II, 1564–1595 Matthias, 1595–1619, Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, with his younger brother Maximilian III as regent, 1612–1618In 1619 the Habsburg hereditary lands were re-unified under the rule of Emperor Ferdinand II, he gave Further Austria to his younger brother: Leopold V, 1623–1632 Ferdinand Charles, son, 1632–1662 under the tutelage of his mother Claudia de' Medici, 1632–1646 Sigismund Francis, brother 1662-1665In 1665 the Habsburg lands were re-unified under the rule of Emperor Leopold I.
Becker, Irmgard Christa, ed. Vorderösterreich, Nur die Schwanzfeder des Kaiseradlers? Die Habsburger im deutsc
Ferdinand Charles, Archduke of Austria
Ferdinand Charles was the Archduke of Further Austria, including Tyrol, from 1646 to 1662. As the son of Archduke Leopold V and Claudia de' Medici, he succeeded his father upon the latter's death in 1632, under his mother's regency, he took over his mother's governatorial duties when he came of age in 1646. To finance his extravagant living style, he sold entitlements. For example, he wasted the exorbitant sum which France had to pay to the Tyrolean Habsburgs for the cession of their fiefs west of the Rhine, he fixed the border to Graubünden in 1652. Ferdinand Charles was an absolutist ruler, did not call any diet after 1648 and had his chancellor Wilhelm Biener executed illegally in 1651 after a secret trial. On the other hand, he was a lover of music: Italian opera was performed in his court. Ferdinand Charles married Anna de' Medici, she was Grand Duke of Tuscany and Maria Magdalena of Austria. They had three children: Claudia Felicitas of Austria. Married Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. Daughter, died at birth.
Maria Magdalena of Austria. He died in Kaltern. A listing of descendants of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor