Sigismund III Vasa known as Sigismund III of Poland, was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and monarch of the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632 as well as King of Sweden and Grand Duke of Finland from 1592 until his deposition in 1599. Sigismund was the son of his first wife, Catherine Jagiellon of Poland. Elected to the throne of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, he sought to create a personal union between the Commonwealth and Sweden, succeeded for a time in 1592. After he had been deposed in 1599 from the Swedish throne by his Protestant uncle, Charles IX of Sweden, a meeting of the Riksens ständer, he spent much of the rest of his life attempting to reclaim it. A pious yet erratic ruler, Sigismund attempted to hold absolute power in all his dominions. Shortly after his victory over internal opposition, Sigismund took advantage of a period of civil unrest in Muscovy, known as the Time of Troubles, invaded Russia, holding Moscow for two years and Smolensk thereafter.
In 1617 the Polish–Swedish conflict, interrupted by an armistice in 1611, broke out again. While Sigismund's army was fighting Ottoman forces in Moldavia, King Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden invaded Sigismund's lands, capturing Riga in 1621 and seizing all of Polish Livonia. Sigismund, who concluded the Truce of Altmark with Sweden in 1629, never regained the Swedish crown, his Swedish wars resulted, moreover, in Poland's loss of northern Livonian territories and in a diminution of the kingdom's international prestige. Sigismund remains a controversial figure in Poland. One of the country's most recognizable monarchs, he transferred the capital from Kraków to Warsaw in 1596 and his long reign coincided with the apex of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's prestige and economic influence. On the other hand, it was during his reign that the symptoms of decline leading to the Commonwealth's eventual demise surfaced. Popular histories, such as the books of Paweł Jasienica, tend to present Sigismund as the principal source of these destructive processes.
However, the question of whether the Commonwealth's decline was caused by Sigismund's decisions or had its roots in historical processes beyond his personal control remains debatable. He was commemorated in Warsaw with Sigismund's Column, one of the city's landmarks and the first secular monument in the form of a column in modern history, it was commissioned after Sigismund's death by his son and successor, Władysław IV. Sigismund was born on 20 June 1566 to Catherine Jagiellon and the Grand Duke John of Finland at Gripsholm, his parents, at the time, were being held prisoner by King Eric XIV, but despite the Protestant domination of Sweden young Sigismund was raised as a Roman Catholic. His mother Catherine was the daughter of Polish king Sigismund I the Old and Queen Bona Sforza of Italy. In 1567 Sigismund and his parents were released from prison. A year in 1568, Erik XIV was deposed and Sigismund's father ascended to the throne of Sweden as King John III. From 1568 onward Sigismund was the Crown Prince of Sweden.
In 1587 Sigismund stood for election to the Polish throne after the death of king Stephen Bathory. He was supported by his aunt Queen Anna, Hetman Jan Zamoyski and the nobles loyal to the Zborowski family. With such a strong support from the elite families and people of influence he was duly elected ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth on 19 August 1587 with the blessings of the primate of Poland Stanisław Karnkowski. From that time his official name and title became: "by the grace of God, king of Poland, grand duke of Lithuania, ruler of Ruthenia, Masovia, Samogitia and hereditary king of the Swedes and Wends"; the outcome of the election was contested by factions of the Polish nobility that supported the candidacy of Archduke Maximilian III of Austria, who invaded the country. Upon hearing of his election King Sigismund slipped through the clutches of the Protestants in Sweden and landed in Poland on 7 October agreeing to grant several royal privileges to the Sejm in the hope of winning over some of his opponents and settling the disputed election.
He was proclaimed by the Lesser Prussian Treasurer Jan Dulski as king on behalf of Crown Marshal Andrzej Opaliński, after arriving in the Royal Capital City of Kraków he was crowned on 27 December at Wawel Cathedral. Hetman Jan Zamoyski defeated Maximilian at the Battle of Byczyna and took him prisoner. However, at the request of Pope Sixtus V, King Sigismund III released Maximilian, who surrendered his claim to Poland in 1589. King Sigismund tried to maintain peace with his powerful neighbor by marrying Archduchess Anne Habsburg in 1592, it was always his intention to maintain an alliance with Catholic Austria against the Protestant forces. When his father died King Sigismund III asked the Sejm to be allowed to claim his inheritance as the rightful King of Sweden; the Poles had no objection. When he promised to respect Lutheranism as the official religion of Sweden, the Swedes agreed. Sigismund was crowned King of Sweden in 1594, he appointed his uncle, Duke Charles, to rule as regent on his behalf in Sweden while he remained in Poland, since Sweden and the Commonwealth were only in a personal union, not united in one state.
However, tensions grew in Sweden, as despite his pledge, King Sigismund was a devou
Mohammadpur is a thana of Dhaka District in the division of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Although Mohammadpur had grown as a residential area subsequently commercial places developed, its post code of Mohammadpur is 1207. Unlike some parts of Dhaka city, most parts of Mohammadpur was planned in the 1950s as broad streets and avenues. Saat Masjid, a prominent archaeological structure, in the area as is a renowned mosque of Dhaka city called Shia Masjid. Mohammadpur is at 23.7542°N 90.3625°E / 23.7542. It has 57551 units of households and area 11.65 km². Mohammadpur is connected to Sadar Gabtali by the city protection dam. Mohammadpur borders Shyamoli and Adabor Thana on the north, Sher-E-Bangla Nagar on the east and Dhanmondi and Hazaribagh thanas on the south; as of 1991 Bangladesh census, Mohammadpur has a population of 316,203. Males constitute 55.0% of the population, females 45.0%. This upazila's population over 18 years of age is 185,413. Mohammadpur has an average literacy rate of 56.2%, the national average of 32.4% literate.
Middle-class people live here. A 2011 census shows that Mohammadpur has a population of 355,843, 44.8 % female. One of the largest apartment blocks in the capital, Japan Garden City is in this neighbourhood. Besides, Pisciculture Housing Society, Mohammadia Housing Society, Baitul Aman Housing Society, Chad Miah Housing, Probal Housing and a number of residential areas have grown; this has resulted in a real estate construction boom accompanied with markets and shopping complexes. Kaderabad Housing is a big housing near Mohammadpur Bus Stand, the housing is well organized and have college and school inside the housing including large apartment block by Assurance and Sara Builders, its near to Main bus stand near Martyred Intellectuals Memorial. The Geneva Camp for "Stranded Pakistanis" is in Mohammadpur. Pakistanis have been living there since the end of the 1971 War of Liberation. Asad Gate is the monument of the country's liberation war, it was named after an unarmed young man named Asad, killed by the Pakistani army during protests against the erstwhile military junta of Pakistan, part of Bangladesh's independence movement.
BRTC, Raja City, Torongo, Torongo Plus, projapoti, rojonighondha, meshkat, 13 No. and some other bus transportation companies have facilitated the communication system of the inhabitants of this area. Govt. Graphic Arts Institute Mohammadpur Government High School Mohammadpur Girls' High School Mohammadpur Preparatory Higher Secondary School St Joseph Higher Secondary School St Francis Xavier's Green Herald International School Dhaka Residential Model College Mohammadpur Central University College Dhaka State College Alhaj Mokbul Hossain Bisshobiddalay College Mohammadpur Model School & College Bengali Medium High School Dr. M Mizanur Rahman Professional College St Paul's Mission School Bangla Medium Dr. M Mizanur Rahman Collegiate School Firoza Bashar Ideal College St Paul's School English Medium Bangladesh University The People's University of Bangladesh Upazilas of Bangladesh Districts of Bangladesh Divisions of Bangladesh
Kathleen Sully was an English novelist. Sully was the second of seven children born to Kate Coussell. Albert was an engineer and the family moved numerous times around London during Kathleen's childhood. According to a short biographical sketch on the dust jacket of her first novel, Canal in Moonlight, she left school at fifteen but studied dress design at Barrett Street Trade School; the same source reports that "She has enjoyed a varied career as a domestic, life attendant, dress model, dress cutter, dress designer, dress-shop owner, professional swimmer and diver, bus conductress, cinema usherette, free-land artist and writer, tracer in the Admiralty, dress-maker." She married Charles Sully in Willesden, Middlesex in 1932. The 1939 census recorded them as living in Weston-Super-Mare, where Charles worked as an aeronautical engineer and Kathleen as a housewife, they had three children. In 1946, she published two children's books, Small Creatures and Stony Stream, with illustrations by Rene Cloke, part of a series titled "Truth in a Tale" published by Edmund Ward Ltd.
In 1948, she attended St. Albans Art College and in 1950 attended the Gaddesden Teacher Training College, from which she earned a teaching certificate and took a teaching post in Art and English. In 1955, her first novel, Canal in Moonlight, was published by Peter Davies; the story of the chaotic life of a large and impoverished family living alongside a stagnant industrial canal in a nameless city, it received positive reviews, with many reviewers noting in particular the unique setting and tone, a mix of absurd comedy and bleak tragedy. John Betjeman wrote, "I have never anything like it.... It is no good my going on describing this book or trying to convey its at once hopeful and desolating climax.... Her book will either disgust you or do what it did to me, purge you with pity and frighten you with its sense of loneliness." Writing in the Sunday Times, Anthony Rhodes called it "one of the finest novels of its kind I have read."Her next book, published in 1956, Canaille collected two short novels, "For What We Receive" and "The Weeping and The Laughter."
In his review for The Observer, John Wain called Sully "a writer of power. In.... Canaille, these qualities are so much to the fore that one never knows what she will do from one page to the next."In 1957, Lindsay Anderson convinced her to write a play for an innovative series he produced with the English Stage Company at the Royal Court Theatre. On 30 June 1957, in his professional debut as a director, Anderson staged the play, with Ian Bannen in the title role, without decor, her fourth novel, Merrily to the Grave, for which Elizabeth Bowen praised Sully's'forceful, singular gifts,' was adapted as a radio play for the BBC in 1959. In the space of fifteen years, Sully published seventeen novels, she worked with the publisher Peter Davies. Two themes were cited by reviewers: her originality and her strong narrative drive, her subjects ranged from old age, infidelity, mid-life crisis, small-town mores. Her most striking book, Skrine, is a dystopian novel set in a depopulated England following some unspecified global catastrophe.
A lone wanderer, comes upon a village run by a band of armed men and learns how complex and delicate the politics of power can be in a small and isolated community. Brian Aldiss wrote that "Miss Sully’s splintery prose captures these fractured life patterns with remarkable effect."In response to a questionnaire for Gale Research's Contemporary Authors series in 1979, she wrote, "Main interest now and since I could think: Man--why and whence.... Have written since a child but stuff too off-beat for publication. Interests in general: philosophy, she identified her politics as her religion as Christian. She appears not to have published anything after Look at the Tadpoles in 1970. All her books are out of print and her work has thus far gone without notice in surveys of the English novel, she died in 2001. Small Creatures, 1946 Stony Stream, 1946 Canal in Moonlight, 1955 Canaille, 1956 Through the Wall, 1957 Merrily to the Grave, 1958 Burden of the Seed, 1958 A Man Talking to Seagulls, 1959 Shade of Eden, 1960 Skrine, 1960 A Man on the Roof, 1961 The Undesired, 1961 The Fractured Smile, 1965 Not Tonight, 1966 Dear Wolf, 1967 Horizontal Image, 1968 A Breeze on a Lonely Road, 1969 Island in Moonlight, 1970 A Look at the Tadpoles, 1970 The Waiting of Lester Abbs, 1957