Sigma Phi Epsilon known as SigEp, is a social college fraternity for male college students in the United States. It was founded on November 1, 1901, at Richmond College, its national headquarters remains in Richmond, Virginia, it was founded on three principles: Virtue and Brotherly Love. Sigma Phi Epsilon is one of the largest social fraternities in the United States in terms of current undergraduate membership. In the fall of 1900 18-year-old divinity student Carter Ashton Jenkens, the son of a Baptist minister, transferred from Rutgers College of New Jersey to Richmond College, a Baptist institution in the Virginia capital. At Rutgers Jenkens had been initiated into the Chi Phi fraternity. At Richmond, which did not have a chapter of Chi Phi, Jenkens was part of group of friends who were meeting under the unofficial name the "Saturday Night Club". By early October, 1901, Jenkens had persuaded the group, which had grown to twelve men, to try to establish a chapter of Chi Phi at Richmond; these men were spurned by the existing fraternities on campus for their sense of morality and for their rural, middle-class backgrounds.
Jenkens had convinced the others that their chapter could be different from the other fraternities on campus and assured them that Chi Phi's principles were in line with their own. The group's request for a charter, was met with refusal as the national fraternity felt that Richmond College was too small to host a Chi Phi chapter. Jenkens and his friends therefore founded their own fraternity. After several secret meetings throughout October 1901, the new fraternity took shape and on November 1, 1901, the fraternity's first membership roster was publicly posted at the school, it listed the twelve founding members in this order: Carter Ashton Jenkens, Benjamin Donald Gaw, William Hugh Carter, William Andrew Wallace, Thomas Temple Wright, William Lazelle Phillips, Lucian Baum Cox, Richard Spurgeon Owens, Edgar Lee Allen, Robert Alfred McFarland, Franklin Webb Kerfoot and Thomas Vaden McCaul. After much discussion, the group settled on a secret motto and called their fraternity Sigma Phi. Jenkens and Phillips met with a faculty committee to seek official recognition for their new fraternity.
The faculty members were reluctant to recognize a sixth fraternity in a school with only 300 students as more than half the members would be soon-to graduate seniors. Additionally, another national fraternity existed using the name Sigma Phi; the founders responded that their new fraternity would be different from the others at Richmond, as was being founded upon biblical, egalitarian principles, new members would be taken in from the undergraduate classes to increase the new fraternity's size, the fraternity's name was still open to debate. With these assurances from the founders, the faculty committee approved the new fraternity's request for official recognition. Shortly afterwards, the founders met and decided to rename the fraternity Sigma Phi Epsilon; the colors dark red and royal purple were chosen to represent fraternity, while the golden heart was chosen as the fraternity's symbol. The principles of Virtue and Brotherly Love, were chosen as "The Three Cardinal Principles". Jenkens designed the fraternity's badge as a golden heart surmounted by a black enameled heart-shaped shield.
Upon the shield are inscribed, in gold, the Greek-letters of the fraternity, ΣΦΕ, below these letters, a skull and crossbones. The meaning of these symbols is divulged during the initiation ritual and known to members only; the founders' badges were designed and ordered before the addition of "Epsilon" to the fraternity's name. Thus they had only a "Sigma" and a "Phi" inscribed on the lobes of the heart, with the skull and crossbones below. A last-minute telegraph sent to the jeweler requested that an "Epsilon" be added "somewhere" on the already-complete badges, so the jeweler replaced the bottom-most gemstones with a black enameled "Epsilon." The badges of founders Carter and McCaul are on display at the Sigma Phi Epsilon headquarters at the fraternity's headquarters. Chapter house doors are traditionally painted red; the tradition of the red door on Sigma Phi Epsilon Chapter houses began at Syracuse University in the 1920s. Brothers there painted the front door of their house red as a token of fraternalism, because it is a fraternity color.
Today, all 260 SigEp chapters have red doors. In December 2014, Sigma Phi Epsilon became the first fraternity in the North-American Interfraternity Conference to accept transgender men as members; the National Board of Directors passed the policy by an 8-0 majority vote with three abstentions. In September 2019, the chapter at the University of Nebraska Omaha was shut down by the fraternity's national board of directors due to multiple fraternal code violations. In 2018, the chapter at Dartmouth College was shut down by the fraternity's national board of directors due to multiple fraternal code violations. In 2017, the chapter at Auburn University was shut down after several serious allegations were made public about the behaviors of the chapter; as a result, the national office initiated a thorough investigation into the chapter which determined it was guilty of hazing, illicit drug use, alcohol violations. In October 2016, the chapter at the University of Wisconsin–Madison was shut down after repeated alcohol and safety violations.
The fraternity was cited for providing alcohol to underage students when hosting parties at their fraternity house. In August 2016, member Dan Drill was sentenced to 74 months in prison after pleading guilty to two counts of rape. In March 2016, the chapte
Coconut Oil is the debut solo EP by American singer and rapper Lizzo. It was released on October 7, 2016 by Nice Life Recording Company and Atlantic Records, Lizzo's first major-label release. Lizzo co-wrote each song on the album, while enlisting Ricky Reed, Christian Rich, Dubbel Dutch, Jesse Shatkin for the album's production; the result was a departure from Lizzo's previous hip hop releases. Lyrically, the extended play explores themes of body positivity, self-love, the journey to those ideals. Coconut Oil received positive reviews from music critics. Commercially, Coconut Oil peaked at number 44 on the Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart, making it Lizzo's first release to chart. However, two years after it was first released, the popularity of the single "Good as Hell" renewed interest in the EP and it subsequently reached a new peak of #31 on the Billboard Top 200 Albums chart. To promote the extended play, Lizzo embarked on the Good as Hell Tour in 2017. "Good as Hell" was released as the EP's first single, as part of the soundtrack for the 2016 film Barbershop: The Next Cut.
"Phone" was released shortly after the announcement of the extended play as the second single. "Scuse Me" was released as the third and final single in early 2017, was accompanied with a music video. Lizzo's song. Coconut Oil is Lizzo's first release with a major record label, was intended as a full-length release; the EP serves as the follow up to Big Grrrl Small World. Lizzo described the reason for the name Coconut Oil, stating: There's self-exploration. There's self-love. There's self-realization," she notes of her past music. ` Coconut Oil' is the ultimate ode to my process. I'm not there yet; the EP discusses themes of body positivity, self-love, the trials one faces to achieve those ideals. The opening track, "Worship", contains mambo-inspired horns and a showtune-like chorus, creating two different syncopated dance rhythms. “Phone” has been described as "pure MPC and bassline magic" that lyrically discusses the loss of one's phone and friends at a club. Lizzo freestyled each lyric to the song.
“Scuse Me” contains "twinkly" opening keys before breaking into long bass drops and frantic drum sequences. The song lyrically talks about self-love, has been compared to "Oops, Oh My" by Tweet."Deep" is a club-ready dance tune with soukous-inflected guitar riffs. "Good as Hell" is a "brassy" self-empowerment anthem, where the protagonist is giving more than they get in a relationship. The closing titular track is a sparse R&B song that sees the singer crooning “I thought I needed to run and find somebody to love, but all I needed was some coconut oil” against a backdrop of organs. Lyrically, it discusses the singer's journey to confidence, was dedicated to the black women who have connected with her music; the singer plays the flute in the song, a guitar solo from producer Ricky Reed, features excerpts of the singer's family church telling stories. "Good as Hell" was released as the lead single from the EP on May 11, 2016 as part of the soundtrack for the 2016 film Barbershop: The Next Cut.
It premiered as an exclusive on Zane Lowe's Beats 1 show."Phone" was released as the second single from the EP on September 19, 2016. The music video for "Scuse Me" was released on January 25, 2017. Vanessa Okoth-Obbo, writing for Pitchfork, rated the EP 6.1 out of 10, writing that "Coconut Oil works best when considered as a statement of intent – an inventory of all the things she’s good at, a testing ground for how best to blend them in the future." Syra Aburto, writing for Nylon, wrote that the "like the product it's named after, latest project, Coconut Oil, is essential for healthy living."Rolling Stone placed it at number 14 on its list of the "20 Best Pop Albums of 2016". Credits adapted from album’s liner notes. Lizzo – Coconut Oil EP at AllMusic. Retrieved October 7, 2016
Drombeg stone circle, is a small (9 m axial stone circle located 2.4 km east of Glandore, County Cork, Ireland. The structure consists of 17 packed stones; as an axial or "Cork–Kerry" stone circle, it contains two taller entrance stones placed opposite a recumbent axial stone. Its axis is orientated south west towards the setting sun. Although not an significant example, Drombeg is one of the most visited megalithic sites in Ireland, is protected under the National Monuments Act, it was excavated in 1958, when the cremated remains of an adolescent was found in a pot in the circle's center. The stone circle consists of seventeen spaced stones spanning 9.3 metres in diameter, of which 13 survive. The most westerly stone is the long recumbent and has two egg shaped cup-marks, one with a ring around it. A "Cork–Kerry type" stone circle, it is flanked by a pair of 1.8m high axial portal stones, which provide a south-west axis, orient the monument in the direction of the setting sun during the midwinter solstice.
The stones in the circle have been shaped to slope upwards to the recumbent stone, the midpoint of, set in line with the winter solstice sunset viewed in a conspicuous notch in the distant hills. While the alignment is good, it is not precise; the ruins of two round stone walled conjoined prehistoric huts and a fulacht fiadh lie just 40m west of the monument. Evidence suggests the fulacht fiadh was in use up until the 5th century AD; the larger of the huts had a timber roof supported by a timber post. The smaller hut had a cooking oven on its east side. A causeway leads from the huts to the cooking place featuring a hearth and trough in which water was boiled by adding hot stones. Following a number of surveys in the early 1900s, the site was excavated and restored in 1957. Radiocarbon dating of samples taken from the site suggest that it was active c. 1100 - 800 BC. An inverted pot, found in the centre of the circle, contained the cremated remains of a young adolescent wrapped with thick cloth.
The pot was buried near the centre of the circle along with 80 other smashed sherds, four bits of shale and a collection of sweepings from a pyre. Noonan, Damien. Castles and Ancient Monuments in Ireland. Arum Press, 2001. ISBN 1-8541-0752-6 Megalithic Ireland - Photographs of Drombeg Megalithomania - Site plan and photographs of Drombeg