click links in text for more info


In Norse mythology, Sigmund is a hero whose story is told in the Völsunga saga. He and his sister, Signý, are the children of his wife Hljod. Sigmund is best known as the father of Sigurð the dragon-slayer, though Sigurð's tale has no connections to the Völsung cycle except that he killed a dragon. In the Völsunga saga, Signý marries the king of Gautland. Völsung and Sigmund are attending the wedding feast, when Odin, disguised as a beggar, plunges a sword into the living tree Barnstokk around which Völsung's hall is built; the disguised Odin announces. Only Sigmund is able to free the sword from the tree. Siggeir is smitten with desire for the sword, he tries to buy it but Sigmund refuses. Siggeir invites Sigmund, his father Völsung and Sigmund's nine brothers to visit him in Gautland to see the newlyweds three months later; when the Völsung clan arrive, they are attacked by the Gauts. Signý beseeches her husband to put them in stocks instead of killing them; as Siggeir thinks that the brothers deserve to be tortured before they are killed, he agrees.

He lets his shapeshifting mother turn into a wolf and devour one of the brothers each night. During that time, Signý fails every time until only Sigmund remains. On the ninth night, she has a servant smear honey on Sigmund's face and when the she-wolf arrives, she starts licking the honey off and sticks her tongue into Sigmund's mouth, whereupon Sigmund bites her tongue off, killing her. Sigmund escapes his bonds and hides in the forest. Signý brings Sigmund everything. Bent on revenge for their father's death, she sends her sons to him in the wilderness, one by one, to be tested; as each fails, she urges Sigmund to kill them, until one day when he refuses to continue killing innocent children. In despair, she comes to him in the guise of a völva and conceives a child by him, Sinfjötli. Sinfjötli, born of their incest, passes the test. Sigmund and his son/nephew, Sinfjötli, grow wealthy as outlaws. In their wanderings, they come upon men sleeping in cursed wolf skins. Upon killing the men and putting on the wolf skins, they are cursed with a type of lycanthropy.

They avenge the death of Völsung. After Signý dies and Sinfjötli go harrying together. Sigmund marries a woman named Borghild and has two sons, one of them named Helgi. Sinfjötli slays Borghild's brother while vying for a woman. Borghild avenges her brother by poisoning Sinfjötli. Sigmund marries a woman named Hjördís. After a short time of peace, Sigmund's lands are attacked by King Lyngi. In battle, Sigmund matches up against an old man, Odin in disguise. Odin shatters Sigmund's sword, Sigmund falls at the hands of others. Dying, he tells Hjördís that she is pregnant and that her son will one day make a great weapon out of the fragments of his sword; that son was to be Sigurd. Sigurd himself had a son named Sigmund, killed when he was three years old by a vengeful Brynhild. Sigmund/Siegmund is the name of Sigurd/Siegfried's father in other versions of the Sigurd story, but without any of the details about his life or family that appear in Norse Völsung tales and poems. On the other hand, the Old English poem Beowulf includes Sigemund the Wælsing and his nephew Fitela in a tale of dragon slaying told within the main story.

Herein the story of Sigemund is told to Beowulf, a warrior from Gautland. Parallels to Sigmund's pulling the sword from the tree can be found in other mythologies. Sinfjötli and Mordred share the characteristic of being nephew and son to the main characters; the story of Sigmund, beginning with the marriage of Signy to Siggeir and ending with Sigmund's vengeance on Siggeir, was retold in the novelette "Vengeance" by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur, which appeared in the magazine Adventure, June 30, 1925. Brodeur was a professor at Berkeley and became well known for his scholarship on Beowulf and Norse sagas. Simonside Hills Orchard, Andy. Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-34520-2

Oil reserves in the United States

Proven oil reserves in the United States were 43.8 billion barrels of crude oil as of the end of 2018, excluding the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. The 2018 reserves represent the largest US proven reserves since 1972; the Energy Information Administration estimates US undiscovered, technically recoverable oil resources to be an additional 198 billion barrels. US proven oil reserves were 43.8 billion barrels as of 2018. The 2018 data is higher than the 39 billion barrels of proven reserves in 1970, when the supergiant Prudhoe Bay field was found in Alaska. United States crude oil production declined since reaching a smaller secondary production peak in 1988, but increased again from 2009 to 2015. Total production of crude oil from 1970 through 2006 was 102 billion barrels, or five and a half times the decline in proved reserves. Since the oil price peaked about US$147.50 in summer 2008 many projects have been brought online, domestic production increased from 2009 to 2015. In 2012 the oil production of the USA increased by 800,000 barrels, the highest recorded increase in one year since oil drilling began in 1859.

The US had increased its oil drilling location as it has passed Saudi Arabia and Russia Oil-bearing shales in North Dakota and Montana are producing increasing amounts of oil. As of April 2013, US crude production was at a more than 20-year high, since the shale gas and tight oil boom. Experts think. Peak production was 10,044 barrels per day in November 1970. A second, but lower peak of 9,627 barrels per day was achieved in April 2015; the reserves-to-production ratio equaled 11.26 years in 2007. The ratio was 11.08 years in 1970. It hit a trough of 8.49 years in 1986. The US consumption of petroleum products peaked in 2005. Net imports of oil and products account for nearly half of the US trade deficit; because of declining production and increasing demand, net US imports of oil and petroleum products increased from 3.16 million barrels per day in 1970 to 12.04 million barrels per day in 2007, before declining. Its largest net suppliers of petroleum products in 2007 were Canada and Mexico, which supplied 2.2 and 1.3 Mbbl/d, respectively.

As of 2011, the US consumed 18.8 million barrels of petroleum products per day, imported a net 8.4 million barrels per day. During 2008-2009 the USA became a net exporter of refined oil products; the United States maintains a Strategic Petroleum Reserve at four sites on the Gulf of Mexico, with a total capacity of 727 million barrels of crude oil. The maximum total withdrawal capability from the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve is 4.4 million barrels per day. This is 32% of US oil imports, or 75% of imports from OPEC. Services under the U. S. Department of the Interior estimate the total volume of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in the United States to be 134 billion barrels. Over 1 million exploratory and developmental crude oil wells have been drilled in the US since 1949; the United States Geological Survey estimates undiscovered technically recoverable crude oil onshore in United States to be 48.5 billion barrels The last comprehensive National Assessment was completed in 1995.

Since 2000 the USGS has been re-assessing basins of the U. S. that are considered to be priorities for gas resources. Since 2000, the USGS has re-assessed 22 priority basins, has plans to re-assess 10 more basins; these 32 basins represent about 97% of the discovered and undiscovered oil and gas resources of the United States. The three areas considered to hold the most oil are the coastal plain area of ANWR, the National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska, the Bakken Formation; the Minerals Management Service estimates the Federal Outer Continental Shelf contains between 66.6 and 115.1 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable crude oil, with a mean estimate of 85.9 billion barrels. The Gulf of Mexico OCS ranks first with a mean estimate of 44.9 billion barrels, followed by Alaska OCS with 38.8 billion barrels. At $80/bbl crude prices, the MMS estimates; as of 2008, a total of about 574 million acres of the OCS are off-limits to development. The moratoria and presidential withdrawal cover about 85 percent of OCS area offshore the lower 48 states.

The MMS estimates that the resources in OCS areas off limits to leasing and development total 17.8 billion barrels. In 1998, the USGS estimated that the 1002 area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge contains a total of between 5.7 and 16.0 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, with a mean estimate of 10.4 billion barrels, of which 7.7 billion barrels falls within the Federal portion of the ANWR 1002 Area. In May 2008 the EIA used this assessment to estimate the potential cumulative production of the 1002 area of ANWR to be a maximum of 4.3 billion barrels from 2018 to 2030. This estimate is a best case scenario of technically recoverable oil during the area's primary production years if

Gort (The Day the Earth Stood Still)

Gort is a fictional humanoid robot that appeared first in the 1951 20th Century Fox American science fiction film The Day the Earth Stood Still and in its 2008 remake. His depiction varies between film adaptations, the original character was loosely based on the character Gnut, from "Farewell to the Master", a 1940 Astounding Science Fiction short story written by Harry Bates, used as the basis for Edmund H. North's screenplay. In that story, Gnut is a moving green statue, attendant upon Klaatu, but in the terminus of the story is identified as the eponymous "master" over Klaatu. Gnut is described with a much more human appearance, in general, as well as emotional expressions, he is described in the fourth paragraph of the short story as an 8 foot tall giant man made of greenish metal, including musculature: For Gnut had exactly the shape of a man – a giant, but a man – with greenish metal for man's covering flesh, greenish metal for man's bulging muscles. Comparisons are made to robots, but only as a means of differentiating from the crudity of those built by humans while Gnut appears human in several respects.

Additionally, the muscles are described as functional: neck and shoulders made Cliff a seat hard as steel, but with the difference that their underlying muscles with each movement flexed, just as would those of a human being. Gnut's movement is supposed to be smooth, walking with an "almost jerkless rhythm which only he among robots possessed", his hands have "tough metal fingers" while 1951's Gort had none. Gnut wears a loincloth, though it isn't explained why. Particular attention is given to describing Gnut's eyes, which are "internally illuminated red eyes were so set that every observer felt they were fixed on himself alone", the face in general is described with "a look of sullen, brooding thought." Toward the end of the short story Gnut's face is described with "metal muscles". This differs from both movie depictions which use a visor to represent Gort's eyes, but few other facial features. Gnut speaks to the main character at the end of the short story, while the movie depictions remove his ability to speak at all.

Gnut is able to raise his internal temperature high enough to vaporize "Glasstex", a fictional thermoplastic material used to imprison him partway through the story. His body is invulnerable to "ray" weapons, acids and electrical currents. Gort is an eight-foot tall, seamless robot constructed from a single piece of "flexible metal", he is but one member of a "race of robots" invented by an interplanetary confederation to protect their citizens against all aggression by destroying any aggressors. Klaatu describes "him" as one of an interstellar police force, holding irrevocable powers to "preserve the peace" by destroying any aggressor; the fear of provoking these robots acts as a deterrent against aggression. To that end, Gort accompanies Klaatu on his mission to deliver an ultimatum to the people of Earth: the interplanetary confederation is not concerned with internal human politics. Gort does not speak, but he can receive and follow verbal commands, as well non-verbal commands: at one point, Klaatu communicates with him using reflected signals from a borrowed flashlight.

This is not the end of his capability, though, as Gort is shown acting on his own, both to protect Klaatu from harm and to free himself from encasement in a block of plastic. Gort can operate complex machinery, is both the pilot and captain of the ship that delivers Klaatu to Earth – all of his "race" have similar ships that they use to patrol the planets. Unarmed, Gort is in fact armed with a laserlike weapon, projected from beneath a visor on his head. While the weapon can vaporize any physical object, its effect is variable at Gort's discretion, is precise enough to destroy a single object without harming anything around it. In its first onscreen use, it vaporized several soldier's guns from their hands while not harming the soldiers at all, seconds was used to vaporize tanks and artillery without harming their occupants or any surrounding objects. Gort is continually aware of Klaatu's physical condition and location without Klaatu needing to wear a tracking device of any sort. Gort is not known to be damageable by any means available to mankind, can – despite resistance – destroy the Earth itself if he is sufficiently provoked.

During most of the film, Gort remains motionless in front of his ship, which rests in a baseball park in central Washington, D. C. near the White House. Scientists and military researchers attempt to examine both the ship, he was portrayed by seven-foot, seven-inch -tall actor Lock Martin wearing a thick foam-rubber suit designed and built by Addison Hehr. Two suits were created, fastened alternately from the front or back so that the robot would appear seamless from any angle in the completed scenes. A fiberglass statue of Gort was used for the close-ups of the firing of his energy beam weapon or when a scene did not require that he move. To maximize the height of the robot, the Gort suit was made with lifts in the boots. Martin could see forward through the suit's visor area during certain shots, air holes were provided for him under the robot's wide chin and jaw, these can be seen in several close-ups of Gort's head. The

Daniel Harford

Daniel Harford is the senior coach of the Carlton Football Club's in the AFL Women's and a former Australian rules footballer who played for the Hawthorn Football Club and Carlton Football Club in the Australian Football League. He is radio presenter and commentator. From Parade College, Harford was a Teal Cup captain of Victoria as a youngster, he played junior football for St Mary's in the DVFL, was recruited from the Northern U18 team by the Hawthorn Football Club with the 8th overall selection in the 1994 AFL Draft. His career started off beautifully and while at Hawthorn, where he made his debut in 1995, he made an early impression, he was a hard-at-the-ball midfielder or small forward. He hit his peak in the late 1990s when he was dominant on the field, his aggression and toughness shining, he made regular appearances on The Footy Show during this period. In 2002 Harford's career started to slide; the hard at the ball midfielder started to collect more than his fair share of injuries. He continued to struggle for fitness in 2003 where he added only another 5 games.

Harford was on a long-term contract and Hawthorn decided to try to offload him, at the end of the year Carlton decided to give Harford another go, trading pick no 51 for him and Hawthorn paying half his contract. Harford could never capture his 1997–1999 form, deciding during a pre-season run in October 2004 to retire from AFL football. Harford played VAFA football for Old Paradians in 2005, returned to the VFL to play for the Northern Bullants, with whom he had played while on the Carlton list, he was one of the best in the Bullants' minor premiership team, winning the Laurie Hill Trophy as the Bullants' best and fairest, finishing third in the J. J. Liston Trophy count. In 2007, Harford moved to the Balwyn Football Club in the Eastern Football League, he played there in 2007, served as playing-coach in 2008, retired from playing at the end of 2008. He continued to serve as non-playing coach at Balwyn until 2011 as coach at St Kevin's Old Boys in the Victorian Amateur Football Association in 2012, where he still coaches as of 2013.

After serving as an assistant coach with Collingwood during the 2018 AFL Women's season, he was appointed the senior coach of Carlton's AFLW team in April 2018 for the 2019 season onward. Harford, known as a bit of a joker during his playing days, joined fledgling Melbourne sports radio network SEN 1116 in 2005 as a presenter, after his retirement from the AFL and while he was playing in the VAFA, he began by hosting a Sunday afternoon sports show with Robert Shaw, in 2006 he hosted On the Rise, a morning weekend program, with Jason Richardson. He made regular appearances on "The Good Oil", a weekday 12-4 afternoon show, between 2007 and 2009, before taking over the timeslot in 2010 with his own program Harf Time, this ran until 2016, when he moved to the Drive program, he has been involved in the network's VFL and AFL commentary teams. In 2007, he hosted a car show on Channel 9, "Test Drive." In November 2016, Harford will move to RSN 927 to host breakfast. He is married to Rebecca and they have a daughter, Abbey and a son, William.

Daniel Harford's playing statistics from AFL Tables

Tayla Vlaeminck

Tayla Jade Vlaeminck is an Australian cricketer who plays as an all-rounder for Australia Women and Victoria Women, is a member of the Melbourne Renegades squad. Vlaeminck was raised in Bendigo, where she played both soccer. After taking the field for the Northern Rivers region in the under-14 girls state cricket championships, she joined the Victorian Under-14 team. Before long, she was selected in the Under-18s; as a 15 year old, she came close to quitting cricket in favour of soccer, but was persuaded to keep playing. In early 2015, Vlaeminck ruptured her anterior cruciate ligament. Just two matches after completing a full recovery and rehabilitation program, she suffered a second ACL injury, in the form of a partial tear. On advice from a surgeon, she kept playing for two months, including for the Victorian Under-18s, until the ACL ruptured again. While recovering from her second ACL rupture, Vlaeminck was signed by the Renegades for WBBL|02, she ended up carrying drinks and soaking up the team atmosphere.

Prior to the 2017–18 WNCL season, Vlaeminck was selected for Victorian Spirit. In her WNCL debut, against the ACT Meteors at Manuka Oval in October 2017, she took the new ball. A month she played for the Cricket Australia XI in a tour match against England. In late November 2017, Vlaeminck dislocated her shoulder playing another match for Victoria; that injury prevented her from playing for the Renegades in WBBL|03. However, she played well enough in two further matches for Victoria to be selected for the Australian Under-19 tour of South Africa in March 2018. A bout of glandular fever prevented her from joining that tour, but after a low key start, she captured 5-32 in 6.5 overs against South Africa in Pretoria. In the series final against South Africa, she took a match-winning 6-27 in 7.5 overs. In September 2018, Vlaeminck was named in Australia's squad for the Women's Twenty20 International series against New Zealand, but she did not play; the following month, she was named in Australia's squad for the series against Pakistan and the 2018 ICC Women's World Twenty20.

She made her Women's One Day International cricket debut for Australia Women against Pakistan Women on 22 October 2018. She made her Women's Twenty20 International cricket debut for Australia Women against India Women on 17 November 2018 in the 2018 ICC Women's World Twenty20. In November 2018, she was named in the Melbourne Renegades' squad for the 2018–19 Women's Big Bash League season. In April 2019, Cricket Australia awarded her with a contract with the National Performance Squad ahead of the 2019–20 season. In June 2019, Cricket Australia named her in Australia's team for their tour to England to contest the Women's Ashes, she made her Test debut for Australia against England women on 18 July 2019. In January 2020, she was named in Australia's squad for the 2020 ICC Women's T20 World Cup in Australia. However, the following month, she was ruled out of the tournament, after suffering a stress injury of her right foot. Off the field, Vlaeminck has studied physiotherapy at LaTrobe University in Bundoora.

Media related to Tayla Vlaeminck at Wikimedia Commons Tayla Vlaeminck at ESPNcricinfo

Launcelot Percival

Launcelot Jefferson Percival KVCO was an Anglican priest who in addition to various parish posts served in the Ecclesiastical Households of Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, King George V, King Edward VIII and King George VI. Percival was a noted sportsman in his early adult life and was an international rugby union forward who played club rugby for Oxford University and Rugby. Percival played international rugby for England and was an original member of invitational team, the Barbarians. Percival was born in Clifton, Bristol in 1869 to Louisa Holland, he was educated at Clifton College. Percival followed his father in life when he matriculated to Trinity College, Oxford, as after leaving Clifton, John Percival had taken the role of President of Trinity College. Percival took Holy Orders. By 1899 he was resident chaplain to the Bishop of London, on 28 February 1899 he was appointed an Honorary Priest in Ordinary to Queen Victoria, his first entry into the monarch's Ecclesiastical Household. By 1905 he was rector of St James's Church, Fulham and on 3 November he was promoted to Priest in Ordinary to the king.

In 1910 he became the rector of Bryanston Square in London. On 6 January 1922 he was appointed Precentor of the Chapel Royal, on 6 February 1923 domestic chaplain to the king. On 3 March 1924 he was appointed Chaplain of the Venerable Order of Saint John. In 1931 Percival was made Deputy Clerk of the Closet, on 20 July 1936 was reappointed to the post after the accession of Edward VIII and again on 2 March 1937 under George VI after Edward's abdication. In the 1936 New Year Honours he was appointed Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. In 1937 he was appointed Precentor of the Chapel Royal for the second time, this time he held the post until his death in 1941, he was succeeded by Revd Wallace Elliott. The National Portrait Gallery in London holds two photographs of Percival, both taken in 1931 by one of Alexander Bassano's photographic studios. Percival first came to note as a rugby player when he represented Oxford University whilst studying at Trinity. Although a forward, Percival had a good reputation for scoring tries, mentioned as scoring twice for an invitational priest's team in George William Erskine Russell's 1921 collection of essays Afterthoughts and in the 1891–92 season for Oxford scored a "remarkable try" against Blackheath when he dribbled the ball the entire length of the pitch before punting the ball over the opposing fullback to score.

One of Percival's most notable matches for Oxford was the 1889 encounter with the touring New Zealand Native football team. The match was played on 21 February, Oxford winning 6–0. Percival played in two Varsity Matches against Cambridge University in 1889 and 1891 to win his sporting'Blues', his first Varsity game ended in victory, with Oxford winning by a goal and two tries to nil, Percival scoring one of the tries after a scrummage close to the Cambridge line. Percival was absent from the 1890 team, after being forced to stand down after an accident, but returned to the Oxford squad in 1891. Oxford began the 1891 game as favourites, with a strong forward pack in tremendous form, but lost the match to late Cambridge pressure. In the 1890/91 season Percival was approached by William Percy Carpmael to join his newly formed invitational team, the Barbarians. In accepting, Percival became one of the founding members of the team; the same season, Percival was first selected for the England national rugby team, brought into the squad as a replacement for Richard Budworth.

His debut was against Ireland in the second England encounter of the 1891 Home Nations Championship. Despite the win, Percival was replaced for the next game of the tournament, but was called upon again for the 1892 Championship, again against Ireland; the game ended in another win for England, Percival scored his first and only international points when he scored a try, thanks to some good build up play from Sammy Woods and Frank Evershed. His third and final international game was in 1893, but having left Oxford University he was now representing Rugby at club level. Played against Scotland, Percival was on the losing side with England for the first time, though he became the first player to win a cap playing from Rugby. Percival played for several seasons for Rugby and was instrumental in bringing in several talented players to the club. In the 1892/93 season, Percival was given the captaincy of the club for one season, replacing T. B. Sparkes. Percival played cricket at a high level, he represented both Marylebone Cricket Club and Herefordshire County Cricket Club and in 1895 while representing Herefordshire he was bowled out in both innings by J. T. Hearne.

Godwin, Terry. The International Rugby Championship 1883–1983. Grafton Street, London: Willow Books. ISBN 0-00-218060-X. Griffiths, John; the Book of English International Rugby 1872–1982. London: Willow Books. ISBN 0002180065. Marshall, Howard. P.. Oxford v Cambridge, The Story of the University Rugby Match. London: Clerke & Cockeran