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A sign is an object, event, or entity whose presence or occurrence indicates the probable presence or occurrence of something else. A natural sign bears a causal relation to its object—for instance, thunder is a sign of storm, or medical symptoms a sign of disease. A conventional sign signifies by agreement; the physical objects most referred to as signs inform or instruct using written text, pictures or a combination of these. The philosophical study of signs and symbols is called semiotics. Semiotics, epistemology and philosophy of language are concerned about the nature of signs, what they are and how they signify; the nature of signs and symbols and significations, their definition and types, is established by Aristotle and Aquinas. According to these classic sources, significance is a relationship between two sorts of things: signs and the kinds of things they signify, where one term causes something else to come to the mind. Distinguishing natural signs and conventional signs, the traditional theory of signs sets the following threefold partition of things: all sorts of indications, evidences and physical signals, there are signs which are always signs.

So, while natural signs serve as the source of signification, the human mind is the agency through which signs signify occurring things, such as objects, qualities, events, processes, or relationships. Human language and discourse, philosophy, logic, poetry and religion are only some of fields of human study and activity where grasping the nature of signs and symbols and patterns of signification may have a decisive value. Communication takes place via the mind as a result of signs and symbols; the word sign has a variety of meanings in English, including: Sun signs in astrology Sign or signing, in communication: communicating via hand gestures, such as in sign language. Gang signal Sign, in Tracking: known as Spoor. A signboard. A sign, in common use, is an indication that a observed event is about to occur again Sign, in divination and religion: an omen, an event or occurrence believed to foretell the future Sign, in ontology and spirituality: a coincidence or surprising event thought to reveal divine will.

The sign of a permutation tells whether it is the product of an or odd number of transpositions. Signedness, in computing, is the property that a representation of a number has one bit, the sign bit, which denotes whether the number is non-negative or negative. A number is called signed if it contains a sign bit, otherwise unsigned. See signed number representation Sign, in biology: an indication of some living thing's presence Medical sign, in medicine: objective evidence of the presence of a disease or disorder, as opposed to a symptom, subjective Sign: the basic unit of meaning Information sign: a notice that instructs, informs or warns people Traffic sign: a sign that instructs drivers. Similar terms which are more specific are character, letter or grapheme Commercial signage, including flashing signs, such as on a retail store, factory, or theatre Signature, in history: a handwritten depiction observed on a document to show authorship and will For marketing or advocacy purposes, a signage refers to the collective use of signs to convey a message.

St. Augustine was the first man who synthesized the Hellenistic theories of signs. For him a sign is a thing, used to signify other things and to make them come to mind; the most common signs are written words. Although God cannot be expressible, Augustine gave emphasis to the possibility of God’s communication with humans by signs in Scripture. Augustine developed the classical and Hellenistic theories of signs. Among the mainstream in the theories of signs, i.e. that of Aristotle and that of Stoics, the former theory filtered into the works of Cicero and Quintilian, which regarded the sign as an instrument of inference. In his commentary on Aristotle’s De Interpretatione, Ammonius said, "according to the division of the philosopher Theophrastus, the relation of speech is twofold, first in regard to the audience, to which speech signifies something, secondly in regard to the things about which the speaker intends to persuade the audience." If we match DDC with this division, the first part belongs to DDC Book IV and the second part to DDC Books I-III.

Augustine, although influenced by these theories, advanced his own theological theory of signs, with whose help one


Mampathy is a small village in between Santhipuram and Koothrapally, or between Santhipuram and Karukachal. Nearest colonies are Kizhuvattu colony, Inchakuzhiyil Kuttickal colony. Over 100 families staying here in this area; this area comes around 1 km diameter. Accessibility wise you can reach here from Koothrappally or Thiruvalla. There is a bus running. Through Mampathy, connecting all these places. In the early 19th century, this place was forest, belonged to two three families. Over years all kind of people migrated to this place and now over 100 families are staying in this small area; this area was populated with Hindu Nair castes, but now its balanced with all kinds of castes and religions except Muslims. Nearest schools are: Panayampala govt school Koothrappally st mary's school. Nearest Railway Stations are: Changanacherry KottayamNearest colleges & Educational institute GURU college Of Nursing Elite Tuition Center, Karukachal Thakidiyel Kunnel Thaipral Thekku porathu Vadakku porathu Malayil Pediekkal Kizhuvattu Thengolil Mozhikkal Chackungal Thottacherry House

Coal mining in Colorado

Early coal mining in Colorado in the United States was spread across the state. Some early coal mining areas are inactive, including the Denver Basin and Raton Basin coal fields along the Front Range. There are 11 active coal mines, all in western Colorado. Coal mining in Colorado dates back to 1859, when a pair of men began mining a coal deposit between the gold rush settlements of Denver and Boulder; the early history of coal mining in Colorado was one of discontent on the part of miners, periodic confrontations with the mine operators. The work was dangerous, Colorado's death rate in the mines was high. In 1917, 121 people died in the Hastings mine explosion. Erie, Colorado claims the first mining labor union in Colorado, the Knights of Labor, Local #771, established in 1878; the Knights of Labor opposed the creation of the National Federation of Miners and Mine Laborers during the 1880s. The first strike was called in 1885 by the Knights of Labor. In 1886 a regional miners organization was formed, called the Coal Miners' Federation of Northern Colorado.

The United Mine Workers were defeated by company spies in a strike in the southern field in 1903-04. The UMW called another strike in Colorado's northern coal fields north of Denver in 1910; the strike was inconclusive, but prompted a 10 percent wage increase for ten thousand Colorado miners. The union's real target in Colorado was the larger southern field located south of Pueblo toward Trinidad. A statewide strike called in September 1913 resulted in the Ludlow Massacre. Neutralized by the dispatch of federal troops after ten days of skirmishes provoked by the massacre, the UMW suspended most activities in Colorado for more than a decade. Meanwhile, the organization grew stronger in the east until about 1920, when it collapsed after a national strike; the United Mine Workers were defeated during the 1913-14 strike in Colorado and focused their attention elsewhere. In 1927 Colorado coal miners again laid down their tools, this time under the banner of the Industrial Workers of the World. Colorado Fuel and Iron, a major conglomerate of steel mills in Pueblo and coal mines around the region, opposed the strike.

The company once again hired spies to infiltrate the union. The 1927–28 strike is best remembered for the Columbine mine massacre; this strike led directly to Rocky Mountain Fuel Company's decision to unionize the workforce, President Josephine Roche announced that she would recognize any union affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. In announcing this policy, President Roche avoided recognizing the radical IWW, which had shut down 113 of the state's 125 coal mines. Thus, in 1928 the United Mine Workers was awarded its first contract in Colorado. In 1933, legislation enabled unionization throughout Colorado's coal fields. Colorado is the tenth largest coal-producing state in the country. In 2014, Colorado mines produced 21.8 million metric tons of coal, employed 2,069 miners. Most Colorado coal is used for electric power generation. Eleven coal mines operate in Colorado, including eight underground mines in Delta, Gunnison, La Plata, Rio Blanco, Routt counties, three surface mines in Moffat and Montrose counties.

All active coal mines are on the western slope, although the New Elk coal mine in Las Animas County is expected to reopen in 4th quarter 2010. In 2015, coal provided 31 TWh of electricity in Colorado, while gas supplied 12 TWh and wind made 7 TWh. Gold mining in Colorado Silver mining in Colorado Uranium mining in Colorado Mining in Colorado Springs Colorado Geological Survey: 2006 Colorado Coal Fact Sheet Colorado Geological Survey: Colorado Coal: energy security for the future

Sarah Ellis (author)

This article is about the contemporary Canadian children's author. For the 19th Century English author of books about women, see Sarah Stickney Ellis. Sarah Ellis is a Canadian children's librarian, she was born in Vancouver, British Columbia, attended the University of British Columbia where she received her Bachelor of Arts honours in 1973 and a Master of Library Science in 1975. She attended the Centre for the Study of Children's Literature, Simmons College in Boston in 1980, she has been a librarian in Vancouver. She has written reviews for Quill and Quire, she is a masthead reviewer for The Hornbook. Ellis has said that she gets her ideas from "Memories, anecdotes people tell me, radio interviews, newspaper articles, family stories, being curious, observing the world, paying attention."Ellis is a strong advocate for children’s literature and she belongs to many different clubs and unions such as the Writers' Union of Canada, the Vancouver Children's Literature Roundtable, Children's Writers and Illustrators and many more.

She is an out lesbian. She has won numerous literary awards, including the Lieutenant Governor's Award for Literary Excellence, the TD Canadian Children's Literature Award for Odd Man Out, the Sheila A. Egoff Children's Literature Prize for Odd Man Out, Back of Beyond and The Baby Project, the Mr. Christie's Book Award and the IODE Violet Downey Award for Out of the Blue and The Several Lives of Orphan Jack, the Governor General's Award for English-language children's literature for Pick Up Sticks. Out of the Blue Pick Up Sticks Next Door Neighbours Baby Project Odd Man Out Outside In Big Ben Next Stop Salmon Forest Ben Over Night Queen's Feet Putting Up With Mitchell Back of Beyond A Season for Miracles A Christmas to Remember The Tunnel Gore A Prairie as Wide as the Sea Days of Toil and Tears: The Child Labour Diary of Flora Rutherford That Fatal Night: The Titanic Diary of Dorothy Wilton The Several Lives of Orphan Jack From Reader to Writer The Young Writer's Companion Girls' Own Official website Sarah Ellis at Library of Congress Authorities, with 15 catalogue records

Paul J. Lioy

Paul James Lioy was a United States environmental health scientist born in Passaic, New Jersey, working in the field of exposure science. He was one of the world's leading experts in personal exposure to toxins, he published in the areas of air pollution and deposited particles, Homeland Security, Hazardous Wastes. Lioy was a Professor and Division Director at the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rutgers University - School of Public Health; until 30 June 2015 he was a Professor and Vice Chair of the Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers University - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. He was Deputy Director of Government Relations and Director of Exposure Science, at the Rutgers Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute in Piscataway, New Jersey. Lioy has been recognized for his research and contributions to development of environmental policy by the International Society of Exposure Analysis and by the Air & Waste Management Association, both with Lifetime Achievement Awards.

Since 2002 he had been one of Information Sciences Institute’s Most Highly Cited Scientists in the Category of Environment and Ecology, is one of the founders of the International Society of Exposure Science. Paul J. Lioy graduated from Passaic High School in 1965, Montclair State College, NJ in 1969 In 1971, he received a master's degree from Auburn University, AL, in Physics, in 1975 an M. S. and Ph. D. in environmental science from Rutgers University. 2015–present: Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, school of Public Health, university, Piscataway, NJ 1989–2015: Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 2000–present: Professor, Rutgers - School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ 1986–present: Professor, Graduate Faculty of Rutgers University: Department of Environmental Science, Public Health Program, Toxicology Program, New Brunswick, NJ 1985-1989: Associate Professor, Department of Environmental and Community Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 1982-1985: Associate Professor, Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University Medical Center, New York City, NY 1978-1982: Assistant Professor, Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University Medical Center, New York City, NY 1976- 1978: Lecturer, Department of Civil Environmental Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of New York, New York City, NY 2015–present: Division Director, School of Public Health, Rutgers 2004–2015: Vice Chair, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers-RWJMS 2003–present: Deputy Director Government Relations, Rutgers Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute 2001-2003: Acting Associate Director and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, UMDNJ-RWJMS and Rutgers University 1999–present: Co-Director, Center for Exposure and Risk Modeling, EOHSI 1995-2001: Deputy Director and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, UMDNJ-RWJMS and Rutgers University 1994-1995: Acting Deputy Director and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, UMDNJ-RWJMS and Rutgers University 1992–present: Director, Controlled Exposure Facility, EOHSI 1990-2002: Faculty Administrator, EOHSI Analytical Laboratories 1986–present: Chief, Exposure Measurement and Assessment Division, DECM of Rutgers-RWJMS 1986–present: Director, Exposure Science Division, Rutgers Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, 1984-1985: Associate Director, Laboratory of Aerosol and Inhalation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, NYU Medical Center 1975-1978: Senior Air Pollution Engineer, Interstate Sanitation Commission, New York City, NY 1973-1975: Physical Scientist U.

S. EPA, Region II, Surveillance and Analysis Division, NJ 2006-2009 and 2012–present: Adjunct Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health University of Pittsburgh Graduate School Public Health 1996: Visiting Professor, Department of Biometry and Biostatistics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 1990: Visiting Scientist, RIVM, The Netherlands Recipient of Cranford Chamber of Commerce Meritorious Service Award, acknowledged by resolution from the State Legislature, Union County, Township of Cranford, 2012 Recipient of the Daughters of the American Revolution Founders Award, The Ellen Hardin Walworth Medal for Patriotism, 2009. A Resolution approved by the New Jersey State Legislature. Recipient of the National Medal for Conservation from The Daughters of the American Revolution. Recipient of the 2008 Distinguished Alumnus Award from Physical Sciences and Engineering, Rutgers University Graduate School Recipient of the 2006 R. Walter Schesinger Basic Science Mentoring Award, UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Recipient of Frank A.

Chambers Award for outstanding achievement in the science and art of air pollution control from the Air Waste Management Association, 2003 Institute for Scientific Information – Highly Cited Scientist – Environment and Ecology, 2002–present Fellow, International Academy of Indoor Air Sciences, 1999–Present Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini, Environmental & Occupational Medicine and Health, Italy 1999–Present Extraordinary Citizen of Week, Union County, Star Ledger, September 1999 R

Astrid Young

Vendela Astrid Young is a Canadian singer/songwriter. She is the daughter of journalist and novelist Scott Young and his second wife Astrid Carlson, the half-sister of fellow musician Neil Young, who bought her first amp in the 1970s. After a brief run with 80's Glam metal group Sacred Child, she went on to record backup vocals on several albums through most of the 80's and 90's, her vocals appeared on Neil Young's albums Unplugged, Road Rock Vol. 1 and the Grammy-nominated Harvest Moon. In 2002, she performed lead vocals and played the bass guitar on rock band's iST album Pokalolo Paniolo. Young has released three solo albums, Brainflower in 1995, Matinee in 2002 and One Night at Giant Rock in 2014, co-produced by Victor DeLorenzo. In addition to writing a Canadian bestselling book, Being Young, Young has co-written music with many fellow musicians, including Nancy Wilson, Lisa Dalbello and the late West Arkeen. Neil Young & Crazy Horse: The Complex Sessions Neil Young "MTV Unplugged" Neil Young: Friends and Relatives - Red Rocks Live She both wrote and starred in a movie entitled "Haunted".

Inbetweens Records Astrid Young's Official Website