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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which results in a cellular response. Proteins responsible for detecting stimuli are termed receptors, although in some cases the term sensor is used; the changes elicited by ligand binding in a receptor give rise to a biochemical cascade, a chain of biochemical events known as a signaling pathway. When signaling pathways interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular responses to be coordinated by combinatorial signaling events. At the molecular level, such responses include changes in the transcription or translation of genes, post-translational and conformational changes in proteins, as well as changes in their location; these molecular events are the basic mechanisms controlling cell growth, proliferation and many other processes. In multicellular organisms, signal transduction pathways have evolved to regulate cell communication in a wide variety of ways.

Each component of a signaling pathway is classified according to the role it plays with respect to the initial stimulus. Ligands are termed first messengers, while receptors are the signal transducers, which activate primary effectors; such effectors are linked to second messengers, which can activate secondary effectors, so on. Depending on the efficiency of the nodes, a signal can be amplified, so that one signaling molecule can generate a response involving hundreds to millions of molecules; as with other signals, the transduction of biological signals is characterised by delay, signal feedback and feedforward and interference, which can range from negligible to pathological. With the advent of computational biology, the analysis of signaling pathways and networks has become an essential tool to understand cellular functions and disease, including signaling rewiring mechanisms underlying responses to acquired drug resistance; the basis for signal transduction is the transformation of a certain stimulus into a biochemical signal.

The nature of such stimuli can vary ranging from extracellular cues, such as the presence of EGF, to intracellular events, such as the DNA damage resulting from replicative telomere attrition. Traditionally, signals that reach the central nervous system are classified as senses; these are transmitted from neuron to neuron in a process called synaptic transmission. Many other intercellular signal relay mechanisms exist in multicellular organisms, such as those that govern embryonic development; the majority of signal transduction pathways involve the binding of signaling molecules, known as ligands, to receptors that trigger events inside the cell. The binding of a signaling molecule with a receptor causes a change in the conformation of the receptor, known as receptor activation. Most ligands are soluble molecules from the extracellular medium which bind to cell surface receptors; these include growth factors and neurotransmitters. Components of the extracellular matrix such as fibronectin and hyaluronan can bind to such receptors.

In addition, some molecules such as steroid hormones are lipid-soluble and thus cross the plasma membrane to reach nuclear receptors. In the case of steroid hormone receptors, their stimulation leads to binding to the promoter region of steroid-responsive genes. Not all classifications of signaling molecules take into account the molecular nature of each class member. For example, odorants belong to a wide range of molecular classes, as do neurotransmitters, which range in size from small molecules such as dopamine to neuropeptides such as endorphins. Moreover, some molecules may fit into more than one class, e.g. epinephrine is a neurotransmitter when secreted by the central nervous system and a hormone when secreted by the adrenal medulla. Some receptors such as HER2 are capable of ligand-independent activation when overexpressed or mutated; this leads to constituitive activation of the pathway, which may or may not be overturned by compensation mechanisms. In the case of HER2, which acts as a dimerization partner of other EGFRs, constituitive activation leads to hyperproliferation and cancer.

The prevalence of basement membranes in the tissues of Eumetazoans means that most cell types require attachment to survive. This requirement has led to the development of complex mechanotransduction pathways, allowing cells to sense the stiffness of the substratum; such signaling is orchestrated in focal adhesions, regions where the integrin-bound actin cytoskeleton detects changes and transmits them downstream through YAP1. Calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules such as cadherins and selectins can mediate mechanotransduction. Specialised forms of mechanotransduction within the nervous system are responsible for mechanosensation: hearing, touch and balance. Cellular and systemic control of osmotic pressure is critical for homeostasis. There are three ways in which cells can detect osmotic stimuli: as changes in macromolecular crowding, ionic strength, changes in the properties of the plasma membrane or cytoskeleton; these changes are detected by proteins known as osmoreceptors. In humans, the best characterised osmosensors are transient receptor potential channels present in the primary cilium of human cells.

In yeast, the HOG pathway has been extensively characterised. The sensing of temperature in cells is known as thermoception and is mediated by transient receptor potential channels

Maud le Vavasour, Baroness Butler

Maud le Vavasour, Baroness Butler was an Anglo-Norman heiress and the wife of Fulk FitzWarin, a medieval landed gentleman, forced to become an outlaw in the early 13th century. Part of the legend of Robin Hood might be based on him. By her first marriage to Theobald Walter, 1st Baron Butler, Maud was the ancestress of the Butler Earls of Ormond. Maud le Vavasour was the daughter of Robert le Vavasour, deputy sheriff of Lancashire, his first wife, an unnamed daughter of Adam de Birkin, she had Sir John le Vavasour who married Alice Cockfield, by whom he had issue. Maud's paternal grandfather was William le Vavasour, Lord of Hazlewood, Justiciar of England, her maternal grandfather was Adam fitz Peter of Birkin. Maud was heiress to properties in Edlington and Narborough in Leicestershire, she is a matrilineal ancestor of Anne Boleyn, Queen of England and second wife to King Henry VIII of England. In or shortly before 1200, Maud married her first husband Theobald Walter, 1st Baron Butler, son of Hervey Walter and Maud de Valoignes, went to live in Ireland.

His brother Hubert Walter was Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1185, Theobald had been granted land by Prince John, Lord of Ireland, he was appointed Butler of Ireland in 1192, High Sheriff of Lancashire in 1194. Theobald and Maud had three children: a female, married as his first wife Sir Gerald de Prendergast by whom she had issue, including Marie de Prendergast, who in her turn married Sir John de Cogan and had issue. We know about her only because a inquisition claimed that Gerald married a "sister of Theobald pincerna", no name is given to her, no dates. Theobald le Botiller, chief Butler of Ireland, who married firstly Joan du Marais, daughter of Geoffrey du Marais and Eva de Bermingham, had a son Theobald le Botiller, who married Margery de Burgh, daughter of Richard Mor de Burgh, Lord of Connacht, Egidia de Lacy, from whom descended the Earls of Ormond. Theobald le Botiller, chief Butler of Ireland married secondly, after 4 September 1225, Rohese de Verdon, daughter of Nicholas de Verdon and Joan de Lacy, by whom he had a son and daughter: John le Botiller de Verdon, Lord of Westmeath, who married Margery de Lacy, by whom he had issue, Maud le Botiller de Verdon, who upon her marriage to John Fitzalan became the 6th Countess of Arundel, from whom descended the Fitzalan Earls of Arundel.

Following the death of Theobald in early February 1206, Maud returned to England into the custody of her father, having bought the right of marrying her at the price of 1200 marks and two palfreys, gave her in marriage by October 1207, to Fulk FitzWarin. Fulk was the son of Fulk FitzWarin and Hawise de Dinan, who subsequent to a violent quarrel with King John of England, was deprived of his lands and property by the vengeful king. Fulk sought refuge in the woods and became an outlaw, with Maud having accompanied him; the legendary figures of Robin Hood and Maid Marian are said to be based on Maud. Maud died in 1226 and Fulke III married again to Clarice D'Auberville. By FitzWarin, Maud had two sons and three daughters: Fulk IV Fulk Glas Hawise, wife of William Pantulf Joanna Mabel Maud is the main protagonist in Elizabeth Chadwick's Lords of The White Castle, which relates in fictional form, her life and adventures as the wife of Fulk FitzWarin

Elymus svensonii

Elymus svensonii called Svenson's wildrye, is a species of flowering plant in the grass family. It is native to United States, where it is endemic to the Interior Low Plateau of Kentucky and Tennessee, its natural habitat is on dry, limestone river bluffs. It is a rare species, with narrow suitable habitat; because of these reasons it is considered to be "Vulnerable" by NatureServe. However, estimating population size is difficult due to its habitat on sheer cliffs, which are dangerous for researchers to access, it is possible. Elymus svensonii is a perennial grass, it is similar to Elymus hystrix. It can be distinguished from Elymus hystrix by its curving lemma awns larger glumes, nodding spikes

Minuscule 346

Minuscule 346, ε 226, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Paleographically it has been assigned to the 12th century, it has marginalia. The codex contains a complete text of the four Gospels on 168 parchment leaves with one Lacuna, it contains liturgical book with hagiographies: Synaxarion and Menologion. The text is written in 31-32 lines per page. According to F. H. A. Scrivener it was carelessly written; the text is divided according to the κεφαλαια, whose numbers are given at the margin, their τιτλοι at the top of the pages. There is a division according to the Ammonian Sections, whose numbers are given at the margin, but without references to the Eusebian Canons, it contains the tables of the κεφαλαια before each Gospel, lectionary markings at the margin, subscriptions at the end of each of the Gospels, numbers of "remata", numbers of στιχοι. The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Caesarean text-type. Aland placed it in Category III, it is a member of the textual family f13.

According to the Claremont Profile Method it belongs to the f 13 as a core member. It has many unusual readings. Gregory dated the manuscript to the 12th century, it is dated by the INTF to the 12th century. The manuscript was bought in 1606 at "Callipoli in Salentinis"; the manuscript was examined by Burgon. It was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by Scholz. Text of the codex was edited by Ferrar. C. R. Gregory saw it in 1886; the manuscript is housed at the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Textual criticism J. M. A. Scholz, Biblisch-kritische Reise, p. 70-73. W. H. Ferrar, A Collation of Four Important Manuscripts of the Gospels, ed. T. K. Abbott. "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 10 December 2015

Monster Force

Monster Force is a 13-episode animated television series created in 1994 by Universal Cartoon Studios and Canadian studio Lacewood Productions. The story is set in 2020 and centers on a group of teenagers who, with help of high tech weaponry, fight off against classic Universal Monsters and spiritual beings threatening humanity; some of the crew have personal vendettas. The series aired in syndication alongside Exosquad. Universal Studios Home Entertainment released the first seven episodes to DVD on September 15, 2009. In the distant future, six college students and their professor have formed the Monster Force, a squad dedicated to keeping the world safe from the likes of Dracula, The Mummy and an evil legion of criminals known as the creatures of the night; the "good guys" are led by Dr. Reed Crawley. Creatures of the Night represent the "bad guys". Dr. Reed Crawley alias Doc A young yet brilliant scientist, the main tactician and strategist of the team, he has once been Dracula's captive and since vowed to end his reign of terror.

He is the inventor of the entire cutting-edge weaponry and equipment used by Monster Force. One of his most brilliant inventions is the EMACS or power suit, which allows normal humans to fight superhuman dark powers at the same level. Luke Talbot alias the Wolfman The only werewolf in the team and the only one who doesn't utilize high-tech devices invented by Doc, he is a good-natured young man affected by lycanthropy, the curse of his family for generations. During the full moon, when he cannot control the curse, his teammates have to restrain him but otherwise his Wolfman form makes him nearly invincible in a monster-to-monster fight. He's descended from Lawrence Talbot, the original wolfman. Tripp Hansen alias the Martial Artist A man of action and a self-confident optimist who enjoys fighting itself. A martial arts specialist, when aided by his power suit he becomes more powerful and deadly, he possesses a special technique called Storm Strike. His motto: "One monster at a time!" Lance McGruder alias Powerhouse Marksman The long-range weapon specialist of the team since his power suit contains the greatest amount of firepower and is capable of shooting beams of cold, electricity, as well as other elements.

In the normal life, he is a modest, always good-spirited and curious young man. Shelley Frank alias the Psychic The intelligence specialist of the team, she is the only female member of Monster Force, as well as the only one whose power suit enables her to fly above the ground. However, she had to sacrifice most of her power suit's firepower for this ability, she is capable of limited telepathy. One of her family members has been killed by Dracula, her name is a play off author of the novel Frankenstein. Frankenstein alias the Monster The same monster, created by Victor Frankenstein in the novel under the same name. However, in the series he is a member of Monster Force, he possesses incredible strength and endurance as well as resilient skin. Moreover, once killed, he can be resurrected if 20 kV is applied to his body. Frankenstein has some familial ties to Shelley Frank. Dracula alias Prince of Darkness is the arch-villain of the series and the archenemy of Monster Force team and Dr. Crawley, he is a vampire and a Master of Evil but seems polite and noble.

His abilities include metamorphosis, hypnotic powers and summoning spells, as well as great tactical and strategic capabilities that match Reed Crawley's talents. Dracula is voiced by Robert Bockstael. Creature from the Black Lagoon alias the Creature is a mysterious amphibian being that has destroyed entire villages throughout the decades, it can survive both above and below the water, possesses immense physical strength and a special ability of a supersonic shrill sound that shatters objects. It disappears ominously. HoTep alias. HoTep was a priest in ancient Egypt who loved Princess Ananka and, when she died, tried to resurrect her. For his transgressions, he has been cursed and entombed for thousands of years, but modern archaeologists accidentally revived him; as an undead sorcerer, he possesses many powers like super strength and limited invulnerability, commands sandstorms and can shapeshift into a dust devil. Moreover, he is able to cast a super cold breath that freezes objects and people.

HoTep is voiced by Robert Bockstael. Niles Lupon alias Bela the Werewolf is a harmless older man who inflicted the curse of lycanthropy upon the Talbot family starting with Lawrence Talbot, his harmless facade fooled just about all of the Monster Force members until the wolf-headed cane he always carried with him was recognized from Lawrence's journal. Though old, his werewolf form is powerful with super strength and invulnerability to all but silver and energy weapons. Though his name technically references actor Béla Lugosi, who played the werewolf responsible for infecting Law

Mohena Singh

Mohena Singh known as Mohena Kumari Singh is an Indian television actress and choreographer. She is known for playing Keerti Goenka in Star Plus's Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai. Princess Mohena Singh Kumari was born on 18 July 1988 to a royal family in Madhya Pradesh, she is the granddaughter of Maharaja Martand Singh of Rewa. She married Politician Suyesh Rawat on 14 October 2019, she made her TV debut in 2012 as a contestant in Dance India Dance. She started her acting career as Sara in Dil Dosti Dance, she worked as a choreographer from in many seasons of the celebrity dance reality show Jhalak Dikhhla Jaa. She appeared in TV serials like Silsila Pyaar Ka, her character Keerti Singhania ‘Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai’ was popular. She worked in a Youtube channel Rimorav Vlogs with Rishi Dev and Gaurav Wadhwa Tumhari Aarzoo by Mohit Chauhan Mohena Singh IMDB