Signals intelligence

Signals intelligence is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people or from electronic signals not directly used in communication. Signals intelligence is a subset of intelligence collection management; as sensitive information is encrypted, signals intelligence in turn involves the use of cryptanalysis to decipher the messages. Traffic analysis—the study of, signaling whom and in what quantity—is used to integrate information again. Electronic interceptions appeared as early as 1900, during the Boer War of 1899–1902; the British Royal Navy had installed wireless sets produced by Marconi on board their ships in the late 1890s and the British Army used some limited wireless signalling. The Boers captured some wireless used them to make vital transmissions. Since the British were the only people transmitting at the time, no special interpretation of the signals that were intercepted by the British was necessary; the birth of signals intelligence in a modern sense dates from the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905.

As the Russian fleet prepared for conflict with Japan in 1904, the British ship HMS Diana stationed in the Suez Canal intercepted Russian naval wireless signals being sent out for the mobilization of the fleet, for the first time in history. Over the course of the First World War, the new method of signals intelligence reached maturity. Failure to properly protect its communications fatally compromised the Russian Army in its advance early in World War I and led to their disastrous defeat by the Germans under Ludendorff and Hindenburg at the Battle of Tannenberg. In 1918, French intercept personnel captured a message written in the new ADFGVX cipher, cryptanalyzed by Georges Painvin; this gave the Allies advance warning of the German 1918 Spring offensive. The British in particular built up great expertise in the newly emerging field of signals intelligence and codebreaking. On the declaration of war, Britain cut all German undersea cables; this forced the Germans to use either a telegraph line that connected through the British network and could be tapped, or through radio which the British could intercept.

Rear-Admiral Henry Oliver appointed Sir Alfred Ewing to establish an interception and decryption service at the Admiralty. An interception service known as'Y' service, together with the post office and Marconi stations grew to the point where the British could intercept all official German messages; the German fleet was in the habit each day of wirelessing the exact position of each ship and giving regular position reports when at sea. It was possible to build up a precise picture of the normal operation of the High Seas Fleet, to infer from the routes they chose where defensive minefields had been placed and where it was safe for ships to operate. Whenever a change to the normal pattern was seen, it signalled that some operation was about to take place and a warning could be given. Detailed information about submarine movements was available; the use of radio receiving equipment to pinpoint the location of the transmitter was developed during the war. Captain H. J. Round working for Marconi, began carrying out experiments with direction finding radio equipment for the army in France in 1915.

By May 1915, the Admiralty was able to track German submarines crossing the North Sea. Some of these stations acted as'Y' stations to collect German messages, but a new section was created within Room 40 to plot the positions of ships from the directional reports. Room 40 played an important role in several naval engagements during the war, notably in detecting major German sorties into the North Sea; the battle of Dogger Bank was won in no small part due to the intercepts that allowed the Navy to position its ships in the right place. It played a vital role in subsequent naval clashes, including at the Battle of Jutland as the British fleet was sent out to intercept them; the direction-finding capability allowed for the tracking and location of German ships and Zeppelins. The system was so successful, that by the end of the war over 80 million words, comprising the totality of German wireless transmission over the course of the war had been intercepted by the operators of the Y-stations and decrypted.

However its most astonishing success was in decrypting the Zimmermann Telegram, a telegram from the German Foreign Office sent via Washington to its ambassador Heinrich von Eckardt in Mexico. With the importance of interception and decryption established by the wartime experience, countries established permanent agencies dedicated to this task in the interwar period. In 1919, the British Cabinet's Secret Service Committee, chaired by Lord Curzon, recommended that a peace-time codebreaking agency should be created; the Government Code and Cypher School was the first peace-time codebreaking agency, with a public function "to advise as to the security of codes and cyphers used by all Government departments and to assist in their provision", but with a secret directive to "study the methods of cypher communications used by foreign powers". GC&CS formed on 1 November 1919, produced its first decrypt on 19 October. By 1940, GC&CS was working on the diplomatic codes and ciphers of 26 countries, tackling over 150 diplomatic cryptosystems.

The US Cipher Bureau was established in 1919 and achieved some success at the Washington Naval Conference in 1921, through cryptanalysis by Herbert Yardley. Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson closed the US Cipher Bureau in 1929 with the words "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail." The use of SIGINT had greater implications during World War II. The combined effort of intercept


Dihya or Kahina was a Berber warrior queen and a religious and military leader who led indigenous resistance to the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, the region known as Numidia. She was born in the early 7th century and died around the end of the 7th century in modern-day Algeria, her personal name is one of these variations: Daya, Dihya, Dahya or Damya. Her title was cited by Arabic-language sources as al-Kāhina; this was the nickname given to by her Muslim opponents because of her alleged ability to foresee the future. She was born into the Jrāwa Zenata tribe in the early 7th century. For five years she ruled a free Berber state from the Aurès Mountains to the oasis of Gadames, but the Arabs, commanded by Musa bin Nusayr, defeated her. She fought at the El Djem Roman amphitheater but was killed in combat near a well that still bears her name, Bir al Kahina in Aures. Accounts from the 19th century on, claim she was of Jewish religion or that her tribe were Judaized Berbers. According to al-Mālikī, she was accompanied in her travels by an "idol".

Both Mohamed Talbi and Gabriel Camps interpreted this idol as a Christian icon, either of Christ, the Virgin, or a saint protecting the queen. M'hamed Hassine Fantar held that this icon represented a separate Berber deity, thus made Dihya a pagan. However, Dihya being a Christian remains the most hypothesis; the idea that the Jarawa were Judaized comes from the medieval historian Ibn Khaldun, who named them among seven Berber tribes. Hirschberg and Talbi note that Ibn Khaldun seems to have been referring to a time before the advent of the late Roman and Byzantine empires, a little in the same paragraph seems to say that by Roman times "the tribes" had become Christianized; as early as 1963, the Israeli historian H. Z. Hirschberg, in retranslating the text of Ibn Khaldun and rigorously repeating the whole document, questioned this interpretation, in general the existence of large Jewish Berber tribes in the end of Antiquity. In the words of H. Z. Hirschberg, "of all the known movements of conversion to Judaism and incidents of Judaizing, those connected with the Berbers and Sudanese in Africa are the least authenticated.

Whatever has been written on them is questionable."Over four centuries after her death, Tunisian hagiographer al-Mālikī seems to have been among the first to state she resided in the Aurès Mountains. Just seven centuries after her death, the pilgrim at-Tijani was told she belonged to the Lūwāta tribe; when the historian Ibn Khaldun came to write his account, he placed her with the Jarawa tribe. According to various Muslim sources, al-Kāhinat was the daughter of Tabat; these sources depend on tribal genealogies, which were concocted for political reasons during the 9th century. Ibn Khaldun records many legends about Dihyā. A number of them refer to both legendary characteristics of sorcerers, she is supposed to have had the gift of prophecy and she had three sons, characteristic of witches in legends. The fact that two were her own and one was adopted was an alleged trait of sorcerers in tales. Another legend claims that in her youth, she had freed her people from a tyrant by agreeing to marry him and murdering him on their wedding night.

Nothing else of her personal life is known. Dihya succeeded Kusaila as the war leader of the Berber tribes in the 680s and opposed the encroaching Arab Islamic armies of the Umayyad Dynasty. Hasan ibn al-Nu'man marched from Egypt and captured the major Byzantine city of Carthage and other cities. Searching for another enemy to defeat, he was told that the most powerful monarch in North Africa was "the Queen of the Berbers" Dihyā, accordingly marched into Numidia. In 698, the armies met near Meskiana in the present-day province of Oum el-Bouaghi at the Battle of Meskiana in Algeria, she defeated Hasan so soundly that he fled Ifriqiya and holed up in Cyrenaica for four or five years. Realizing that the enemy was too powerful and bound to return, she was said to have embarked on a scorched earth campaign, which had little impact on the mountain and desert tribes, but lost her the crucial support of the sedentary oasis-dwellers. Instead of discouraging the Arab armies, her desperate decision hastened defeat.

The story of the Kahina is told by a variety of cultures, each story offers a different, or contradictory, perspective. For example, the story is used to promote feminist beliefs. Additionally, it is told by Arabs to promote their own nationalism. For the Arabs, they told the story in a perspective that made the Kahina seem like a sorcerer, all in an attempt to discredit her; some Arab historians took it farther by saying that the Kahina tried to have her sons adopt Islam as their religion. Another group that told the story of the Kahina was the French; the story of the Kahina was told to paint colonialism in a positive light. The story was told with a message saying. Another, lesser known account of Dihyā claimed that she had an interest in early studies of desert birds. While this view may or may not be plausible, some evidence has been recovered at the site of her death place, modern-day Algeria. Several fragments of early parchment with a painting of a bird on them were found, although there's no way to conclude the fragments were hers.

However, it is possible that she began her interest while in Libya, as the painting was of a Libyan bird species. Hasan returned and, aided by communications with the captured officer "Khalid bin Y

Liturgy of Saint Cyril

The Liturgy of Saint Cyril is one of the three Anaphoras used at present by the Coptic Orthodox Church and it retains the liturgical peculiarities which have originated in the early Christian Egypt, thus forming the core of the historical Alexandrian Rite. When reference is made to its Greek version, this text is known as Liturgy of Saint Mark; this liturgy can be used at present by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, as well as by the Coptic Catholic Church, during the Lent time or in the month of Koiak, but its prolongation and particular melodies makes its use uncommon today. This text does not cover the whole Divine Liturgy, extending only from the pre-anaphorical rites to the distribution of the Communion, thus including the anaphora in the strict sense of the word; the Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil is used for the remaining part of the service. In the Byzantine Rite, the Liturgy of Saint Mark, as transmitted by the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, is used in a few places each year on the feast day of Saint Mark by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, which authorized it in 2007.

According to liturgical tradition, Christianity was brought in Alexandria in Egypt by Saint Mark. The town acquired importance as a center of church government and Christian theology with its Catechetical School; the liturgical uses that developed locally are known as the Alexandrian Rite, the texts used for the celebration of the Eucharist are known as the Liturgy of Saint Mark. The lingua franca of the Western world in the early centuries of Christianity was the Koine Greek, the Liturgy of Saint Mark was in such a language; the translation of this liturgy in Coptic, used by most of Egyptian population at that time, is attributed to Saint Cyril of Alexandria in the first half of the 5th century. Thus the Greek version of this liturgy is known as Liturgy of Saint Mark, while its Coptic version is called Liturgy of Saint Cyril if the formal name of the latter is "the Anaphora of our holy father Mark the Apostle, which the thrice-blessed Saint Cyril the Archbishop established"; the oldest survived complete manuscripts of both the Liturgy of Saint Mark and of Saint Cyril date from the High Middle Ages.

From the 5th century to the High Middle Ages both versions developed on parallel and mutually interconnected lines, with reciprocal translations and with most of the additions added to both of them. Both versions have some own peculiar material; the use of the Liturgy of Saint Mark by the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria was blamed by the Patriarch of Antioch and canonist Theodore Balsamon at the beginning of the 13th century. The first millennium witnesses of the early stages of this liturgy are the following fragments: the Strasbourg papyrus, written in the 4th or 5th century, includes the first part of the preface, with the paraphrase of Malachi 1:11 followed by some short intercessions and it ends with a doxology. Scholars disagree on; the John Rylands parchment 465, written in Greek in the 6th century and badly conserved, includes the text from the first epiclesis up to the end of the anaphora. The British Museum Tablet, written in Coptic in the 8th century, includes the text from the first epiclesis up to the second epiclesis.

Some Sahidic Coptic fragments. Other ancient texts which belong to the Alexandrian Rite are important in the study of the development of the Liturgy of Saint Mark: the Anaphora of Serapion is the earlier witness of some ancient material, the Anaphora of Barcelona and the Deir Balyzeh Papyrus are different developments based on the same material, the Cathecheses of Cyril of Jerusalem are useful to trace the relationship with the Liturgy of St. James; the earlier manuscripts of the Liturgy of Saint Cyril date from the 12th century and are in Bohairic Coptic. It is not known whether they derive directly through lost Sahidic versions; these manuscripts include some additions not found in the Liturgy of Saint Mark in Greek, but in general their readings are closer to the first millennium fragments than those of the Greek version. The earlier manuscripts of the Liturgy of Saint Mark are: the Codex Rossanensis, the Rotulus Vaticanus, the incomplete Rotulus Messanensis. Another witness is the lost manuscript of the library of the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, copied in 1585–6 by Patriarch Meletius Pegas.

The Rotulus Vaticanus, more the text copied by Pegas, show a progress in the process of assimilation to Byzantine usages. The anaphora of Saint Mark found in the High Middle Ages manuscripts shows all the typical peculiarities of the Alexandrine Rite, such as a long Preface which includes an offering and followed by the intercessions, two epiclesis, the absence of the Benedictus in the Sanctus; the structure of the anaphora can be so summarized: the Opening Dialogue, the preface, composed by: praises to the Father for the creation of heaven and earth, the sea and all, in them, followed by praises to Christ, a first Oblation, offering the reasonable sacrifice and the bloodless worship, followed by a paraphrase of Malachi 1:11, Intercessions section, composed by: lengthy prayers for the Church, the livings, the deaths, making memory of Saint Mark and of Mary, followed by the diptychs, a second Oblation, requesting that the offerings are received in the heavenly altar as were the sacrifices of Abel and Abraham, additional intercessions for the livings, including the names of the current Pope of Alexandria and bishop, a well