Mårten Eskil Winge
Mårten Eskil Winge was a Swedish artist. He was a professor at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, he was associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting. His art was influenced by the Norse mythology themes found in works by Nils Blommér and Carl Wahlbom. Born in Stockholm, Mårten Eskil Winge was the son of the rector and vicar Isaac Martin Winge and Andrietta Sophia Rothman. Winge was educated at the Uppsala Cathedral School, passing his studentexamen in 1846, after which he became an apprentice in painting with P. E. Wallander in Stockholm; the following year, he enrolled in the Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts. While studying there, he painted portraits for additional income, he had become interested in the Old Norse sagas while growing up, during his studies his elaborate drawings on Norse topics attracted attention. Among other things, he illustrated Nordens Guder by Danish poet and playwright Adam Oehlenschläger and Crown Prince Charles's poems Fosterbröderna Heidi, Gylfes dotter and En vikingasaga.
He was attracted to Gothicismus, the movement in Sweden under the influence of national romanticism to reclaim the Norsemen as heroic ancestors. In 1856 Winge became a student of Johan Christoffer Boklund in the newly established school of painting at the Royal Swedish Academy; the following year he received a Royal Medal for his painting of King Charles X at the death bed of Axel Oxenstierna, received a three-year stipend that enabled him to take a field trip by way of Düsseldorf to Paris, where he studied with Thomas Couture and where he visited the Louvre to copy Peter Paul Rubens' The Wise Men in Bethlehem. The stipend was extended for a further three years, in 1859 he made a trip to Rome before returning to Sweden in 1863. In 1864 Winge became a member of the Academy of Arts and after various jobs as a drawing teacher, a professor. In 1865 he opened a school of painting in his studio and in 1877 he returned to Italy. Rome gave him inspiration. Winge created several paintings on Norse legendary and mythological topics in the 1860s, which attracted much interest and approval.
For the first after his return to Sweden, Hjalmar's farewell to Örvar-Oddr after the Battle of Samsø, Charles XV, now king, assisted with the landscape. His Thor's Fight with the Giants, deemed a "typical 19th-century image of the Thunder God", was commissioned and bought by Charles XV, who bought Kraka, it is in the collection of the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm, where Winge painted eight of the portraits of artists for the ceiling. Beginning in the 1870s, he was commissioned to produce altarpieces for several churches, he painted decorations for the Bolinderska palatse and for Kulla Gunnarstorp Castle in Scania. In his last years he made several paintings of waves breaking on the sea shore. In 1867, he married née Tengelin, she was a genre co-founder of a craftsmen's association, Friends of Handicraft. He died during 1896 in Enköping. Från vår konstverld Public domain text in Swedish
Poetic Edda is the modern attribution for an unnamed collection of Old Norse anonymous poems, different from the Edda written by Snorri Sturluson. Several versions exist, all of text from the Icelandic medieval manuscript known as the Codex Regius; the Codex Regius is arguably the most important extant source on Norse mythology and Germanic heroic legends. From the early 19th century onwards, it has had a powerful influence on Scandinavian literatures. Not only by its stories, but by the visionary force and the dramatic quality of many of the poems, it has become an inspiring model for many innovations in poetic meter in Nordic languages, offering many varied examples of terse, stress-based metrical schemes that lack any final rhyme by instead using alliterative devices and strongly-concentrated imagery. Poets who have acknowledged their debt to the Codex Regius include Vilhelm Ekelund, August Strindberg, J. R. R. Tolkien, Ezra Pound, Jorge Luis Borges, Karin Boye. Codex Regius was written in the 13th century, but nothing is known of its whereabouts until 1643, when it came into the possession of Brynjólfur Sveinsson Bishop of Skálholt.
At the time, versions of the Edda were known in Iceland, but scholars speculated that there once was another Edda, an Elder Edda, which contained the pagan poems that Snorri quotes in his Edda. When Codex Regius was discovered, it seemed that the speculation had proved, but modern scholarly research has shown that Edda was written first and the two were, at most, connected by a common source. Brynjólfur attributed the manuscript to Sæmundr the Learned, a larger-than-life 12th century Icelandic priest; that attribution is rejected by modern scholars, but the name Sæmundar Edda is still sometimes associated with both the "Codex Regius" and versions of "Poetic Edda" using it as a source. Bishop Brynjólfur sent Codex Regius as a present to the Danish king. For centuries, it was stored in the Royal Library in Copenhagen but in 1971, it was returned to Iceland; the Eddic poems are composed in alliterative verse. Most are in fornyrðislag; the rest, about a quarter, are composed in ljóðaháttr. The language of the poems is clear and unadorned.
Kennings are employed, though they do not arise as nor are they as complex, as those found in skaldic poetry. Like most early poetry, the Eddic poems were minstrel poems, passing orally from singer to singer and from poet to poet for centuries. None of the poems are attributed to a particular author, though many of them show strong individual characteristics and are to have been the work of individual poets. Scholars sometimes speculate on hypothetical authors, but firm and accepted conclusions have never been reached; the dating of the poems has been a source of lively scholarly argument for a long time, firm conclusions are hard to reach. Lines from the Eddic poems sometimes appear in poems by known poets, but such evidence is difficult to evaluate. For example, Eyvindr skáldaspillir composed in the latter half of the 10th century, he uses a couple of lines in his Hákonarmál which are found in Hávamál, it is possible that he was quoting a known poem, but it is possible that Hávamál, or at least the strophe in question, is the younger derivative work.
The few demonstrably historical characters mentioned in the poems, such as Attila, provide a terminus post quem of sorts. The dating of the manuscripts themselves provides a more useful terminus ante quem. Individual poems have individual clues to their age. For example, Atlamál hin groenlenzku is claimed by its title to have been composed in Greenland, seems so by some internal evidence. If so, it can be no earlier than about 985, since there were no Scandinavians in Greenland until that time. In some cases, old poems may have been merged with other poems. For example, stanzas 9-16 of Völuspá, the "Dvergatal" or "Roster of Dwarfs", is considered by some scholars to be an interpolation; the problem of dating the poems is linked with the problem of finding out. Iceland was not settled until about 870, so anything composed before that time would have been elsewhere, most in Scandinavia. Any young poems, on the other hand, are Icelandic in origin. Scholars have attempted to localize individual poems by studying the geography and fauna to which they refer.
This approach does not yield firm results. For example, there are no wolves in Iceland, but we can be sure that Icelandic poets were familiar with the species; the apocalyptic descriptions of Völuspá have been taken as evidence that the poet who composed it had seen a volcanic eruption in Iceland - but this is hardly certain. Some poems similar to those found in Codex Regius are included in some editions of the Poetic Edda. Important manuscripts include AM 748 I Hauksbók and Flateyjarbók. Many of the poems are quoted in Snorri's Edda, but only in bits and pieces. What poems are included in an edition of the Poetic Edda depends on the editor; those not in Codex Regius are sometimes called Eddica minora, from their appearance in an edition with that title edited by Andreas Heusler and Wilhelm Ranisch in 1903. English translators are not consistent on the translations of the names of the Eddic poems or on how the Old Norse forms should be rendered in English. Up to three translated titles are given below, taken from the translations of Bellows and Larrington with proper names in the normalized English forms found in John Lindow's Norse Mythology and in Andy Orchard's Cassell's Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend.
Oxford World's Classics
Oxford World's Classics is an imprint of Oxford University Press. First established in 1901 by Grant Richards and purchased by the Oxford University Press in 1906, this imprint publishes dramatic and classic literature for students and the general public, its competitors include Penguin Classics, Everyman's Library, the Modern Library. Most titles include critical apparatus – an introduction, bibliography and explanatory notes – as is the case with Penguin Classics; the World's Classics imprint was created by London publisher Grant Richards in 1901. Richards had an'ambitious publishing programme', this ambition led to the liquidation of Grant Richards in 1905. Henry Frowde, manager of the Oxford University Press, purchased the series in October 1905; the Oxford World's Classics were classed as "the most famous works of the English Language" and many volumes contained introductions by distinguished authors, viz. T. S. Eliot and Virginia Woolf, amongst others; the books were marketed as a cheap and accessible series for the general public to read some of the greatest works of literature: “Cheaply and in little shelf space, the general reader can build up a library of those books, having become part of himself, he wishes now to make a part of his home.”World's Classics were first published as'pocket-sized hardbacks'.
In response to competition from Penguin, the series was relaunched in paperback format in 1980, with twenty-four initial titles. The World's Classics series was renamed in 1998 as Oxford World's Classics; the new series had a dark blue and off-white colour scheme, but this was changed to red and off-white after Penguin Books USA brought a lawsuit in 1998, which argued that the new covers were similar in design to theirs, constituting an infringement on their'trade dress' rights. A decade a major redesign of all titles was introduced. Many existing titles are reprints of texts established by the earlier Oxford English Novels series, with revisions to the critical material; some of these titles have since been updated with new introductions and notes by different editors, while retaining the original base text. For example, the Oxford World's Classics edition of Emma has been updated twice with new introductions by different editors since it was first published in the series in 1980, while retaining the base text established by James Kinsley.
Oxford English Drama editions offer a selection of plays, selected from an author's œuvre or as an anthology of plays linked by topic or theme. Renaissance and eighteenth-century plays have glossaries of archaic words appended, in addition to the usual array of critical material; the series' general editor is Michael Cordner of the University of York. Scholar Anne Barton praised the series as a'splendid and imaginative project', adding that it'should reshape the canon in a number of significant areas'. Major Works are mini-anthologies of selected correspondence. For example, the Major Works edition of Alexander Pope includes the major poems like The Rape of the Lock and The Dunciad, alongside prose essays like Peri Bathous, an excerpt of his translation of Homer; some editions include whole novels as well. Most titles are reprints of volumes from an earlier Oxford series, Oxford Authors under the general editorship of Frank Kermode. Penguin Classics Western canon Classic book List of Radical Thinkers releases European website United States website "The WORLD'S CLASSICS" and "OXFORD WORLD'S CLASSICS": A Guide to the Clothbound Editions.
Compiled by J. Godsey, Geoffrey Milburn and Nicholas Murray. Draft. Western University, 16 April 2010. Archived here. Lise Jaillant,"‘Introductions by Eminent Writers’: T. S. Eliot and Virginia Woolf in the Oxford World’s Classics Series." The Book World: Selling and Distributing Literature, 1900–1940, ed. Nicola Wilson, pp. 52–80
W. G. Collingwood
William Gershom Collingwood was an English author, artist and professor of Fine Arts at University College, Reading. His father William, was a watercolour artist, had married Marie Eliabeth Imhoff of Arbon, Switzerland in 1851. Soon young William was sketching with his father in the Lakes, North Wales, Switzerland. In 1872, he went to University College, where he met John Ruskin. During the summer of 1873 Collingwood visited Ruskin at Coniston. Two years Collingwood was working at Brantwood with Ruskin and his associates. Ruskin admired his draughtsmanship, so Collingwood studied at the Slade School of Art between 1876 and 1878, he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1880. For many years Collingwood dedicated himself to helping Ruskin, staying at Brantwood as Ruskin's assistant and travelling with him to Switzerland. In 1883 he settled near to Ruskin in the Lake District. Collingwood edited a number of Ruskin's texts and published a biography of Ruskin in 1893. In 1896, Arthur Ransome met the Collingwoods and their children, Barbara and Robin.
Ransome learned to sail in Collingwood's boat and became a firm friend of the family proposing marriage to both Dora and Barbara. After a summer of teaching Collingwood's grandchildren to sail in Swallow II in 1928, Ransome wrote the first book in his Swallows and Amazons series of books, he used the names of some of Collingwood's grandchildren for the Swallows. By the 1890s Collingwood had become a skilled painter and joined the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, he wrote a large number of papers for its Transactions. Collingwood was interested in Norse lore and the Norsemen, he wrote a novel, Thorstein of the Mere, a major influence on Arthur Ransome. In 1897, Collingwood travelled to Iceland where he spent three months over the summer exploring with Jón Stefánsson the sites around the country in which the medieval Icelandic sagas are set, he produced hundreds of sketches and watercolours during this time, published, with Stefánsson, an illustrated account of their expedition in 1899 under the title A Pilgrimage to the Saga-steads of Iceland.
Collingwood served as its president. In 1902 he co-authored again with Jón Stefánsson the first translation it published, a translation of Kormáks saga entitled, The Life and Death of Kormac the Skald, his study of Norse and Anglican archaeology made him recognised as a leading authority. Following Ruskin's death Collingwood continued to help for a while with secretarial work at Brantwood, but in 1905 went to University College and served as professor of fine art from 1907 until 1911. Collingwood joined the Admiralty intelligence division at the outbreak of the First World War. In 1919, he returned to Coniston and continued his writing with a history of the Lake District and his most important work, Northumbrian Crosses of the pre-Norman Age, he was a great climber and swimmer, a tireless walker into advanced age. In 1927 he experienced the first of a series of strokes, his wife died in 1928, followed by Collingwood himself in 1932. He was buried in Coniston. Following the Armistice of 1918, the peace treaty of 1919, Collingwood's services were much in demand as a designer of War Memorials.
His knowledge of and enthusiasm for Scandinavian crosses is displayed at Grasmere where the memorial on Broadgate Meadows is a pastiche of an Anglian cross. The short verse at its base was penned by his close friend Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley, chair of the memorial committee. Other examples of his Celtic type memorial crosses may be seen at Otley and the K Shoes factory in Kendal; that at Hawkshead was sculpted by Barbara. Other memorials designed by Collingwood may be seen at St Bees and Lastingham, his diary for 1919–20, held in the Abbot Hall Art Gallery, contains brief allusions to other possible memorials. Collingwood founded the Ruskin Museum in Coniston in 1901, it holds material related to Collingwood. However the archive of family papers, the Collingwood Collection, is now held at the Special Collections and Archives department of the Cardiff University Library; the largest part of Collingwood's paintings of Iceland are held in the National Museum in Reykjavik: other locations include Abbot Hall Art Gallery.
Collingwood's most lasting legacy was his influence on his son R. G. Collingwood, the famous philosopher and historian. James S. Dearden, ‘Collingwood, William Gershom ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004. Retrieved 6 February 2015. W. G. Collingwood, The Lake Counties, J. M. Dent, 1930. F. Warne & Co. 1932. W. G. Collingwood, The Life of John Ruskin. M. Townend, The Vikings and Victorian Lakeland: The Norse medievalism of W G Collingwood and his contemporaries, CWAAS Extra Series Vol XXXIV 2009. ISBN 978-1-873124-49-9. "W. G. Collingwood's Letters from Iceland", Edited by Mike and Kate Lea, RG Collingwood Society 2013, ISBN 978-0-954674-01-4. Works by W. G. Collingwood at Project Gutenberg Works by or about W. G. Collingwood at Internet Archive Works by W. G. Collingwood at LibriVox Three watercolours by W G Colli
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic peoples, stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia, into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period. The northernmost extension of Germanic mythology, Norse mythology consists of tales of various deities and heroes derived from numerous sources from both before and after the pagan period, including medieval manuscripts, archaeological representations, folk tradition; the source texts mention numerous gods, such as the hammer-wielding, humanity-protecting thunder-god Thor, who relentlessly fights his foes. Most of the surviving mythology centres on the plights of the gods and their interaction with various other beings, such as humanity and the jötnar, beings who may be friends, foes or family members of the gods; the cosmos in Norse mythology consists of Nine Worlds that flank Yggdrasil. Units of time and elements of the cosmology are personified as beings. Various forms of a creation myth are recounted, where the world is created from the flesh of the primordial being Ymir, the first two humans are Ask and Embla.
These worlds are foretold to be reborn after the events of Ragnarök when an immense battle occurs between the gods and their enemies, the world is enveloped in flames, only to be reborn anew. There the surviving gods will meet, the land will be fertile and green, two humans will repopulate the world. Norse mythology has been the subject of scholarly discourse since the 17th century, when key texts were brought to the attention of the intellectual circles of Europe. By way of comparative mythology and historical linguistics, scholars have identified elements of Germanic mythology reaching as far back as Proto-Indo-European mythology. During the modern period, the Romanticist Viking revival re-awoke an interest in the subject matter, references to Norse mythology may now be found throughout modern popular culture; the myths have further been revived in a religious context among adherents of Germanic Neopaganism. The historical religion of the Norse people is referred to as Norse mythology. In certain literature the terms Scandinavian mythology or Nordic mythology have been used.
Norse mythology is attested in dialects of Old Norse, a North Germanic language spoken by the Scandinavian people during the European Middle Ages, the ancestor of modern Scandinavian languages. The majority of these Old Norse texts were created in Iceland, where the oral tradition stemming from the pre-Christian inhabitants of the island was collected and recorded in manuscripts; this occurred in the 13th century. These texts include the Prose Edda, composed in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, the Poetic Edda, a collection of poems from earlier traditional material anonymously compiled in the 13th century; the Prose Edda was composed as a prose manual for producing skaldic poetry—traditional Old Norse poetry composed by skalds. Composed and transmitted orally, skaldic poetry utilizes alliterative verse and various metrical forms; the Prose Edda presents numerous examples of works by various skalds from before and after the Christianization process and frequently refers back to the poems found in the Poetic Edda.
The Poetic Edda consists entirely of poems, with some prose narrative added, this poetry—Eddic poetry—utilizes fewer kennings. In comparison to skaldic poetry, Eddic poetry is unadorned; the Prose Edda features layers of euhemerization, a process in which deities and supernatural beings are presented as having been either actual, magic-wielding human beings who have been deified in time or beings demonized by way of Christian mythology. Texts such as Heimskringla, composed in the 13th century by Snorri and Gesta Danorum, composed in Latin by Saxo Grammaticus in Denmark in the 12th century, are the results of heavy amounts of euhemerization. Numerous further texts, such as the sagas, provide further information; the saga corpus consists of thousands of tales recorded in Old Norse ranging from Icelandic family histories to Migration period tales mentioning historic figures such as Attila the Hun. Objects and monuments such as the Rök Runestone and the Kvinneby amulet feature runic inscriptions—texts written in the runic alphabet, the indigenous alphabet of the Germanic peoples—that mention figures and events from Norse mythology.
Objects from the archaeological record may be interpreted as depictions of subjects from Norse mythology, such as amulets of the god Thor's hammer Mjölnir found among pagan burials and small silver female figures interpreted as valkyries or dísir, beings associated with war, fate or ancestor cults. By way of historical linguistics and comparative mythology, comparisons to other attested branches of Germanic mythology may lend insight. Wider comparisons to the
In Norse mythology, Ægir is a sea jötunn associated with the ocean. He is known for being a friend of the gods and hosting elaborate parties for them, he is the namesake for the exoplanet known as Epsilon Eridani b. Ægir's servants are Eldir. The Nafnaþulur attached to the Prose Edda list Ægir as a giant. Richard Cleasby and Guðbrandur Vigfússon saw his name as pre-Norse, derived from an ancient Indo-European root. Both Hversu Noregr byggðist and Snorri Sturluson in Skáldskaparmál state that Ægir is the same as the sea-giant Hlér, who lives on the Hlésey, this is borne out by kennings. Snorri uses his visiting the Æsir as the frame of that section of the Prose Edda. In Lokasenna, Ægir hosts a party for the gods where he provides the ale brewed in an enormous pot or cauldron provided by Thor and Týr; the story of their obtaining the pot from the giant Hymir is told in Hymiskviða. The prose introduction to Lokasenna and Snorri's list of kennings state that Ægir is known as Gymir, Gerðr's father, but this is evidently an erroneous interpretation of kennings in which different giant-names are used interchangeably.
According to Fundinn Noregr, Ægir is a son of the giant Fornjótr, the king of "Jotlandi, Kvænlandi and Finnlandi", brother of Logi and Kári.Ægir's wife is Rán. She is mother of the Nine Daughters of Ægir. Ler Trent Aegir Cleasby, Richard, Guðbrandur Vigfússon. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd ed. with supplement by William A. Craigie. Clarendon Press. Repr. 1975. ISBN 9780198631033 de Vries, Jan. Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte Volume 1. 2nd ed. Berlin: de Gruyter. Repr. 1970. Faulkes, Anthony. Snorri Sturluson. Edda. Everyman Classics. Repr. 1998. ISBN 0-460-87616-3. Lindow, John. Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes and Beliefs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515382-0 Simek, Rudolf. Dictionary of Northern Mythology, tr. Angela Hall. Cambridge: Brewer. Repr. 2000. ISBN 0-85991-513-1
Snake venom is modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitates the immobilization and digestion of prey, defense against threats. It is injected by unique fangs after a bite, some species are able to spit their venom; the glands that secrete the zootoxins are a modification of the parotid salivary gland found in other vertebrates, are situated on each side of the head and behind the eye, encapsulated in a muscular sheath. The glands have large alveoli in which the synthesized venom is stored before being conveyed by a duct to the base of channeled or tubular fangs through which it is ejected. Venoms contain more than 20 different compounds proteins and polypeptides. A complex mixture of proteins and various other substances with toxic and lethal properties serves to immobilize the prey animal, enzymes play an important role in the digestion of prey, various other substances are responsible for important but non-lethal biological effects; some of the proteins in snake venom have specific effects on various biological functions including blood coagulation, blood pressure regulation, transmission of the nervous or muscular impulse, have been developed for use as pharmacological or diagnostic tools, useful drugs.
Charles Lucien Bonaparte, the son of Lucien Bonaparte, younger brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, was the first to establish the proteinaceous nature of snake venom in 1843. Proteins constitute 90-95% of venom's dry weight and they are responsible for all of its biological effects. Among hundreds thousands of proteins found in venom, there are toxins, neurotoxins in particular, as well as nontoxic proteins, many enzymes hydrolytic ones. Enzymes make-up 80-90% of viperid and 25-70% of elapid venoms: digestive hydrolases, L-amino acid oxidase, thrombin-like pro-coagulant, kallikrein-like serine proteases and metalloproteinases, which damage vascular endothelium. Polypeptide toxins include cytotoxins and postsynaptic neurotoxins, which bind to acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions. Compounds with low molecular weight include metals, lipids, carbohydrates and oligopeptides, which inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme and potentiate bradykinin. Inter - and intra-species variation in venom chemical composition is ontogenic.
Phosphodiesterases interfere with the prey's cardiac system to lower the blood pressure. Phospholipase A2 causes hemolysis by lysing the phospholipid cell membranes of red blood cells. Amino acid oxidases and proteases are used for digestion. Amino acid oxidase triggers some other enzymes and is responsible for the yellow colour of the venom of some species. Hyaluronidase increases tissue permeability to accelerate absorption of other enzymes into tissues; some snake venoms carry fasciculins, like the mambas, which inhibit cholinesterase to make the prey lose muscle control. Snake toxins vary in their functions. Two broad classes of toxins found in snake venoms are hemotoxins. However, there are exceptions — the venom of the black-necked spitting cobra, an elapid, consists of cytotoxins, while that of the Mojave rattlesnake, a viperid, is neurotoxic. There are numerous other types of toxin which both viperids may carry; the beginning of a new impulse: A) An exchange of ions across the nerve cell membrane sends a depolarizing current towards the end of the nerve cell.
B) When the depolarizing current arrives at the nerve cell terminus, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, held in vesicles, is released into the space between the two nerves. It moves across the synapse to the postsynaptic receptors. C) ACh binds to the receptors and transfers the signal to the target cell, after a short time it is destroyed by acetylcholinesterase. Fasciculins: These toxins attack cholinergic neurons by destroying acetylcholinesterase. ACh therefore stays in the receptor; this causes tetany. The toxins have been called fasciculins since after injection into mice, they cause severe and long-lasting fasciculations. Snake example: found in the venom of mambas and some rattlesnakes Dendrotoxins: Dendrotoxins inhibit neurotransmissions by blocking the exchange of positive and negative ions across the neuronal membrane lead to no nerve impulse, thereby paralyzing the nerves. Snake example: mambas α-neurotoxins: Alpha-neurotoxins are a large group, with over 100 postsynaptic neurotoxins having been identified and sequenced.
Α-neurotoxins attack the Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of cholinergic neurons. They mimic the shape of the acetylcholine molecule and therefore fit into the receptors → they block the ACh flow → feeling of numbness and paralysis. Snake examples: king cobra, sea snakes, many-banded krait, cobras Phospholipases: Phospholipase is an enzyme that transforms the phospholipid molecule into a lysophospholipid ==> the new molecule attracts and binds fat and ruptures cell membranes. Snake example: Okinawan habu Cardiotoxin