Namdev transliterated as Nam Dayv, Namadeva, was an Indian poet and saint from Maharashtra, India, significant to the Varkari sect of Hinduism. Bhagat Namdev's writings were recognized by the "Gurus" of Sikhism and are included in the holy book of Sikhism, the Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Namdev worship lord Vitthal, one of the name of lord Vishnu. Other Hindu warrior-ascetic traditions such as the Dadupanthis and the Niranjani Sampraday that emerged in north India during the Islamic rule; the details of Namdev's life are unclear. He is the subject of many miracle-filled hagiographies composed centuries. Scholars find these biographies to be contradictory. Namdev was influenced by Vaishnavism, became known in India for his devotional songs set to music, his philosophy contains saguna Brahman elements, with monistic themes. Namdev's legacy is remembered in modern times in the Varkari tradition, along with those of other gurus, with masses of people walking together in biannual pilgrimages to Pandharpur in south Maharashtra.
Details of the life of Namdev are vague. He is traditionally believed to have lived between 1270 and 1350 but S. B. Kulkarni — according to Christian Novetzke, "one of the most prominent voices in the historical study of Maharashtrian sant figures" — has suggested that 1207-1287 is more based on textual analysis; some scholars date him to around 1425 and another, R. Bharadvaj, proposes 1309-1372. Namdev was married to Rajai and had a son, both of whom wrote about him, as did his mother, Gonai. Contemporary references to him by a disciple, a potter, a guru and other close associates exist. There are no references to him in the records and inscriptions of the then-ruling family and the first non-Varkari noting of him appears to be in the Lilacaritra, a Mahanubhava-sect biography dating from 1278. Smrtisthala, a Mahanubhava text from around 1310, may possibly refer to him. According to Mahipati, a hagiographer of the 18th century, Namdev's parents were Damashet and Gonai, a childless elderly couple whose prayers for parenthood were answered and involved him being found floating down a river.
As with various other details of his life, elements such as this may have been invented to sidestep issues that might have caused controversy. In this instance, the potential controversy was that of caste or, more his position in the Hindu varna system of ritual ranking, he was born into what is recognised as a Shudra caste, variously recorded as shimpi in the Marathi language and as Chhipa, Chhimpa,Chhimba,chimpi in northern India. Shudra is the lowest-ranked of the four varnas and those of his followers in Maharashtra and northern India who are from those communities prefer to consider their place, thus his, as the higher-status Kshatriya rank. There are contrary traditions concerning his birthplace, with some people believing that he was born at Narsi Bahmani, on the Krishna River in Marathwada, others preferring somewhere near to Pandharpur on the Bhima river; that he was himself tailor and that he spent much of his life in Punjab. The Lilacaritra suggests, that Namdev was a cattle-thief, devoted to and assisted Vithoba.
A friendship between Namdev and Jñāneśvar, a yogi-saint, has been posited at least as far back as circa 1600 CE when Nabhadas, a hagiographer, noted it in his Bhaktamal. Jñāneśvar known as Jñāndev, never referred to Namdev in his writings but had no cause to do so; such men, who comprised both Hindus and Muslims, traditionally wrote devotional poetry in a style, acceptable to the Sikh belief system. A tradition in Maharashtra is that Namdev died at the age of eighty in 1350 CE. Sikh tradition maintains that his death place was the Punjabi village of Ghuman, although this is not universally accepted. Aside from a shrine there that marks his death, there are monuments at the other claimant places, being Pandharpur and the nearby Narsi Bahmani. Scholars note that many miracles and specifics about Namdev's life appear only in manuscripts written centuries after Namdev's death; the birth theory with Namdev floating down a river, is first found in Mahipati's Bhaktavijay composed around 1762, is absent in all earlier biographies of Namdev.
Mahipati's biography of Namdev adds numerous other miracles, such as buildings rotating and sun rising in the west to show respect to Namdev. The earliest surviving Hindi and Rajasthani biographies from about 1600 only mention a few miracles performed by Namdev. In Namdev biographies published after 1600 through the end of the 20th century, new life details and more miracles appear with the passage of time; the earliest biographies never mention the caste of Namdev, his caste appears for the first time in manuscripts with statements from Ravidas and Dhana in early 17th century. Namdev's Immaculate Conception miracle mentioned in era manuscripts, adds Novetzke, is a story found for other sants in India; the Namdev biographies in medieval manuscripts are inconsistent and contradictory, feeding questions of their reliability. The literary works of Namdev were influenced by a belief in Vithoba. Along with the Jñānēśvarī, a sacred wor
Guru Maneyo Granth
"Guru Maneyo Granth" refers to the historic statement of the 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, shortly before his demise, on affirming the sacred scripture Adi Granth as his successor, thus terminating the line of human Gurus. Installed as the Guru Granth Sahib, it is now the central holy scripture of Sikhism, the eternal living Guru of all Sikhs, it is central to Sikh worship as it is said to imbibe the one light of the creator manifested in the Ten Sikh Gurus - one spirit in ten forms. The event in 1708 at Nanded, when Guru Gobind Singh installed Adi Granth as the Guru of Sikhism, was recorded in a Bhatt Vahi by an eyewitness, Narbud Singh, is now celebrated as Gurgaddi, statement is part of the central chant, Sabh Sikhan ko Hukam Hai, Guru Maneyo Granth. October 2008 marked the Tercentenary year of Guruship of Guru Granth Sahib and was marked by major celebrations by Sikhs worldwide, at Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, Nanded saw year-long celebrations; the composition of the sacred Granth contains renderings of the Hymns of 5 Sikh Gurus of the Sikh faith along with 15 Bhagats, 11 Bhatts and 3 Gursikhs.
It was composed in this form in the year 1604 with the addition of Guru Tegh Bahadur's Bani. Its blessings are sought by the true seeker with a devout heart; the Sikh religion sincerely believes that in each of the succeeding Gurus the spirit, the light of God which manifested in Guru Nanak Dev was operating and passed onto the next Sikh Guru. Guru Ram Das says in the Siri Guru Granth Sahib: Waho Waho Satgur Nirankar Hai, Jis Ant Na Paravar - The Lord descends in this world in the form of The Satguru, but only some rare soul/devotee is able to recognise him; the sacred Granth is installed in all Sikh holy places of worship and treated as the presiding presence of the Guru, an embodiment of Divine Truth. The devotees of the Sangat or congregation gather in solemn assembly to pray and seek the blessings of the Supreme; this comes through in the mystical wisdom contained within the words of Gurbani and it stands for realization of the Truth. The Gurus' word, known as'shabad' is taken as the mystic experience of the Guru.
In the words of Bhai Gurdas, a great scholar of the Guru's time, "In the word is the Guru, the Guru is in the word. In other words, the human body was not the Guru, but the light of the word within the heart was their real personality." When the human mind dives deeper and deeper into the Guru's word, all mental impurities depart and the wisdom of the Guru permeates the human soul. Thereby the devotee attains the divine light and wisdom which leads him to contemplate and meditate on God's name. In the light of the above realities, the Sikh religion makes the holy Granth the living master of the Sikh Panth. Before Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru left his human body, he conferred the Guruship to the, he delivered a self-composed hymn: Agya bhai Akal ki tabhi chalayo Panth. Sabh Sikhan ko hukam hai Guru manyo Granth. Guru Granth Ji manyo pargat Guran ki deh. Jo Prabhu ko milo chahe khoj shabad mein le. Raj karega Khalsa aqi rahei na koe, Khwar hoe sabh milange bache sharan jo hoe." Translation:"Under orders of the Immortal Being, the Panth was created.
All Sikhs are enjoined to accept the Granth as their Guru. Consider the Guru Granth as an embodiment of the Gurus; those who want to meet God, can find Him in its hymns. The pure Khalsa shall rule, the impures will be left no more, Those separated will unite and all the devotees of the Guru shall be saved." He offered his obeisance to the sacred Granth thus conveying his Light to it. This historic development took place in Oct. 1708 which ensured that the order of the Khalsa brotherhood always remained an abiding force for Sikh Panth unity. The Guru Granth Sahib begins with the Mul Mantar, an iconic verse created by Nanak: Punjabi: ੴਸਤਿਨਾਮੁਕਰਤਾਪੁਰਖੁਨਿਰਭਉਨਿਰਵੈਰੁਅਕਾਲਮੂਰਤਿਅਜੂਨੀਸੈਭੰਗੁਰਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ॥ ISO 15919 transliteration: Ika ōaṅkāra sati nāmu karatā purakhu nirabha'u niravairu akāla mūrati ajūnī saibhaṅ gura prasādi jap ade sache jugade sache, haibhi sach, Nanake hosee bhee sache' Simplified transliteration: Ik ōaṅkār sat nām kartā purkh nirbha'u nirvair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhaṅ gur prasād jap, aad sach, jugad sach, hai bhee sach, Nanak hosi bhee sach.
Historical events have brought out that when Guru Nanak Dev appeared before the Supreme Lord, he himself presented to him a cup of God's name, known as Amrita to propagate in his subjects. Guru Nanak Dev received the Mul Mantar in his divine consciousness which defines the fundamental directive spiritual philosophy of Sikhism, it appears in the beginning of Sri Granth Sahib, ahead of Japji. It is composed of two elements – the figure ek and logo or symbol'onkar'; the term'ekonkar' in full form was meant to describe transcendent formless god as creator and dissoluter. The symbol'onkar' gives mystical interpretation of immanent spirit of god and his becoming aspect which created the universe, it is a well-known fact that this universe was created through a primordial sound, known as first wisdom of god. It acts as an intermediary between his creation. God is spirit and pure light. In Sikh mysticism, while meditating on Mul Mantar and its repetition believed to lead the soul to absorption in the absolute.
The Mul Mantar and the Gurmantra Waheguru - the Name of god in Sikhism, repeated induce a high spiritual state. The Gurmantra Waheguru - Naam unites the individual soul with the God; the Mul Mantar invokes all qualities of
Guru Nanak was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Kartik Pooranmashi, the full-moon day in the month of Katak, October–November. Guru Nanak travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth, he set up a unique spiritual and political platform based on equality, fraternal love and virtue. Guru Nanak's words are registered in the form of 974 poetic hymns in the holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, with some of the major prayers being the Japji Sahib, the Asa di Var and the Sidh-Ghost, it is part of Sikh religious belief that the spirit of Guru Nanak's sanctity and religious authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship was devolved on to them. Guru Nanak was born on 29 November 1469 at Rāi Bhoi Kī Talvaṇḍī near Lahore, his parents were Kalyan Chand Das Bedi, popularly shortened to Mehta Kalu, Mata Tripta.
His father was the local patwari for crop revenue in the village of Talwandi. His parents were both Hindu employed as merchants, he had one sister, Bebe Nanaki, five years older than he was. In 1475 she moved to Sultanpur. Guru Nanak was attached to his sister and followed her to Sultanpur to live with her and her husband, Jai Ram. At the age of around 16 years, Nanak started working under Daulat Khan Lodi, employer of Nanaki's husband; this was a formative time for Nanak, as the Puratan Janam Sakhi suggests, in his numerous allusions to governmental structure in his hymns, most gained at this time. According to Sikh traditions, the birth and early years of Guru Nanak's life were marked with many events that demonstrated that Nanak had been marked by divine grace. Commentaries on his life give details of his blossoming awareness from a young age. At the age of five, Nanak is said to have voiced interest in divine subjects. At age seven, his father enrolled him at the village school. Notable lore recounts that as a child Nanak astonished his teacher by describing the implicit symbolism of the first letter of the alphabet, resembling the mathematical version of one, as denoting the unity or oneness of God.
Other childhood accounts refer to strange and miraculous events about Nanak, such as one witnessed by Rai Bular, in which the sleeping child's head was shaded from the harsh sunlight, in one account, by the stationary shadow of a tree or, in another, by a venomous cobra. On 24 September 1487 Nanak married Mata Sulakkhani, daughter of Mūl Chand and Chando Rāṇī, in the town of Batala; the couple had Sri Chand and Lakhmi Chand. Sri Chand received enlightenment from Guru Nanak's teachings and went on to become the founder of the Udasi sect; the earliest biographical sources on Nanak's life recognised today are the Janamsākhīs. Bhai Gurdas, a scribe of the Gurū Granth Sahib wrote about Nanak's life in his vārs. Although these too were compiled some time after Nanak's time, they are less detailed than the Janamsākhīs; the Janamsākhīs recount in minute detail the circumstances of the birth of the guru. Gyan-ratanavali is attributed to Bhai Mani Singh who wrote it with the express intention of correcting heretical accounts of Guru Nanak.
Bhai Mani Singh was a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh, approached by some Sikhs with a request that he should prepare an authentic account of Guru Nanak’s life. One popular Janamsākhī was written by a close companion of the Guru, Bhai Bala. However, the writing style and language employed have left scholars, such as Max Arthur Macauliffe, certain that they were composed after his death. According to the scholars, there are good reasons to doubt the claim that the author was a close companion of Guru Nanak and accompanied him on many of his travels. Nanak was a Guru, founded Sikhism during the 15th century; the fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. The Guru Granth Sahib is worshipped as the Supreme Authority of Sikhism and is considered the eleventh and final guru of Sikhism.
As the first guru of Sikhism, Guru Nanak contributed a total of 974 hymns to the book. Nanak’s teachings can be found in the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib, as a collection of verses recorded in Gurmukhi. There are two competing theories on Guru Nanak's teachings. One, according to Cole and Sambhi, is based on hagiographical Janamsakhis, states that Nanak's teachings and Sikhism were a revelation from God, not a social protest movement nor any attempt to reconcile Hinduism and Islam in the 15th century; the other states, Nanak was a Guru. According to Singha, "Sikhism does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood, but it has a pivotal concept of Guru. He is not an incarnation of God, not a prophet, he is an illumined soul."The hagiographical Janamsakhis were not written by Nanak, but by followers without regard for historical accuracy, contain numerous legends and myths created to show respect for Nanak. The term revelation, clarify Cole and Sambhi, in Sikhism is not limited to the teachings of Nanak, they include all Sikh Gurus, as well as the words of past and future men and women, who possess divine knowledge intuitively through meditation.
Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh, born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior and philosopher. When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was beheaded for refusing to convert to Islam, Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at age nine, becoming the tenth Sikh Guru, his four sons died during his lifetime -- two in two executed by the Mughal army. Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699 and introducing the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times. Guru Gobind Singh continued the formalisation of the religion, wrote important Sikh texts, enshrined the scripture the Guru Granth Sahib as Sikhism's eternal Guru. Gobind Singh was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, Mata Gujri, he was born in Patna, Bihar in the Sodhi Khatri family while his father was visiting Bengal and Assam. His birth name was Gobind Rai, a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahib marks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life.
In 1670, his family returned to Punjab, in March 1672 they moved to Chakk Nanaki in the Himalayan foothills of north India, called the Sivalik range, where he was schooled. His father Guru Tegh Bahadur was petitioned by Kashmiri Pandits in 1675 for protection from the fanatic persecution by Iftikar Khan, an Islamic satrap of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Tegh Bahadur considered a peaceful resolution by meeting Aurangzeb, but was cautioned by his advisors that his life may be at risk; the young Gobind Rai – to be known as Gobind Singh after 1699 – advised his father that no one was more worthy to lead and make a sacrifice than him. His father made the attempt, but was arrested publicly beheaded in Delhi on 11 November 1675 under the orders of Aurangzeb for refusing to convert to Islam and the ongoing conflicts between Sikhism and the Islamic Empire. After this martyrdom, the young Gobind Rai was installed by the Sikhs as the tenth Sikh Guru on Vaisakhi on 29 March 1676; the education of Guru Gobind Singh continued after he became the 10th Guru, both in reading and writing as well as martial arts such as horse riding and archery.
In 1684, he wrote the Chandi di Var in Punjabi language – a legendary war between the good and the evil, where the good stands up against injustice and tyranny, as described in the ancient Sanskrit text Markandeya Purana. He stayed in Paonta, near the banks of river Yamuna, till 1685. Guru Gobind Singh had three wives: at age 10, he married Mata Jito on 21 June 1677 at Basantgaṛh, 10 km north of Anandpur; the couple had three sons: Jujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh. at age 17, he married Mata Sundari on 4 April 1684 at Anandpur. The couple had one son, Ajit Singh. at age 33, he married Mata Sahib Devan on 15 April 1700 at Anandpur. They had no children. Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed her as the Mother of the Khalsa; the life example and leadership of Guru Gobind Singh have been of historical importance to the Sikhs. He institutionalized the Khalsa, who played the key role in protecting the Sikhs long after his death, such as during the nine invasions of Panjab and holy war led by Ahmad Shah Abdali from Afghanistan between 1747 and 1769.
In 1699, the Guru requested the Sikhs to congregate at Anandpur on Vaisakhi. According to the Sikh tradition, he asked for a volunteer from those who gathered, someone willing to sacrifice his head. One came forward; the Guru with a bloody sword. He asked for another volunteer, repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. After the fifth volunteer went with him into the tent, the Guru returned with all five volunteers, all safe, he called them the first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition. Guru Gobind Singh mixed water and sugar into an iron bowl, stirring it with a double-edged sword to prepare what he called Amrit, he administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul of a Khalsa – a warrior community. The Guru gave them a new surname "Singh". After the first five Khalsa had been baptized, the Guru asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa; this made the Guru the sixth Khalsa, his name changed from Guru Gobind Rai to Guru Gobind Singh.
Guru Gobind Singh initiated the Five K's tradition of the Kesh: uncut hair. Kangha: a wooden comb. Kara: an iron or steel bracelet worn on the wrist. Kirpan: a sword or dagger. Kacchera: short breeches, he announced a code of discipline for Khalsa warriors. Tobacco, eating'halal' meat and adultery were forbidden; the Khalsas agreed to never interact with those who followed rivals or their successors. The co-initiation of men and women from different castes into the ranks of Khalsa institutionalized the principle of equality in Sikhism regardless of one's caste or gender. Guru Gobind Singh's significance to the Sikh tradition has been important, as he institutionalized the Khalsa, resisted the ongoing persecution by the Mughal Empire, continued "the defence of Sikhism and Hinduism against the Muslim assault of Aurangzeb", he introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities. For example, Aurangzeb had imposed taxes on non-Muslims that were collected from the Sikhs as well, for example the jizya (poll tax on non-
Bhagat Sadhna called Sadhna Qasai, was a North Indian poet, saint and one of the devotees whose hymn was incorporated in Guru Granth Sahib. Venerated in the region of Punjab, among Sikhs and Ravidassias, his devotional hymn is quoted by most of preachers, his one hymn is present in Adi Granth Sahib, in Raga Bilaval. The followers of Bhagat Sadhna are called Sadhna Panthis, his only memorial is a mosque, present at Sirhind. Sadhna was born in 1180 AD at village Sehwaan in Sindh province in a Muslim family; as his ancestors were butchers by profession, he continued the family profession of slaughtering goats and selling meat. It is said. Due to this, in addition to customers, travelers and rogues used to come over and take rest on passing. Sadhna was interested in spirituality from his adolescence and as a result, he used to have spiritual discussions with such saints who stopped over near his shop. Sadhna used them as weights in his profession. Sadhna annoyed vaishnav pundits with this act. On one side, he was of lower profession and caste, on the other, he was belittling their idol worship by using idol in the flesh of animals, consider as sin by the Pundits.
Those religious scholars always debated with him, in which Sadhna always outwitted them. It is recorded. Sadhna did not object. Vaishnav saint continued worshipping shaligram but got no internal pleasure and wisdom, as he had seen in state and thoughts of Sadhna. With dashing hopes he returned the weights of Sadhna back. Sadhna preached that "Shaligrams Stones" are not god as these are lifeless stones, can not give any wisdom to a living being, his spiritual quest led him to renounce the life of a householder. He roamed about the country preaching the love of God; this historical account is from the time when Sadhna was good looking with a strong body. During his travels in North India, his looks pleased a young married Brahmin lady, who wanted to have sex with him; when she asked Sadhna, he replied that he could not have sexual relation with anyone out of his marriage. She thought. Without understanding Sadhna thoughts, she killed her husband. Came back to Sadhna and told what she did. Sadhna left the area after sermonizing her.
The lady felt ashamed, she burnt herself on husband's funeral pyre, so that people continued thinking her to be Sati-Savitri. As per historical resources, Sadhna uttered that No one knows the ways of women, she kills her husband and became a sati, which became popular as proverb and used by many poets and writers on. According to few authors, He came to Punjab after this incident. Another view exist. Sadhna was arrested and magistrate sentenced Bhagat Sadhna to have his hands cut off. After punishment was carried out, Bhagat Sadhna was discharged, he set out without a frown on his forehead notwithstanding his barbarous mutilation. Bhagat Sadhna's devotions proved so successful that The Divine blessed him with new hands which sprouted from his body but this claim is vague, it is believed that Bhagat Sadhna did Gurmat preaching in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab areas. Bhagat Sadhana spend his last day of life at Sirhind preaching Sikh philosophy. At Sirhind, he died, where a mosque was preserved by Punjab Government.
The paintings in the mosque represent the'T' art form. The mosque is made up of Sirhindi bricks and is situated in the northwestern part of town Sirhind near Level Crossing, district Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab. Ravidasis acknowledge Satgur Sadhna and preach his teaching and thought, as Guru Ravidas in his devotional hymn acknowledge and admire Satgur Sadhna as great devotee among Kabir, Namdev: Initially the Ravidassia revered the Guru Granth Sahib of the Sikhs, the only repository of Ravidass' devotional poetry. However, following their schism from mainstream Sikhs, the Ravidassi compiled their own holy book of Ravidass' teachings, the Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji, many Ravidassia temples now use this book in place of the Guru Granth Sahib, but they have not inserted Bhagat Sadhna Vani in it. But Dera Sach Khand Ballan of Jallandhar, Punjab on 30 January 2010 at the 633rd birth anniversary of Ravidass announced the objectives of Ravidassia religion as to propagate the bani and teachings of Ravidass, Namdev, Trilochan and Sadhna
Guru Granth Sahib
Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the Sikh scriptures. It was compiled by the ten gurus of Sikhism and is itself regarded by Sikhs as the final and eternal living guru. Adi Granth, the first rendition, was compiled by Guru Arjan; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, added one shloka, dohra mahala 9 ang, 1429 and all 115 hymns of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur. This second rendition came to be known as Sri Guru Granth Sahib. After Guru Gobind Singh's death in 1708, Baba Deep Singh and Bhai Mani Singh prepared many copies of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib for distribution; the text consists of 1,430 angs and 6,000 śabads, which are poetically rendered and set to a rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music. The bulk of the scripture is divided into sixty rāags, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author; the hymns in the scripture are arranged by the rāgas in which they are read. The Guru Granth Sahib is written in the Gurmukhī script, in various languages, including Lahnda, Braj Bhasha, Sanskrit and Persian.
Copies in these languages have the generic title of Sant Bhasha. Guru Granth Sahib was composed by the Sikh Gurus: Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Angad Dev, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Tegh Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh added 1 sloakh in mahala 9 Ang 1429, it contains the traditions and teachings of Indian sants, such as Ravidas, Ramananda and Namdev among others, two Muslim Sufi saints Bhagat Bhikan and: Sheikh Farid. The vision in the Guru Granth Sahib is of a society based on divine justice without oppression of any kind. While the Granth acknowledges and respects the scriptures of Hinduism and Islam, it does not imply a moral reconciliation with either of these religions, it is installed in a Sikh gurdwara. The Granth is revered as the spiritual authority in Sikhism. During the guruship of Guru Nanak Dev, collections of his holy hymns were compiled and sent to distant Sikh communities for use in morning and evening prayers, his successor Guru Angad Dev began collecting his predecessor's writings.
This tradition was continued by the fifth gurus as well. When the fifth guru Guru Arjan Dev was collecting religious writings of his predecessor, he discovered that pretenders to the guruship were releasing what he considered as forged anthologies of writings of the previous guru and including their own writings with them. In order to prevent spurious scriptures from gaining legitimacy, Guru Arjan Dev began compiling a sacred scripture for the Sikh community, he finished collecting the religious writings of Guru Ram Das, his immediate predecessor, convinced Mohan, the son of Guru Amar Das, to give him the collection of the religious writings of the first three gurus. In addition, he sent disciples to go across the country to find and bring back any unknown religious writings of theirs, he invited members of other religions and contemporary religious writers to submit writings for possible inclusion. Guru Arjan pitched a tent by the side of Ramsar tank in Amritsar and started the task of compiling the holy Granth.
He selected hymns for inclusion in the Adi Bhai Gurdas acted as his scribe. While the holy hymns and verses were being put together Akbar, the Mughal Emperor, received a report that the Adi Granth contained passages vilifying Islam. Therefore, while travelling north, he asked to inspect it. Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas brought him a copy of the Adi Granth. After choosing three random passages to be read, Akbar decided. In 1604, Adi Granth was completed and installed at the Harmandir Sahib, with Baba Buddha as the first granthi, or reader. Since communities of Sikh disciples were scattered all over northern India, copies of the holy scripture needed to be made for them; the sixth guru added the tunes of 9 out of 22 Vars. Seventh and eighth guru did not have writings of their own added to the holy scripture; the tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, included writings of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur in the Guru Granth Sahib, included 1 salokh in mahala 9 Ang 1429. In 1704 at Damdama Sahib, during a one-year respite from the heavy fighting with Aurangzeb which the Khalsa was engaged in at the time, Guru Gobind Singh and Bhai Mani Singh added the religious compositions of Guru Tegh Bahadur to Adi Granth to create a definitive compilation.
Religious verses of Guru Gobind Singh were not included in Guru Granth Sahib, but he added 1 sloak in mahala 9 Ang 1429. His banis are found in the Sri Dasam Granth, they are part in the daily prayers of Sikhs During this period, Bhai Mani Singh collected Guru Gobind Singh's religious writings, as well as his court poems, included them in a secondary religious volume, today known as the Dasam Granth Sahib. Sikhs consider the Guru Granth Sahib as the eternal living guru, the highest religious and spiritual guide for Sikhs and inspire all of humanity, its place in Sikh devotional life is based on two fundamental principles: on the "Gurbani", received by the Sikh gurus in their divine consciousness from God and revealed to mankind. The Guru Granth Sahib answers all questions regarding religion and that morality can be discovered within it; the word is the guru and the guru is the word. Thus, in Sikh theology, the revealed divine word was written by past gurus. Numerous holy men, aside from the Sikh gurus, are collectively referred to as Bhagats or "devotees."
In 1708 Guru Gobin
Amrit Velā begins at the start of a new day, begins at 12:00 am and ends at 6:00 am, or before the dawning of the morning sun, used for daily meditation and recitation of Gurbani hymns. Sikhs start Amrit Vela at 2:00 am or earlier. Guru Nanak in the Japji Sahib says, "During the hours of Amrit velā, meditate on the grandeur of the one true Name." The importance of Amrit Vela is found throughout the Guru Granth Sahib. The Guru Granth Sahib states that "those who consider themselves a Sikh must wake up daily at Amrit Vela and be in tune with the Naam" In the Sikh Rehat Maryada, it is written to arise Amrit Velā, meditate on the divine Naam. Sikhs recite their morning Nitnem during Amrit Vela. Traditionally after Nitnem Sikhs meet with the Sangat to recite Asa di Var. Amrit Khalsa Meditation Nitnem Outline of Sikhism Sikh beliefs Sikhism Simran Singh, Puran; the Spirit Born People. Peshawar: Languages Department, Punjab. Singh, Raghbir. Bandginama. New Delhi: Atma Science Trust Singh, Randhir.'Autobiography of Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh.'Ludhiana: Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh Trust Definition of Amrit Vela Amritvela Cheat Sheet Q&A - Amrit Vela and Sadh Sangat #7 @ UCL Sikh Society Video Amrit Vela - Importance - Guru's Hukam Video Amrit Vela: Rise & Shine