Sikkim is a state in northeastern India. It borders Tibet in the north and northeast, Bhutan in the east, Nepal in the west, West Bengal in the south. Sikkim is located close to India's Siliguri Corridor near Bangladesh. Sikkim is the least second smallest among the Indian states. A part of the Eastern Himalaya, Sikkim is notable for its biodiversity, including alpine and subtropical climates, as well as being a host to Kangchenjunga, the highest peak in India and third highest on Earth. Sikkim's capital and largest city is Gangtok. 35% of the state is covered by the Khangchendzonga National Park. The Kingdom of Sikkim was founded by the Namgyal dynasty in the 17th century, it was ruled by a Buddhist priest-king known as the Chogyal. It became a princely state of British India in 1890. After 1947, Sikkim continued its protectorate status with the Republic of India, it enjoyed per capita income among Himalayan states. In 1973, anti-royalist riots took place in front of the Chogyal's palace. In 1975, the monarchy was deposed by the people.
A referendum in 1975 led to Sikkim joining India as its 22nd state. Modern Sikkim is a multilingual Indian state; the official languages of the state are English, Nepali and Lepcha. Additional official languages include Gurung, Magar, Newari, Rai and Tamang for the purpose of preservation of culture and tradition in the state. English is used in government documents; the predominant religions are Vajrayana Buddhism. Sikkim's economy is dependent on agriculture and tourism, as of 2014 the state had the third-smallest GDP among Indian states, although it is among the fastest-growing. Sikkim accounts for the largest share of cardamom production in India, is the world's second largest producer of the spice after Guatemala. Sikkim achieved its ambition to convert its agriculture to organic over the interval 2003 to 2016, the first state in India to achieve this distinction, it is among India's most environmentally conscious states, having banned plastic water bottles "in any government functions and meetings" and polystyrene products.
The origin theory of the name Sikkim is that it is a combination of two Limbu words: su, which means "new", khyim, which means "palace" or "house". The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Drenjong, which means "valley of rice", while the Bhutias call it Beyul Demazong, which means'"the hidden valley of rice". According to folklore, after establishing Rabdentse as his new capital, Bhutia king Tensung Namgyal built a palace and asked his Limbu Queen to name it; the Lepcha people, the original inhabitants of Sikkim, called it Nye-mae-el, meaning "paradise". In historical Indian literature, Sikkim is known as the garden of the war god Indra; the Lepchas are considered to be the earliest inhabitants of Sikkim. However the Limbus and the Magars lived in the inaccessible parts of West and South districts as early as the Lepchas lived in the East and North districts; the Buddhist saint Padmasambhava known as Guru Rinpoche, is said to have passed through the land in the 8th century. The Guru is reported to have blessed the land, introduced Buddhism, foretold the era of monarchy that would arrive in Sikkim centuries later.
According to legend, Khye Bumsa, a 14th-century prince from the Minyak House in Kham in eastern Tibet, received a divine revelation instructing him to travel south to seek his fortunes. A fifth-generation descendant of Khye Bumsa, Phuntsog Namgyal, became the founder of Sikkim's monarchy in 1642, when he was consecrated as the first Chogyal, or priest-king, of Sikkim by the three venerated lamas at Yuksom. Phuntsog Namgyal was succeeded in 1670 by his son, Tensung Namgyal, who moved the capital from Yuksom to Rabdentse. In 1700, Sikkim was invaded by the Bhutanese with the help of the half-sister of the Chogyal, denied the throne; the Bhutanese were driven away by the Tibetans, who restored the throne to the Chogyal ten years later. Between 1717 and 1733, the kingdom faced many raids by the Nepalese in the west and Bhutanese in the east, culminating with the destruction of the capital Rabdentse by the Nepalese. In 1791, China sent troops to defend Tibet against the Gorkha Kingdom. Following the subsequent defeat of Gorkha, the Chinese Qing dynasty established control over Sikkim.
Following the beginning of British rule in neighbouring India, Sikkim allied with Britain against their common adversary, Nepal. The Nepalese attacked Sikkim; this prompted the British East India Company to attack Nepal, resulting in the Gurkha War of 1814. Treaties signed between Sikkim and Nepal resulted in the return of the territory annexed by the Nepalese in 1817. However, ties between Sikkim and the British weakened when the latter began taxation of the Morang region. In 1849, two British physicians, Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker and Dr. Archibald Campbell, the latter being in charge of relations between the British and Sikkimese governments, ventured into the mountains of Sikkim unannounced and unauthorised; the doctors were detained by the Sikkimese government, leading to a punitive British expedition against the kingdom, after which the Darjeeling district and Morang were annexed to British India in 1853. The invasion led to the Chogyal of Sikkim becoming a titular ruler under the directive of the British governor.
Sikkim became a British protectorate in the decades of the 19th century, formalised by a convention signed with China in 1890. Sikkim was granted more sovereignty over the next three decades, became a member of the Chamber of Princes, the assemb
Worship or deification of fire is known from various religions. Fire has been an important part of human culture since the Lower Paleolithic; the earliest known traces of controlled fire were found at the Daughters of Jacob Bridge and dated to 790,000 years ago. Religious or animist notions connected to fire are assumed to reach back to such early pre-Homo sapiens times. In Indo-European languages, there were two concepts regarding fire: that of an animate type called *egni-, an inanimate type *paewr-. A similar distinction existed for water. Archaeologically, the earliest evidence for Indo-Iranian fire worship is found at the transition from the Sintashta-Petrovka to the Andronovo culture around 1500 BC, together with first evidence of cremation. While cremation became ubiquitous in Hinduism, it came to be disavowed in Zoroastrianism; however earlier evidences of vedic fire altars have been found at the Indus Valley sites of Kalibangan and Lothal, giving rise to speculations toward earlier assumed the geographical location of the early Indo-Iranians.
Although the term "fire-worshippers" is associated with Zoroastrians, the idea that Zoroastrians worship fire is from anti-Zoroastrian polemic. Instead, fire—even in a fire temple —is considered to be an agent of purity and as a symbol of righteousness and truth. In the present day this is explained to be because fire burns ever-upward and cannot itself be polluted. Nonetheless and Chaharshanbe Suri are both fire-related festivals celebrated throughout Greater Iran and date back to when Zoroastrianism was still the predominant religion of the region. In Vedic disciplines of Hinduism, fire is a central element in the Yajna ceremony, with Agni, "fire", playing the role as mediator between the worshipper and the other gods. Related concepts are the invocation of the healing properties of fire. In the Vaishnav branch of Hinduism, Agni or Fire is considered the tongue of the Supreme Lord Narayana, hence all the sacrifices done to any demigod is a sacrifice to the Supreme Lord Narayana. In Albanian mythology the deification of fire is associated with En or Enji, a fire deity firstly worshiped by the Illyrians whose name continues to be used in the Albanian language to refer to Thursday.
Fire worship in Graeco-Roman tradition had two separate forms: fire of the hearth and fire of the forge. Hearth worship was maintained in Rome by the Vestal Virgins, who served the goddess Vesta, protector of the home, who had a sacred flame as the symbol of her presence in the city; the Greek equivalent of the goddess was Hestia, whose worship took place more within the household. The fire of the forge was associated with the Roman equivalent Vulcan; these two seem to have served both as craft-guild patrons and as protectors against accidental fires in cities. Associated with fire is the titanic god Prometheus, who stole fire for humans from the gods. Most forms of worship in Graeco-Roman religion involved either cooking or burning an animal on a fire made on an altar in front of a temple. Celtic mythology had Belenus, whose "shining one", associated him with fire. In Slavic mythology, meaning "bright and clear", was the spirit of fire; the best known and dramatic among numerous Slavic Pagan fire rituals is the jumping over the bonfire on the Ivan Kupala Day.
Fire is an element of theophany in the Hebrew Bible's burning bush, pillar of fire, the flame of the Menorah. The highest form of sacrifice was the Korban Olah, performed twice-daily, an animal sacrifice consumed by fire. Islam on the other hand has no rituals associated with burning; the Quran describes the devil as a creature of fire. The devil's rejection and contempt toward humans originate from the devil's perception that fire is superior to mud; this sentiment was the cause of the devil's banishment from the heavens. Fire continues to be a part of cultures. For example, it is used in cremation and bonfires; the Holy Fire in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem has been consecutively documented since 1106 AD. Bonfire of the Vanities Eternal flame List of fire gods Manipura Nature worship Sun worship Zoroastrianism
Corporate Animals is a 2019 American comedy horror film directed by Patrick Brice and written by Sam Bain. It stars Jessica Williams, Karan Soni, Isiah Whitlock Jr. Martha Kelly, Dan Bakkedahl, Calum Worthy, Jennifer Kim, Nasim Pedrad, Ed Helms, Demi Moore, it had its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival on January 29, 2019. It was released on September 2019, by Screen Media Films. Lucy is the egotistical CEO of America's premiere provider of edible cutlery. In her infinite wisdom, Lucy leads her staff, including her long-suffering assistants and Jess, on a corporate team-building caving weekend to New Mexico; when disaster strikes, not their useless guide Brandon can save them. Trapped underground by a cave-in, the mismatched and disgruntled group must pull together to survive amid sexual tension, startling business revelations, casual cannibalism. Demi Moore as Lucy Vanderton Ed Helms as Brandon Jessica Williams as Jess Karan Soni as Freddie Isiah Whitlock Jr. as Derek Calum Worthy as Aidan Dan Bakkedahl as Billy Martha Kelly as Gloria Nasim Pedrad as Suzy Britney Spears as Ghost of herself Jennifer Kim as May Wendy Meredith as Victoria Courtney Cunningham as Olivia LynNita Ellis as a Reporter Frank Bond as Ian In May 2018, Sharon Stone, Ed Helms, Jessica Williams, were announced to be cast in the film, with Patrick Brice directing from a screenplay by Sam Bain.
Keith Calder, Jessica Calder, Mike Falbo and Helms will produce the film, under their Snoot Entertainment and Pacific Electric banners, respectively. In June 2018, Demi Moore joined the cast of the film, replacing Stone, alongside Karan Soni, Isiah Whitlock Jr. Calum Worthy, Dan Bakkedahl, Martha Kelly, Jennifer Kim and Nasim Pedrad joined the cast of the film. Principal photography began in Santa Fe, New Mexico, it had its world premiere at the Sundance Film Festival on January 29, 2019. Shortly after, Screen Media Films acquired distribution rights to the film, it was released on September 20, 2019. Corporate Animals holds a 27% approval rating on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 48 reviews, with a weighted average of 3.98/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Corporate culture may seem like easy pickings for satire, but the middling Corporate Animals proves the broadest targets can be missed." On Metacritic, the film holds a rating of 31 out of 100, based on 14 critics, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews".
Corporate Animals on IMDb Corporate Animals at Rotten Tomatoes Corporate Animals at Metacritic