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Sikorsky H-5

The Sikorsky H-5 is a helicopter built by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation. It was used by the United States Air Force, its predecessor, the United States Army Air Forces, as well as the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, it was used by the United States Post Office Department. The civilian version, under the designation S-51, was the first helicopter to be operated commercially, commencing in 1946. In December 1946, an agreement was signed between the British company Westland Aircraft and Sikorsky to produce a British version of the H-5, to be manufactured under license in Britain as the Westland-Sikorsky WS-51 Dragonfly. By the time production ceased in 1951, more than 300 examples of all types of the H-5 had been built; the H-5 was built by Sikorsky as its model S-48, designated as the R-5 by the United States Army Air Forces. It was designed to provide a helicopter having greater useful load, endurance and service ceiling than the Sikorsky R-4; the R-5 differed from the R-4 by having an increased rotor diameter and a new, longer fuselage for two persons in tandem, though it retained the R-4's tailwheel-type landing gear.

Larger than the R-4 or the R-6, the R-5 was fitted with a more powerful Wasp Junior 450-hp radial engine, proved itself the most successful of the three types. The first XR-5 of four ordered made its initial flight on 18 August 1943. In March 1944, the Army Air Forces ordered 26 YR-5As for service testing, in February 1945, the first YR-5A was delivered; this order was followed by a production contract for 100 R-5s, outfitted with racks for two litters, but only 34 were delivered. Of these, fourteen were the R-5A identical with the YR-5A; the remaining twenty were built as the three-place R-5D, which had a widened cabin with a two-place rear bench seat and a small nosewheel added to the landing gear, could be optionally fitted with a rescue hoist and an auxiliary external fuel tank. Five of the service-test YR-5As were converted into dual-control YR-5Es; the United States Navy evaluated three R-5As as the HO2S-1. Sikorsky soon developed a modified version of the R-5, the S-51, featuring a greater rotor diameter, greater carrying capacity and gross weight, a redesigned tricycle landing gear configuration.

With room for three passengers plus pilot, the S-51 was intended to appeal to civilian as well as military operators, was the first helicopter to be sold to a commercial user. Eleven S-51s were ordered by the USAF and designated the R-5F, while 92 went to the Navy as the HO3S-1 referred to as the'Horse'. In Britain, Westland Aircraft began production in 1946 of the Westland-Sikorsky S-51 Dragonfly for the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force, all of which were powered by a 500 hp Alvis Leonides engine; this gave an improved top speed of 103 mph and a service ceiling of 14,000 ft. In total, 133 Westland-Sikorsky Dragonfly helicopters were built. A modified version was developed by Westland as the Westland Widgeon, but the type was never adopted for service; the U. S. Navy ordered four S-51s "off-the-shelf" from Sikorsky in late 1946 for use in the Antarctic and Operation Highjump, placing them into naval inventory as the HO3S-1. Carried aboard the seaplane tender USS Pine Island, on Christmas Day 1946 an HO3S-1 of VX-3 piloted by Lieutenant Commander Walter M. Sessums became the first helicopter to fly in the Antarctic.

Having proved its capabilities, the initial naval HO3S-1 order was followed by subsequent purchases of an additional 42 aircraft in 1948. The Navy equipped several warship classes with HO3S-1 utility helos, including aircraft carriers, seaplane tenders, Des Moines-class cruisers, Iowa-class battleships. By February 1948, the Marine Corps had equipped HMX-1, its first regular Marine Helicopter Transport Squadron, with six HO3S-1 aircraft. With a passenger load of only three dressed persons, the HO3S-1s were operated in the utility role by the marines; the U. S. Navy would acquire a total of 88 HO3S-1 helicopters. Thirty-nine additional specialized rescue helicopters were built, as the H-5G, in 1948, while 16 were fitted with pontoons as the H-5H amphibian in 1949. Several H-5Hs were converted in 1949 to a unique medical-evacuation role, with casualty stretchers loaded sideways through blister-hatches on the side of the fuselage; the back stretcher station was located just forward of the tail boom and the main stretcher station was located behind the crew cabin.

The forward stretcher station could accommodate two casualties, who were accessible to the medic in flight, while the back stretcher station handled only one, not accessible to the medic during the flight. Little information is known about the operational use of this modification by the USAF, this being abandoned shortly after tests in 1950; the R-5 had been designated under the United States Army Air Forces system, a series starting with R-1 and proceeding up to about R-16. In 1947 with the start of the United States Air Force, there was a new system, many aircraft, but not all, were redesignated; the R-5 became the H-5. The United States Army broke off with its own designation system in the 1950s, resulting in new designations for its helicopter projects. In 1962 under the new tri-service system, many navy and army aircraft were given the low numbers. Under the 1962 system, the low H numbers were given to new aircraft. For example

Messor pergandei

Messor pergandei is a species of harvester ant native to the Southwestern United States the deserts of southeastern California. It has been identified in the Baja California peninsula of Mexico, it was first described by Gustav Mayr, who named it Aphaenogaster pergandei. It has been referred to as Veromessor pergandei when classified in the genus Veromessor, it can be referred to as a black harvester ant or desert harvester ant, although these common names have been applied to other species. M. pergandei has a head of equal length and width, with large mandibles. It has short white or yellow hair and a large thorax. Males measure about 8.5 mm and females about 10 mm. However, individual size can vary based on factors such as availability of food and interspecific competition. Like other harvester ants, M. pergandei gathers fruits and seeds for food. The seeds of perennial shrubs such as Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa are included in its diet. Messor pergandei at AntWeb "Messor pergandei".

Catalogue of Life. ITIS. Species 2000. CS1 maint: others

Style Wars

Style Wars is an American 1983 documentary film on hip hop culture and its American roots, directed by Tony Silver and produced in collaboration with Henry Chalfant. The film has an emphasis on graffiti, although rapping are covered to a lesser extent; the film was aired on PBS television on January 18th, 1984, was subsequently shown in several film festivals to much acclaim, including the Vancouver Film Festival. It won the Grand Jury Prize: Documentary at the Sundance Film Festival; the documentary captures and includes many historical moments of hip hop culture during its earliest days in the 1970s onward towards the early 1980s. The documentary shows both the young artists struggling to express themselves through their art, their points of view on the subject of graffiti, as well as the views of New York City Mayor Ed Koch, one-armed, now deceased graffiti writer Case/Kase 2, graffiti writer Skeme and his mother, graffiti "villain" Cap, now deceased graffiti writer Dondi and Shy 147, graffiti documentarian Henry Chalfant, breakdancer Crazy Legs of Rock Steady Crew, police officers, art critics, subway maintenance workers, as well as several "people on the street".

While Style Wars promoted the idea that graffiti is a form of creative expression, not every person within the film held this same belief. In fact, throughout the film we see ways in which institutions such as the government and law enforcement tried arduously to prevent graffiti in New York City. For example, the city spent a large sum of money on negative subway advertisements that portrayed graffiti as a crime. On top of this, the mayor pushed for the building of fences, with the intent of blocking off the entrances to subways, where graffiti artists would create their work. Additionally, he had police guard dogs put into these areas to scare away those. Both Koch and The New York City Police Department rallied endlessly at an attempt to convince the city’s youth that graffiti is vandalism and that if they participated in it they would ruin their futures. Another perspective on graffiti shown in this film is that of well known artists. Many of them state that the reason why these teens spray paint murals on the sides of buildings is because they do not have any other place to do so, not because they want to intentionally break the law.

Additionally, these individuals see potential for those that are involved in the culture beyond the streets. In the same way, they appreciate the art while disagreeing with how they do it; this in a way makes them middlemen within this documentary. In 2009, A. O. Scott of The New York Times examined the film:'Style Wars is a work of art in its own right too, because it doesn't just record what these artists are doing, it somehow absorbs their spirit and manages to communicate it across the decades so that we can find ourselves, so many years in the city, understanding what made it beautiful'. Crazy Legs Frosty Freeze "8th Wonder" by The Sugarhill Gang "The Message" by Grandmaster Flash "Beat Bop" by Rammellzee and K-Rob "Pump Me Up" by Trouble Funk "The Wanderer" by Dion "Rockin' It" by The Fearless Four "Jam Hot" by Johnny Dynell "Feel The Heartbeat" by Treacherous Three The digitally remastered DVD edition contains: 23 minutes of outtake footage Commentary and interviews by Tony Silver and Henry Chalfant Interviews with Style Wars editors Victor Kanefsky and Sam Pollard Art galleries by Blade, Cey, Crazy Legs, Dez, Doze, Duster, Frosty Freeze, IZ the Wiz, Case/Kase 2, Kel First, Ken Swift, Mare139, Min One, Noc 167, Lady Pink, Rammellzee, Sach, Seen UA, Shy 147, Rafael 666, Tracy 168, Zephyr Tributes to Dondi and Shy 147 Guest interviews with Blade, Kel First, Tracy 168, Cap, MIN, QUIK, IZ the Wiz, Fab 5 Freddy, Guru, DJ Red Alert, photographer Martha Cooper On June 9, 2011 it was announced that Red Hot Chili Peppers bassist, Flea along with actors Brad Pitt and James Franco and director Spike Jonze were donating items to an eBay auction that would raise money for restoring the film negatives for Style Wars.

The Auction ended on June 11, 2011. DJ Mutt used quotes from the movie in his song titled "Big Lights, Big City" taken from his album Treading Water. Black Star used a clip from the movie in the intro to the song "Respiration" on the Black Star album; the Drum and Bass group Ganja Kru, composed of DJ Hype, DJ Zinc, Pascal, used quotes from the movie in their song titled "Plague That Never Ends". Swedish band The Radio Dept. used audio samples from the film in their single "Never Follow Suit" from the album Clinging to a Scheme. Official site Style Wars on IMDb Style Wars on YouTube Style Wars on Folkstreams Style Wars Director Dies Style Wars UK Channel 4 Airing - 1985 on YouTube