The Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk is a four-blade, twin-engine, medium-lift utility helicopter manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft. Sikorsky submitted the S-70 design for the United States Army's Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System competition in 1972; the Army designated the prototype as the YUH-60A and selected the Black Hawk as the winner of the program in 1976, after a fly-off competition with the Boeing Vertol YUH-61. Named after the Native American war leader Black Hawk, the UH-60A entered service with the U. S. Army in 1979, to replace the Bell UH-1 Iroquois as the Army's tactical transport helicopter; this was followed by the fielding of electronic warfare and special operations variants of the Black Hawk. Improved UH-60L and UH-60M utility variants have been developed. Modified versions have been developed for the U. S. Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard. In addition to U. S. Army use, the UH-60 family has been exported to several nations. Black Hawks have served in combat during conflicts in Grenada, Iraq, the Balkans and other areas in the Middle East.
In the late 1960s, the United States Army began forming requirements for a helicopter to replace the UH-1 Iroquois, designated the program as the Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System. The Army initiated the development of a new, common turbine engine for its helicopters that would become the General Electric T700. Based on experience in Vietnam, the Army required significant performance and reliability improvements from both UTTAS and the new powerplant; the Army released its UTTAS request for proposals in January 1972. The RFP included air transport requirements. Transport within the C-130 limited length; the UTTAS requirements for improved reliability and lower life-cycle costs resulted in features such as dual-engines with improved hot and high altitude performance, a modular design. Four prototypes were constructed, with the first YUH-60A flying on 17 October 1974. Prior to delivery of the prototypes to the US Army, a preliminary evaluation was conducted in November 1975 to ensure the aircraft could be operated safely during all testing.
Three of the prototypes were delivered to the Army in March 1976, for evaluation against the rival Boeing-Vertol design, the YUH-61A, one was kept by Sikorsky for internal research. The Army selected the UH-60 for production in December 1976. Deliveries of the UH-60A to the Army began in October 1978 and the helicopter entered service in June 1979. After entering service, the helicopter was modified for new missions and roles, including mine laying and medical evacuation. An EH-60 variant was developed to conduct electronic warfare and special operations aviation developed the MH-60 variant to support its missions. Due to weight increases from the addition of mission equipment and other changes, the Army ordered the improved UH-60L in 1987; the new model incorporated all of the modifications made to the UH-60A fleet as standard design features. The UH-60L featured more power and lifting capability with upgraded T700-GE-701C engines and an improved gearbox, both from the SH-60B Seahawk, its external lift capacity increased by 1,000 lb up to 9,000 lb.
The UH-60L incorporated the SH-60B's automatic flight control system for better flight control with the more powerful engines. Production of the L-model began in 1989. Development of the next improved variant, the UH-60M, was approved in 2001, to extend the service life of the UH-60 design into the 2020s; the UH-60M incorporates upgraded T700-GE-701D engines, improved rotor blades, state of the art electronic instrumentation, flight controls and aircraft navigation control. After the U. S. DoD approved low-rate initial production of the new variant, manufacturing began in 2006, with the first of 22 new UH-60Ms delivered in July 2006. After an initial operational evaluation, the Army approved full-rate production and a five-year contract for 1,227 helicopters in December 2007. By March 2009, 100 UH-60M helicopters had been delivered to the Army. In November 2014, US military ordered 102 aircraft of various H-60 types, worth $1.3 billion. Following an operation in May 2011, it emerged that the 160th SOAR used a secret version of the UH-60 modified with low-observable technology which enabled it to evade Pakistani radar.
Analysis of the tail section, the only remaining part of the aircraft which crashed during the operation, revealed extra blades on the tail rotor and other noise reduction measures, making the craft much quieter than conventional UH-60s. The aircraft appeared to include features like special high-tech materials, harsh angles, flat surfaces found only in stealth jets. Low observable versions of the Black Hawk have been studied as far back as the mid-1970s. In September 2012, Sikorsky was awarded a Combat Tempered Platform Demonstration contract to further improve the Black Hawk's durability and survivability; the company is to develop new technologies such as a zero-vibration system, adaptive flight control laws, advanced fire management, a more durable main rotor, full-spectrum crashworthiness, damage tolerant airframe. Improvements to the Black Hawk are to continue until the Future Vertical Lift program is ready to replace it. In December 2014, the 101st Airborne Division began testing new resupply equipment called th
Sensible Soccer affectionately known as Sensi, is a football video game series, popular in the early 1990s and which still retains a cult following. Developed by Sensible Software and first released for Amiga and Atari ST computers in 1992 as well as for the PC, it featured a zoomed-out bird's-eye view, editable national and custom teams and gameplay utilising a simple and user-friendly control scheme. One of the defining gameplay elements was the aftertouch feature, which enabled effective but unrealistic swerves; the game topped charts such as Amiga Power's "All Time Top 100". The graphic style of the game was used in other Sensible Software games, such as Mega Lo Mania, Cannon Fodder and Sensible Golf. On 12 November 2015, a "spiritual successor" to Sensible Soccer, Sociable Soccer, was announced by Jon Hare, early versions for PC, mobile and Virtual Reality were shown at 9 different public venues across Europe, including Gamescom in Cologne and the London Science Museum in 2016, with development still continuing despite an unsuccessful crowdfunding campaign on Kickstarter.
Sociable Soccer was released on Steam Early Access on 12 October 2017, with PlayStation 4, Xbox One, iOS and Android versions to follow. Sensible World of Soccer referred to as SWOS, was released in 1994; the game was published by Virgin Games, but they insisted on it being called Virgin Soccer. It became a first in video games when it attempted to encompass the entire professional footballing world into one game. Featuring many divisions in many countries around the globe, it featured a twenty season career mode which allowed players to manage and play as thousands of different clubs from across the globe, many of which were obscure. On 1 November 2005, it was announced in an interview at gaming website Eurogamer that the series would make a return in the Summer of 2006, with a full 3D title to be released on PC, PlayStation 2 and Xbox. Codemasters, the holders of the licence, would release the game across all PAL territories, with the design capabilities overseen by Jon Hare, the original designer of the game.
Sensible Soccer 2006 was released on 9 June 2006. On 27 September 2006, Codemasters announced a new version of Sensible World of Soccer, developed by Kuju Sheffield, for the Xbox 360 to be released in summer 2007 on Xbox Live Arcade, it features both the classic "retro" visuals of the original SWOS, as well as new improved high definition graphics, retains the exact gameplay of the 96/97 version of Sensible World of Soccer. Due to problems with the game's network performance, the release was delayed in order for "significant proportions" of the network code to be rewritten. After missing several previous release dates, the game appeared on Xbox Live Arcade on 19 December 2007 but was pulled. A statement from Microsoft confirmed that an incorrect version of the game had been made available, in which online play was not possible; the fixed version of the game was released two days on 21 December. The Windows version is still yet to be given a release date. Reflecting Sensible Software's devil-may-care approach to game design, the developers decided to make Sensible Soccer after playing around with sprites from Mega Lo Mania and deciding to use them in a football game.
At Christmas 1993, a free Sensible Software minigame was included on an Amiga Format cover disk. Called Cannon Soccer, it was two bonus levels of Cannon Fodder in which the soldiers fought hordes of Sensible Soccer players in a snowy landscape. On the Amiga Power Coverdisk 21 one of the demos was Sensible Soccer: England vs Germany known as Sensible Soccer Meets Bulldog Blighty; this featured a mode of play that involved replacing players with soldiers from Cannon Fodder, the ball with a hand grenade. The grenade would randomly begin to flash exploding, killing any nearby players. Sensible World of Moon Soccer a free covermount disk included with an issue of Amiga Action magazine in the UK. Play as Moon United, featured low gravity, a cratered pitch and hordes of alien players to trade; the developers released a humorous spin-off called unSensible Soccer which consisted of apples vs. oranges instead of men. It was released as a free covermount disk with Amiga Action in March 1993. Computer Gaming World in June 1994 stated that "In the debate over the best football action/tactical game, there is no doubt that Sensible is in everyone's top three, no matter what format...
The game is fast and responsive... a class act". The magazine added. Sensible Soccer's first release sold 200,000 copies, according to company founder Jon Hare, he estimated that the series overall had sold 2 million copies by 2002. From the time of its release, Mega placed the game at #1 in their Top 50 Mega Drive Games of All Time; the Mega CD version of the game was #2 in their Top 10 Mega CD Games of All Time in the same issue. Sensible World of Soccer 1995/96 received review scores of 96% from both Amiga Power and Amiga Format, the joint highest mark given for any game by either magazine. On 12 March 2007, The New York Times reported that Sensible World of Soccer was named to a list of the ten most important video games of all time by Stanford Professor Henry Lowood and the four members of his committee – the game designers Warren Spector and Steve Meretzky; this list was announced at the 2007 Game Developers Conference. Sensible World of Soccer received recognition as one of the Ten Most Important Video Games of All Time, the so-called game canon
Sir Thomas Lombe was an English merchant and developer of machinery for silk throwing. He was born the eldest son of Henry Lombe, a worsted weaver of Norwich, who died in 1695, leaving his older sons Thomas and John under the care of his executors, while the younger sons Benjamin and John were to be brought up by their mother, Henry Lombe's second wife. In the early years of the 18th century Lombe found his way to London, where he was apprenticed to Samuel Totton, a mercer, was admitted to the freedom of the Mercers' Company in 1707. In the same year he became a freeman of the city of London, he established himself as a merchant. In 1718 Lombe obtained a patent for "three sorts of engines never before made or used in Great Britaine, one to winde the finest raw silk, another to spin, the other to twist the finest Italian raw silk into organzine in great perfection, never before done in this country." Lombe employed his half-brother John Lombe to learn Italian silk processes. The Lombes set up a new mill at Derby in 1719, on an island in the River Derwent, adjacent to a disused mill that had belonged to Thomas Cotchett and was built by George Sorocold.
It became a lucrative concern, known as Lombe's Mill. The patent expired in 1732, when Lombe petitioned Parliament for an extension, opposed by cotton and worsted spinners; the bill was thrown out, but subsequently an act rewarded Lombe with £14,000, one of the conditions being that he should deposit models of his machinery in a public institution. Models were placed in the Tower of London. Lombe was an alderman of Bassishaw ward in the city of London, was chosen sheriff of London in 1727, he was knighted on 8 July of the same year, when he attended at court to present a congratulatory address from the city to George II on his accession. He died on 8 January 1739 at his house in Old Jewry. Lombe's Mill was sold after Thomas Lombe's death, it continued to spin silk until 1890, when it collapsed. In the 1740s Charles Roe built mills based in Macclesfield. A description of Lombe's machinery was in Rees's Cyclopædia. Lombe married Elizabeth Turner, he left a fortune of £120,000, bequeathed to his widow and his two daughters and Mary Turner.
His daughter Mary Turner married on 24 April 1749, James Maitland, 7th Earl of Lauderdale. Hannah married in 1740 Sir Robert Clifton, 5th Baronet, Member of Parliament for East Retford. Lady Lombe died on 18 November 1753. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Lombe, Thomas". Dictionary of National Biography. 34. London: Smith, Elder & Co