The Eagle of the Ninth
The Eagle of the Ninth is a historical adventure novel for children written by Rosemary Sutcliff and published in 1954. The story is set after the building of Hadrian's Wall. Discharged because of a battle wound, a young Roman officer Marcus Flavius Aquila tries to discover the truth about the disappearance of his father's legion in northern Britain. Disguised as a Greek oculist and travelling beyond Hadrian's Wall with his freed ex-slave, Marcus finds that a demoralized and mutinous Ninth Legion was annihilated by a great rising of the northern tribes. In part, this disgrace was redeemed through a heroic last stand by a small remnant around the legion's eagle standard. Marcus's hope of seeing the lost legion re-established is dashed, but he is able to bring back the bronze eagle so that it can no longer serve as a symbol of Roman defeat – and thus will no longer be a danger to the frontier's security; the Eagle of the Ninth may be her best-known title. It is the first in a sequence of novels, followed by The Silver Branch, Frontier Wolf, The Lantern Bearers, Sword at Sunset, Dawn Wind, Sword Song, The Shield Ring.
The sequence loosely traces a family, of the Roman Empire and of Britain, who inherit an emerald seal ring bearing the insignia of a dolphin. The book has been published as The Eagle, it has been adapted a few times, most notably as the 2011 film The Eagle. Sutcliff wrote in a foreword that she created the story from two elements: the disappearance of the Legio IX Hispana from the historical record following an expedition north to deal with Caledonian tribes in 117; the Museum of Reading, which now houses the Silchester eagle, states that it "is not a legionary eagle but has been immortalized as such by Rosemary Sutcliff". It may have formed part of a Jupiter statue in the forum of the Roman town. Sutcliff assumed that the legion's title of "Hispana" meant that it was raised in Hispania, but it was awarded this title for victories there. At the time Sutcliff wrote, it was a plausible theory that the unit had been wiped out in Britain during a period of unrest early in the reign of the Emperor Hadrian.
Scholarly opinion now disputes this, for there are extant records that have been interpreted as indicating that detachments of the Ninth Legion were serving on the Rhine frontier than the year 117, it has been suggested that it was annihilated in the east of the Roman Empire. This in turn is disputed by other historians, who assert that it was indeed destroyed in northern Britain. Sheppard Frere, an eminent Romano-British authority, has concluded that "further evidence is needed before more can be said"; the BBC Home Service produced a radio dramatisation, first broadcast in six parts in Children's Hour between 27 February and 3 April 1957, repeated between 7 September and 12 October 1958, re-edited into a 90-minute radio play version broadcast in June 1963. The adaptation was by Felix Felton and Marius Goring took the lead role. An extract from the fourth movement of Ottorino Respighi's symphonic poem The Pines of Rome was used as the theme music, it was adapted again by the BBC in a full-cast radio drama in 1996 starring Tom Smith.
A BBC television serial was made of the book in 1977, scripted by Bill Craig, Donald Bull and Arden Winch, with Anthony Higgins as Marcus Aquila. A film adaptation titled The Eagle was released in 2011, directed by Kevin Macdonald and with Channing Tatum as Marcus Aquila and Jamie Bell as Esca. Blogsite on The Eagle of the Ninth and all Rosemary Sutcliff books by her godchild and literary executor Reading Museum PDF on the Silchester Eagle Eagle of the Ninth, 6-part BBC Scotland 1977 TV series produced by Pharic MacLaren. Original BBC publicity notes and synopsis of the story, plus cast list and synopses for each episode
Rosemary Sutcliff was an English novelist best known for children's books historical fiction and retellings of myths and legends. Although she was a children's author, the quality and depth of her writing appeals to adults. In a 1986 interview she said, "I would claim that my books are for children of all ages, from nine to ninety." Some of her novels were written for adults. For her contribution as a children's writer Sutcliff was a runner-up for the Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 1974. Sutcliff was born 14 December 1920 to George Ernest Sutcliff and his wife Nessie Elizabeth, née Lawton, in East Clandon, Surrey, she spent her childhood in Malta and various naval bases where her father, a Royal Navy officer, was stationed. She was stricken with Still's Disease when she was young, used a wheelchair most of her life. Due to her chronic illness, Sutcliff spent most of her time with her mother from whom she learned many of the Celtic and Saxon legends that she would expand into works of historical fiction.
Sutcliff's early schooling was interrupted by moving house and her disabling condition. She did not learn to read until she was nine years of age, left school at age 14 to enter the Bideford Art School, which she attended for three years, graduating from the General Art Course. Sutcliff worked as a painter of miniatures. Inspired by the children's historical novels of Geoffrey Trease, her first published book was The Chronicles of Robin Hood in 1950. In 1954, she published what remains her best-known work The Eagle of the Ninth, part of a series on Roman Britain and its aftermath. Between 1954 and 1958, Sutcliff's works The Eagle of the Ninth, its sequel The Silver Branch and Warrior Scarlet were runners-up in the annual Carnegie Medal, given by the Library Association to the year's best children's book by a British subject, she won the Medal for her third book in the Eagle series, The Lantern Bearers. Where the first two books and one subsequent one were set in Roman Britain, The Lantern Bearers follows the withdrawal of the Roman Empire, when the British people are threatened by remaining Germanic troops and by invaders.
Sutcliff was Carnegie runner-up again for her retelling of the Arthurian legend in Tristan and Iseult, which in 1971 won the American Horn Book Award. In 1985, The Mark of the Horse Lord was the inaugural winner of the Phoenix Award, created by the Children's Literature Association to recognise the best English-language children's book that did not win a major award when published twenty years earlier, it is named for the mythical bird phoenix, reborn from its ashes, to suggest the book's rise from obscurity. The Shining Company won the same award in 2010. Sutcliff lived for many years in Walberton near Sussex. In 1975, she was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire for services to children's literature, Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1992, she wrote incessantly throughout her life and was still doing so on the morning of her death in 1992. Sutcliff never had no children. Blue Remembered Hills: A recollection. Houses and History, illustrated by William Stobbs Rudyard Kipling, a monograph Heroes and History, illus.
Charles Keeping A Saxon Settler, illus. John Lawrence The series referred to as'Marcus' is linked by the Aquila family dolphin ring and listed here in fictional chronological order; the Eagle of the Ninth, illus. C. Walter Hodges ‡ The Silver Branch, illus. Charles Keeping ‡ Frontier Wolf The Lantern Bearers Sword at Sunset. Charles Keeping Sword Song The Shield Ring, illus. C. Walter Hodges‡ Three Legions, or Eagle of the Ninth Chronicles, is an omnibus edition of the original Eagle of the Ninth trilogy. Raymond Thompson credits Sutcliff with "some of the finest contemporary recreations of the Arthurian story" and names these seven works; the first two are part of the Eagle of the Ninth series that attempt to depict Arthur as an actual historical figure. The Lantern Bearers Sword at Sunset Iseult. Shirley Felts The Light Beyond the Forest, illus. Shirley Felts The Road to Camlann, illus. Shirley Felts The Shining Company; the Chronicles of Robin Hood, illus. C. Walter Hodges — Sutcliff's first published book The Queen Elizabeth Story illus.
C. Walter Hodges The Armourer's House illus. C. Walter Hodges Brother Dusty-Feet, illus. by C. Walter Hodges Simon, illus. Richard Kennedy, cover art by William Stobbs. Richard Kennedy Warrior Scarlet, illus. Charles Keeping Knight's Fee, illus. Charles Kee
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Reading Museum is a museum of the history of the town of Reading, in the English county of Berkshire, the surrounding area. It is accommodated within Reading Town Hall, contains galleries describing the history of Reading and its related industries, a gallery of artefacts discovered during the excavations of Calleva Atrebatum, a copy of the Bayeux Tapestry, finds relating to Reading Abbey and an art collection. Reading Town Hall was built in several phases between 1786 and 1897, although the principal facade was designed by Alfred Waterhouse in 1875. In 1879, the foundation stone was laid for a new wing containing a library and museum, the museum duly opened in 1883. Three art galleries were added in further extension in 1897. In 1975, the civic offices moved out of the Town Hall to Reading Civic Centre, they were followed in 1985 by the Reading Central Library which left only the museum and the concert hall in use. After some debate, plans to demolish the Town Hall and replace it with a new cultural centre were abandoned, in 1986 refurbishment of the building started.
The museum was closed for renewal in 1989, reopening in stages from 1993 to 2000. The Reading: People & Place gallery documents Reading's history, from its origins as a Saxon settlement in the 6th century up to today, with a mixture of oral history presentations, interactive displays and a mix of real objects from the period. There is an emphasis on Reading Abbey; the Silchester Gallery features many archeological finds from the excavations conducted at the nearby Calleva Atrebatum together with explanatory models and other information on life in the Roman town. This includes the bronze Silchester eagle, immortalized by Rosemary Sutcliff in her children’s book The Eagle of the Ninth; the Bayeux Gallery contains the UK's only copy of the famous Bayeux Tapestry, together with information on the history of Saxon migration and Viking raids in the local area. The Green Space explains the geology and natural history of the Reading area, with a wide range of specimens; the Huntley & Palmers Gallery explains the history of the biscuit-making industry, once one of the mainstays of the Reading economy, with special emphasis on the Huntley and Palmers company.
The Windows Gallery displays the museum's collection of sculpture and decorative art, ranging from 12th century pieces from Reading Abbey to modern pieces by Rodin and Epstein. The John Madejski Art Gallery is a recreation of the museum's original Victorian era art gallery and houses changing exhibitions of artworks, it is named after John Madejski, the chairman of Reading F. C.. The Exhibition Gallery houses changing exhibitions, both from the museum's collection and external sources; as an example, in late 2004, the gallery contained an exhibition on the history of the Reading Festival. The museum is free to visit; as of June 2017, it is open from 10:00 to 16:00 on Tuesday to Saturday, closed all day Monday and Sunday, with exceptions for holidays. Reading Foundation for Art was set up in 1974 with the ambition of building an art collection to enrich the lives of the local residents and enhance the cultural fabric of Reading and the surrounding areas, it now has a collection of over 150 works on permanent loan to Reading Museum and is a registered Charity.
Www.readingfoundationforart.org.uk Official website
Bronze is an alloy consisting of copper with about 12–12.5% tin and with the addition of other metals and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability; the archeological period in which bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in India and western Eurasia is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, to the early 2nd millennium BC in China; the Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, although bronze continued to be much more used than it is in modern times. Because historical pieces were made of brasses and bronzes with different compositions, modern museum and scholarly descriptions of older objects use the more inclusive term "copper alloy" instead. There are two basic theories as to the origin of the word.
Romance theoryThe Romance theory holds that the word bronze was borrowed from French bronze, itself borrowed from Italian bronzo "bell metal, brass" from either, bróntion, back-formation from Byzantine Greek brontēsíon from Brentḗsion ‘Brindisi’, reputed for its bronze. Proto-Slavic theoryThe Proto-Slavic theory reflects the philological issue that in the most of Slavonic languages word "bronza" corresponds to "war metal" while at the early stages of the Bronze working it was used exclusively for military purposes; the discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than possible. Bronze tools, weapons and building materials such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors. Bronze was made out of copper and arsenic, forming arsenic bronze, or from or artificially mixed ores of copper and arsenic, with the earliest artifacts so far known coming from the Iranian plateau in the 5th millennium BC, it was only that tin was used, becoming the major non-copper ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC.
Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the alloying process could be more controlled, the resulting alloy was stronger and easier to cast. Unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic; the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to 4500 BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik. Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Egypt and some ancient sites in China and Mesopotamia. Ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not found together, so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a major influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a major source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall, which were traded as far as Phoenicia in the eastern Mediterranean. In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artifacts are found, suggesting that bronze represented a store of value and an indicator of social status. In Europe, large hoards of bronze tools socketed axes, are found, which show no signs of wear.
With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources, the case is clear. These were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, used by the living for ritual offerings. Though bronze is harder than wrought iron, with Vickers hardness of 60–258 vs. 30–80, the Bronze Age gave way to the Iron Age after a serious disruption of the tin trade: the population migrations of around 1200–1100 BC reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean and from Britain, limiting supplies and raising prices. As the art of working in iron improved, iron improved in quality; as cultures advanced from hand-wrought iron to machine-forged iron, blacksmiths learned how to make steel. Steel holds a sharper edge longer. Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day. There are many different bronze alloys, but modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin. Alpha bronze consists of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper.
Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make coins, springs and blades. Historical "bronzes" are variable in composition, as most metalworkers used whatever scrap was on hand; the proportions of this mixture suggests. The Benin Bronzes are in fact brass, the Romanesque Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is described as both bronze and brass. In the Bronze Age, two forms of bronze were used: "classic bronze", about 10% tin, was used in
Calleva Atrebatum was an Iron Age settlement, capital of the Atrebates tribe, subsequently a town in the Roman province of Britannia. Its ruins lie to the west of, beneath, the Church of St Mary the Virgin, Silchester, in the county of Hampshire; the church occupies a site just within the ancient walls of Calleva although the village of Silchester itself now lies about a mile to the west. Unusually for a tribal capital in Britain, the Iron Age town was situated on the same site as the Roman town although the layout was revised; the Late Iron Age settlement at Silchester has been revealed by archaeology and coins of the British Q series link Silchester with the seat of power of the Atrebates. Coins found stamped with "COMMIOS" show that Commius, king of the Atrebates, established his territory and mint here after moving from Gaul; the oppidum was situated on the edge of a gravel plateau. The Inner Earthwork, constructed c. 1 AD, enclosed an area of 32 hectares, a more extensive series of defensive earthworks was built in the wider area.
Small areas of Late Iron Age occupation have been uncovered on the south side of the Inner Earthwork and around the South Gate. More detailed evidence for Late Iron Age occupation was excavated below the Forum-Basilica. Several roundhouses and pits occupy a north-east - south-west alignment, dated to c. 25 BC - 15 BC. Subsequent occupation, dated to c. 15 BC - AD 40/50, consisted of metalled streets, rubbish pits and palisaded enclosures. Imported Gallo-Belgic finewares and iron and copper-alloy brooches show that the settlement was "high status". Distinctive evidence for food was identified, including oyster shell, a large briquetage assemblage and sherds from amphorae which would have contained olive oil, fish sauce and wine. Further areas of Late Iron Age occupation have been uncovered by the Insula IX'Town Life' Project which has revealed a substantial boundary ditch c. 40 - 20 BC, a large rectangular hall c. 25 BC - AD 10 and the laying out of lanes and new property divisions c. AD 10 - 40/50.
Archaeobotanical studies have demonstrated the import and consumption of celery and olive in Insula IX prior to the Claudian Conquest. After the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD the settlement developed into the Roman town of Calleva Atrebatum, it was larger, covering about 40 hectares, was laid out along a distinctive street grid pattern. The town flourished until the early Anglo-Saxon period. A large mansio was situated in Insula VIII, near the South Gate, consisting of three wings arranged around a courtyard. A possible nymphaeum was located near to the amphitheatre to the north of the walled city. Calleva was a major crossroads; the Devil's Highway connected it with the provincial capital Londinium. From Calleva, this road divided into routes to various other points west, including the road to Aquae Sulis; the earthworks and, for much of the circumference, the ruined walls are still visible. The remains of the amphitheatre, added about AD 70-80 and situated outside the city walls, can be seen.
The area inside the walls is now farmland with no visible distinguishing features, other than the enclosing earthworks and walls, with a tiny mediaeval church in one corner. There is a spring that emanates from inside the walls, in the vicinity of the original baths, which flows south-eastwards where it joins Silchester Brook. Silchester was abandoned in the 5th to 7th century, unusually late compared to other deserted Roman settlements; the historian David Nash Ford identifies the site with the Cair Celemion of Nennius's list of the 28 cities of Sub-Roman Britain. Most Roman towns in Britain continued to exist after the end of the Roman era, their remains underlay their more recent successors, which are still major population centres. There is a suggestion that the Saxons deliberately avoided Calleva after it was abandoned, preferring to maintain their existing centres at Winchester and Dorchester. There was a gap of a century before the twin Saxon towns of Basing and Reading were founded on rivers either side of Calleva.
As a consequence, Calleva has been subject to benign neglect for most of the last two millennia. Calleva Atrebatum was first excavated by the Rev. James Joyce who, in 1866, discovered the bronze eagle known as'The Silchester Eagle' now in the Museum of Reading, it may have formed part of a Jupiter statue in the forum. Calleva was excavated by the Society of Antiquaries of London between 1890 and 1909, this excavation provided valuable information about civic life and daily life in the first centuries AD, as well as a map of the town. Whilst the excavation techniques of the time could deal with buildings with stone foundations, they were not capable of recovering timber construction that predominated in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD and which may have been destroyed; the excavations included pioneering studies of plant remains including imported plant foods and insects. Molly Cotton carried out excavations on the defences from 1938-39. Since the 1970s Michael Fulford and the University of Reading have undertaken several excavations on the town walls and the forum basilica, which has revealed remarkably good preservation of items from both the Iron Age and early Roman occupations.
From 1997 to 2014 Reading University has made sustained and concentrated excavations in Insula IX. Results of the Late Roman and Mid Roman phases have been published. In 2013, excavations be
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving