Silent film

A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. The term "silent film" is something of a misnomer, as these films were always accompanied by live sounds. During the silent era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation. Sometimes a person would narrate the intertitle cards for the audience. Though at the time the technology to synchronize sound with the video did not exist, music was seen as an essential part of the viewing experience.

The term is frequently used to describe sound-era films that have a recorded music-only soundtrack without dialogue, such as City Lights and The Artist. The term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects. Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had negligible continuing financial value in this era, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data.

The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall. These slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used, thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years. The next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision." Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface.

The invention of film allowed for true motion pictures rather than optical illusions. The film which consisted of flexible and transparent celluloid could record split second pictures. Developed by Étienne-Jules Marey, he was one of the first to experiment with film. In 1882, Marey was experimenting humans and animals in motion and developed a camera that could take 12 photographs per second of animals or humans in motion; the three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.

The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.

This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the work of Muybridge, Le Prince laid the foundation for future development of motion picture cameras, projectors and t

Juan Pablo Ocegueda

Juan Pablo Ocegueda de Alba is an American soccer player who plays as a left back for California United Strikers in the National Independent Soccer Association. He played in the UANL academy, as well as Orange County SC and Oaxaca. Ocegueda spent the bulk of his youth career in Tigres' academy. In July 2013, he was loaned to Chivas for the Apertura season, but he did not play for the club's first team. Back with Tigres, Ocegueda made his professional debut on March 13, 2014, in a Copa MX match against Puebla. Ocegueda played for the US under-20 national team in the 2013 CONCACAF U-20 Championship and the 2013 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Ocegueda announced he would no longer play for the U. S. after joining Chivas, who have a strict Mexican-only policy. However, Ocegueda left Chivas after just half a season when his loan to the club expired

Cheektowaga (CDP), New York

Cheektowaga is a suburban community and census-designated place in Erie County, New York, United States. The population was 75,178 at the 2010 census, making it the most populous census-designated place in New York, it is within the town of Cheektowaga. The CDP includes Buffalo Niagara International Airport. Cheektowaga is part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area. Cheektowaga is located at 42°54′43″N 78°45′34″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 25.5 square miles. None of the area is covered with water; as of the census of 2000, there were 79,988 people, 34,188 households, 21,914 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 3,142.9 per square mile. There were 35,829 housing units at an average density of 1,407.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 94.37% White, 3.35% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 1.04% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.99% of the population.

There were 34,188 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.91. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 20.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $37,928, the median income for a family was $46,486. Males had a median income of $34,565 versus $25,415 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $19,796. About 4.6% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.

Cheektowaga Northwest, a census-designated place recorded within the northwestern part of the area in 1960. Cheektowaga Southwest, a census-designated place recorded within the southwestern part of the area in 1960