Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe located in modern Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is about 40,000 km2, its population about 8,000,000. Silesia is located along the Oder River, it consists of Upper Silesia. The region is rich in mineral and natural resources, includes several important industrial areas. Silesia's largest city and historical capital is Wrocław; the biggest metropolitan area is the Upper Silesian metropolitan area, the centre of, Katowice. Parts of the Czech city of Ostrava fall within the borders of Silesia. Silesia's borders and national affiliation have changed over time, both when it was a hereditary possession of noble houses and after the rise of modern nation-states; the first known states to hold power there were those of Greater Moravia at the end of the 9th century and Bohemia early in the 10th century. In the 10th century, Silesia was incorporated into the early Polish state, after its division in the 12th century became a Piast duchy.
In the 14th century, it became a constituent part of the Bohemian Crown Lands under the Holy Roman Empire, which passed to the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy in 1526. Most of Silesia was conquered by Prussia in 1742 and transferred from Austria to Prussia in the Treaty of Berlin. Silesia became, as a province of Prussia, a part of the German Empire and the subsequent Weimar Republic; the varied history with changing aristocratic possessions resulted in an abundance of castles in Silesia in the Jelenia Góra valley. After World War I, the easternmost part of this region, i.e. an eastern strip of Upper Silesia, was awarded to Poland by the Entente Powers after insurrections by Poles and the Upper Silesian plebiscite. The remaining former Austrian parts of Silesia were partitioned to Czechoslovakia, forming part of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland region, are today part of the Czech Republic. In 1945, after World War II, the bulk of Silesia was transferred, on demand of the Polish delegation, to Polish jurisdiction by the Potsdam Agreement between the victorious Allies and became part of Poland, whose Communist government expelled the majority of Silesia's previous population.
The small Lusatian strip west of the Oder–Neisse line, which had belonged to Silesia since 1815, remained in Germany. The largest town and cultural centre of this region is Görlitz; as the result of the forced population shifts of 1945-48, today's inhabitants of Silesia speak the national languages of their respective countries. German-speaking Lower Silesia has developed a new mixed Polish dialect. An ongoing debate exists whether Silesian speech should be considered a dialect of Polish or a separate language. A Lower Silesian German dialect remains, although today it is extinct due to their speakers' expulsion; the names of Silesia in different languages most share their etymology—Latin and English: Silesia. The names all relate to the name of a mountain in mid-southern Silesia; the mountain served as a cultic place. Ślęża is listed as one of the numerous Pre-Indo-European topographic names in the region. According to some Polish Slavists, the name Ślęża or Ślęż is directly related to the Old Slavic words ślęg or śląg, which means dampness, moisture, or humidity.
They disagree with the hypothesis of an origin for the name Śląsk from the name of the Silings tribe, an etymology preferred by some German authors. In the fourth century BC from the south, through the Kłodzko Valley, the Celts entered Silesia, settled around Mount Ślęża near modern Wrocław, Oława and Strzelin. Germanic Lugii tribes were first recorded within Silesia in the 1st century. Slavic peoples arrived in the region around the 7th century, by the early ninth century, their settlements had stabilized. Local Slavs started to erect boundary structures like the Silesia Walls; the eastern border of Silesian settlement was situated to the west of the Bytom, east from Racibórz and Cieszyn. East of this line dwelt a related Slav tribe, the Vistulans, their northern border was in the valley of the Barycz River, north of. The first known states in Silesia were Bohemia. In the 10th century, the Polish ruler Mieszko I of the Piast dynasty incorporated Silesia into the Polish state. During the Fragmentation of Poland and the rest of the country were divided among many independent duchies ruled by various Silesian dukes.
During this time, German cultural and ethnic influence increased as a result of immigration from German-speaking parts of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1178, parts of the Duchy of Kraków around Bytom, Oświęcim, Chrzanów, Siewierz were transferred to the Silesian Piasts, although their population was Vistulan and not of Silesian descent. Between 1289 and 1292, Bohemian king Wenceslaus II became suzerain of some of the Upper Silesian duchies. Polish kings had not renounced their hereditary rights to Silesia until 1335; the province became part of the Bohemian Crown under the Holy Roman Empire, passed with that crown to the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526. In the 15th century, several changes were made to Silesia's borders
The Union List or List-I is a list of 100 numbered items given in Seventh Schedule in the Constitution of India on which Parliament has exclusive power to legislate. The legislative section is divided into three lists: State List and Concurrent List. Unlike the federal governments of the United States, Switzerland or Australia, residual powers remain with the Union Government, as with the Canadian federal government. There are 97 items on the list; these are: 01. Defence of India and every part thereof including preparation for defence and all such acts as may be conducive in times of war to its prosecution and after its termination to effective demobilisation. 02. Naval and air forces. 2A. Deployment of any armed forces of the Union or any other force subject to the control of the Union or any contingent or unit thereof in any State in aid of the civil power. 03. Delimitation of cantonment areas, local self-government in such areas, the constitution and powers within such areas of cantonment authorities and the regulation of house accommodation in such areas.
04. Naval and air force works. 05. Arms, firearms and explosives. 06. Atomic energy and mineral resources necessary for its production. 07. Industries declared by Parliament by law to be necessary for the purpose of defence or for the prosecution of war. 08. Central Bureau of Intelligence and Investigation. 09. Preventive detention for reasons connected with Foreign Affairs, or the security of India. 10. Foreign affairs. 11. Diplomatic and trade representation. 12. United Nations Organisation. 13. Participation in international conferences and other bodies and implementing of decisions made thereat. 14. Entering into treaties and agreements with foreign countries and implementing of treaties and conventions with foreign Countries. 15. War and peace. 16. Foreign jurisdiction. 17. Citizenship and aliens. 18. Extradition. 19. Admission into, emigration and expulsion from, India. 20. Pilgrimages to places outside India. 21. Piracies and crimes committed in the air. 22. Railways. 23. Highways declared by or under law made by Parliament to be national highways.
24. Shipping and navigation on inland waterways, declared by Parliament by law to be national waterways, as regards mechanically propelled vessels. Maritime shipping and navigation, including shipping and navigation on tidal waters. 26. Lighthouses, including lightships and other provision for the safety of shipping and aircraft. 27. Ports declared by or under law made by Parliament or existing law to be major ports, including their delimitation, the constitution and powers of port authorities therein. 28. Port quarantine, including hospitals connected therewith. 29. Airways aircraft and air navigation. 30. Carriage of passengers and goods by railway, sea or air, or by national waterways in mechanically propelled vessels. 31. Posts and telegraphs, wireless and other like forms of communication. 32. Property of the Union and the revenue therefrom, but as regards property situated in a State subject to legislation by the State, save in so far as Parliament by law otherwise provides. 33. Acquisition or requisitioning of property for the purposes of the Union Act,1956 34.
Courts of wards for the estates of Rulers of Indian States. 35. Public debt of the Union. 36. Currency and legal tender. 37. Foreign loans. 38. Reserve Bank of India. 39. Post Office Savings Bank. 40. Lotteries organised by the Government of a State. 41. Trade and commerce with foreign countries import and export across customs frontiers definition of customs frontiers. 42. Inter-State trade and commerce. 43. Incorporation and winding up of trading Corporations, including banking and financial corporations but not including Co-operative Societies. 44. Incorporation and winding up of corporations, whether trading or not, with objects not confined to one State, but not including universities. 45. Banking. 46. Bills of exchange, promissory notes and other like instruments. 47. Insurance. 48. Stock exchanges and futures markets. 49. Patents and designs. 50. Establishment of standards of weight and measure. 51. Establishment of standards of quality for goods to be exported out of India or transported from one State to another.
52. Industries, the control of which by the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest. 53. Regulation and development of oilfields and mineral oil resources. 54. Regulation of mines and mineral development to the extent to which such regulation and development under the control of the Union is declared by
Adriaan Nicolaas Petrus Pelzer was a South African Afrikaans academic, historian and Professor at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. He retired as acting rector in 1980 from the University of Pretoria. Among books published are the following "The Afrikaner-Broederbond: First 50 Years" and "Verwoerd Speaks Speeches 1948–1966", he was member of the "National Monuments Council" and in 1978 received the Laureate Award from the University of Pretoria. The Laureate Award is the highest award granted by the University of Pretoria. From 1965 to 1978 he was vice-president and member of the executive committee of Northern-Transvaal Rugby Union, lifelong member from 1979. Adriaan Nicolaas Petrus Pelzer was born 25 December 1915 in the South African town of Ermelo, he grew up on a farm called "Voorsorg" in the district of Estantia in South Africa. He finished school in 1932 and in 1933 continued his studies as a student at the University of Pretoria and the student house of "Sonop" and received his bachelor's degree cum laude with mayor subjects Afrikaans and History.
Two years in 1937 he achieve a master's degree in history and an advanced certificate in education, both cum laude. After receiving a bursary from the University for postgraduate studies, he decided to travel to Amsterdam in 1938 and enrol at the University of Amsterdam, he was to receive his PhD degree on 10 May 1940, but two weeks before took the last boat out of The Netherlands back to South Africa as WWII swept over Europe and the German invasion of the Netherlands seemed imminent. Back in South Africa he took up teaching in a school in the town of Vereeniging from 1940 to 1941. In this time his completed PhD dissertation was accepted at the University of Pretoria and awarded the degree in April 1941. From here he was appointed as a lecturer in the department of History at the University of Pretoria in January 1942, in 1946 as Senior Lector and in 1947 as Professor and head of the department, he served as Dean from October 1954 to 31 March 1970 for the Faculty of Literature. On 1 April 1970 he joined the university administration and on 1 July 1970 was appointed as Registrar and head of the Academic Registration.
He held this post till 1 January 1974 when he was appointed as first Vice-rector of the University of Pretoria. He held this post till retirement at the end of the academic year in 1980, while for the preceding two years was standing in as acting rector for the University of Pretoria. An honorary doctorate in Literature was awarded on 10 October 1980, he served on many committees, chairperson of the South African Archive commission, member of the editorial staff of the South African History Archive yearbook, member of the Historic society of South Africa, member of the academic society for Science and Art, member of the "National Monuments Council", member of the governing body for the "Voortrekker-monument", member of the Kruger-association, member of the Foundation of Simon van der Stel and member of the board of the University Western Cape. His important published Afrikaans literature and books was "Wordingsjare", Jan van Riebeeck, "Portuguese Baanbrekers", "Verwoerd aan die Woord", a documentary on the Afrikaner-Broederbond called "The Afrikaner-Broederbond: The First 50 years”.
He help published the books on the history of South Africa called “Geskiedenis van Suid-Afrika”, history of the Second World War “Geskiedenis van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog”, “Ad Destinatum”, “Lydenburgse Eeufeesgedenkboek 1850–1950”, “Die Rustenburgse Eeufeesgedenkboek 1851–1951”, “Pretoria 1855–1955, Eeufees-album – Pretoria se Eerste Eeu in Beeld”, “Gedenkboek vir Generaal Hertzog”, “Aspekte van die Suid-Afrikaanse Historiografie”, “Tukkie-Sport 1930–1980”. In addition he published many academic articles in academic Journals, he was member of the Afrikaner-Broederbond from 1945 with membership no 3381 and was member of the executive committee of the Afrikaner-Broederbond from 1965 to 1970. Sport and rugby was a lifelong passion and he strived to further sport in the university from a coaching and administration point of view. In 1939 he was the rugby captain of the University of Pretoria’s under 19 team, “Tuks U19” which won the “De Vriesbeker” that year, he started out as coach of the university hostel team and progressed to President of Tukkies from 1960 to 1973.
From 1965 to 1978 he was vice-president and member of the executive committee of Northern-Transvaal Rugby Union, the predecessor to the Blue Bulls and the Bulls Super Rugby franchise). From 1979 he became lifelong member of the executive committee of the NTRU. In 1977 the UP Sport committee gave him a special award for exceptional service to the University Sport and "Tukkie-sport", his interest in the university sport is shown in his published book, "Tukkie-sport 1930–1980" which he wrote for the 50th commemoration of the founding of the University. The book was published after his death in 1982. On 18 Augustus 2006 he was awarded and celebrated posthumously by "Tuks-Sport" in the'Roem-hall' of the University of Pretoria. On 28 June 1941, at the age of 25, he married Reinette Johanna Margaretha Denyssen in the Pretoria-East NG Church, they had three children, Antionette Pelzer born 1 September 1942, Wilna