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Silesian Voivodeship

Silesian Voivodeship, or Silesia Province is a voivodeship, or province, in southern Poland, centered on the historic region known as Upper Silesia, with Katowice serving as its capital. Despite the Silesian Voivodeship's name, most of the historic Silesia region lies outside the present Silesian Voivodeship — divided among Lubusz, Lower Silesian, Opole Voivodeships — while the eastern half of Silesian Voivodeship was part of Lesser Poland; the Voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Katowice, Częstochowa and Bielsko-Biała Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. It is the most densely populated voivodeship in Poland and within the area of 12,300 squared kilometres, there are 5 million inhabitants, it is the largest urbanised area in Central and Eastern Europe. In relation to economy, over 13% of Poland’s Gross Domestic Product is generated here, making the Silesian Voivodeship one of the wealthiest provinces in the country. For the first time Silesian Voivodeship was appointed in Second Polish Republic.

It had much wider range of power autonomy, than other contemporary Polish voivodeships and it covered all historical lands of Upper Silesia, which ended up in the Interwar period Poland. This Voivodeship did not include – as opposed to the present one – lands and cities of old pre-Partition Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Among the last ones the Southern part was included in Kraków Voivodeship Żywiec, Biała Krakowska and Jaworzno), the North Western part Będzin, Dąbrowa Górnicza, Sosnowiec, Częstochowa, Myszków, Zawiercie, Sławków) belonged to Kielce Voivodeship. After aggression of Nazi Germany, on 8 October 1939, Hitler published a decree "About division and administration of Eastern Territories". A Silesian Province was created, with a seat in Breslau, it consisted of four districts: Kattowitz, Oppeln and Liegnitz. The following counties were included in Kattowitz District: Kattowitz, Königshütte, Beuthen Hindenburg, Freistadt, Biala, Saybusch, Pleß, Sosnowitz and parts of the following counties: Kranau, Olkusch and Wadowitz.

However, according to Hitler’s decree from 12 October 1939 about establishing General Government, Tschenstochau belonged to GG. In 1941 the Silesian Province underwent new administrative division and as a result Upper Silesian Province was created: Kattowitz District – entire Silesian Voivodeship without Lubinitz county, Bendzin County, part of Olkusch county, Biala county and parts of Kranau and Wadowitz counties. Oppeln District – Lubinitz county and parts of Tschenstochau and Warthenau counties. After the War during 1945 - 1950 there existed a Silesian Voivodeship known as Śląsko-Dąbrowskie Voivodeship, which included a major part of today's Silesian Voivodeship. In 1950 Śląsko-Dąbrowskie Voivodeship was divided into Katowice Voivodeships; the latter one had borders similar to the borders of modern Silesian Voivodeship. The present Silesian Voivodeship was formed in 1999 from the following voivodeships of the previous administrative division: Katowice Voivodeship excluding some gminas and powiats Bielsk Voivodeship excluding some gminas and powiats Częstochowa Voivodeship excluding some gminas and powiats The Silesian Voivodeship borders both the Moravian-Silesian Region, Žilina Region to the south.

It is bordered by four other Polish voivodeships: those of Opole, Łódź, Świętokrzyskie, Lesser Poland. The region includes the Silesian Upland in the centre and north-west, the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland in the north-east; the southern border is formed by the Beskidy Mountains. The current administrative unit of Silesian Voivodeship is just a fraction of the historical Silesia, within the borders of today's Poland. Other parts of today's Polish Silesia are administered as the Opole, the Lower Silesian Voivodeships and the Lubusz Voivodeship. On the other hand, a large part of the current administrative unit of the Silesian Voivodeship is not part of historical Silesia. Silesian Voivodeship has the highest population density in the country; the region's considerable industrialisation gives it the lowest unemployment rate nationally. The Silesian region is the most industrialized and the most urbanized region in Poland: 78% of its population live in towns and cities. Both northern and southern part of the voivodeship is surrounded by a green belt.

Bielsko-Biała is enveloped by the Beskidy Mountains. It offers over 150 ski l

Sudoku Gridmaster

Sudoku Gridmaster is a Touch generations puzzle game for the Nintendo DS, released on March 23, 2006 in Japan, June 26, 2006 in the United States and October 27, 2006 in Europe. It was developed and published by Hudson Soft in Japan, published by Nintendo in the rest of the world; the game features four hundred sudoku puzzles, four different tutorials as well as four difficulty settings. If the player manages to perform well in the puzzle, they receive stars which can be used to take a sudoku test to determine their skill level; the game uses the Nintendo DS touch screen, which makes writing down and choosing different numbers easier. It is a common misconception. The'Rank Test' mode randomly chooses from the other puzzles, it is not randomly generated and it does not have its own set of puzzles. There exists a bug in the game. Puzzles not yet completed at that point are assigned a time of 59 minutes, 59 seconds; this raises the total playing time to "999 hours, 59 minutes, 59 seconds" regardless of actual playing time.

Sudoku Gridmaster was the first full sudoku game for the Nintendo DS console. IGN's Craig Harris described the game as "good", but felt that Brain Age's sudoku minigame was better, he reported the graphics and music as functional. Harris was confident. Official site


Montanoolithus is an oogenus of fossil egg found in Montana and Alberta. They were laid by a dromaeosaur or a caenagnathid; the type specimen of Montanoolithus was found in the Two Medicine Formation on the Blackfeet Reservation. Other specimens are known from the Oldman Formation in Alberta. All Montanoolithus fossils yet discovered date to the Late Cretaceous. Montanoolithus strongorum is known from a partial egg clutch; when complete, this clutch had at least twelve eggs, arrayed in pairs in a ring, similar to the Asian oviraptorid clutches. The most complete egg is elongated, measuring 125 mm long by 60 mm wide, asymmetrical; the outer surface of its shell is ornamented with anastomosing ridges. Montanoolithus's eggshell ranges from 0.70 to 0.85 mm thick, is composed of two layers. The outer layer, called the columnar layer, is twice as thick as the inner mammillary layer; the two layers are divided by a gradual boundary. The mammillae are formed by wedge-shaped crystals. Cladistic analysis shows Montanoolithus to be maniraptoran eggs, more basal than troodontids, but more derived than oviraptorids.

Maniraptorans are only represented at the Two Medicine formation by Troodon and caenagnathids. Therefore, the parent of Montanoolithus was a dromaeosaur or a caenagnathid; the mother of the Montanoolithus eggs made a mound-shaped nest out of sand, laid the eggs in a ring around the top. The nest was made in a poorly vegetated area. Though no parent was found with the eggs, it is based on its identification as a maniraptoran that the eggs were incubated, since this behavior has been observed in both troodontids and oviraptorids; the pairing of the eggs suggests that, like other maniraptorans, the egg-layer of Montanoolithus had two functioning oviducts which would each form an egg simultaneously. Montanoolithus is classified in its own oofamily, related to the eggs of oviraptorids and birds, it contains a single oospecies: M. strongorum

Louis II of Chalon-Arlay

Louis II of Chalon-Arlay, nicknamed the Good, was Lord of Arlay and Arguel Prince of Orange. He was the son of John III of Chalon-Arlay and his wife, Mary of Baux-Orange, the father of William VII of Chalon-Arlay. Louis was ambitious, he failed. He did manage to extend his territory eastwards, to Lausanne. During his attempts to extend his territory, he would sometimes express loyalty towards the King of France, at other times toward the German Emperor or the Duke of Burgundy. In the end, nobody trusted him. Louis was active in the Netherlands: in 1425, he led an army sent by Philip the Good to support Duke John IV of Brabant in a war against his wife Jacqueline. Louis called himself Count of Geneva, claiming it was part of the inheritance he had received from his mother. However, he was never able to realize this claim; the county of Geneva was held by Antipope Felix V. After Felix's death, Louis fought a long battle against the Counts of Savoy for control of Geneva; the struggle ended. In his last will and testament, Louis stipulated that his children from his second marriage would take precedence over his children from his first marriage when in the division of the inheritance.

After his death, this caused a prolonged struggle between their descendants. Louis married twice: Johanna, the daughter of Count Henry II of Montbéliard and Marie of Châtillon. With her he had one son: William VII, his successor as Prince of Orange Eléonore, a daughter of Count John IV of Armagnac and his second wife, Isabella of Navarre. With her, he had two more sons: Louis, Lord of Chateau-Guyon and Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece Hugh de Chalon, Lord of Château-Guyon, who married Louise of Savoy, a daughter of Duke Amadeus IX of Savoy and Yolande of Valois. Louis II died at his castle at Nozeroy on 3 December 1463, he was succeeded as Prince of Orange by his son William VII. Frédéric Barbey, Louis de Chalon, Prince d'Orange, in the series Mémoires et documents publiés par la Société d'histoire de la Suisse romande, 2nd series, vol. XIII, Librairie Payot, 1926 J. K. H. de Roo van Alderwerelt: De voorgeschiedenis van het wapen gevoerd door de eerste prins van Orange uit het geslacht van de graven van Nassau, in: Jaarboek van het Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie, part XXV, 1971

Dublin Review of Books

The Dublin Review of Books is an Irish review of literature, the arts, culture. The magazine publishes long-form essays exploring themes related to newly published books. Established in 2006, the drb launched its first full issue as an online quarterly review in Spring 2007. Founded and jointly edited by Enda O'Doherty, an Irish Times journalist, Maurice Earls, the proprietor of Books Upstairs bookshop in Dublin, it is consciously modelled on its near-namesakes, the New York Review of Books and the London Review of Books; the magazine aims to provide writers with a forum to develop their arguments and share knowledge in longer review-essays than those found in conventional newspapers and magazines. Along with The Dublin Review, The Honest Ulsterman, The Stinging Fly, various other titles, it is one of a number of periodicals to have contributed to a boom in Irish literary journals over the past decade. Since Autumn 2012, the drb has been published fortnightly online, with additional material published between each issue in the form of shorter blog posts.

Since the magazine's inception, many notable writers, academics and politicians from Ireland and further afield have contributed to it. Previous contributors have included: Earls, Maurice. Space to Think: Ten Years of the Dublin Review of Books. Dublin. Official website

Otto K. Lind

Otto K. Lind was a Danish resistance fighter and general, who served as Chief of Defence. Lind completed his training at the Royal Danish Military Academy in 1943, at the rank of First Lieutenant shortly before the dissolution of armed forces, he started working for the resistance movement and collecting intelligence. In 1944, he was arrested in Nørre Nissum, where he was gathering intelligence on the German fortifications, he was taken by the Gestapo to Århus. He was sent to Frøslev Prison Camp, where he spent the remainder of the war. After the war, he served as lieutenant colonel at Dronningens Livregiment. In 1974, he became major general and chief for the Defence's Operation Staff before becoming chief of BALTAP, in 1980; when Knud Jørgensen retired as Chief of Defence in 1984, Lind was selected as the new Chief, served a year before Lind had to retire in 1985. He died in 2000