Julius the Veteran
Saint Julius the Veteran known as Julius of Durostorum, is a Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox saint and martyr. His feast day is May 27. Julius of Durostorum was served as a Roman soldier for 27 years. Although a veteran of several military campaigns, he converted to Christianity and was denounced by his fellow soldiers. Under the Diocletian Persecution, the examining prefect, tried to bribe the veteran into denouncing his faith. Julius declined, he and seven others were beheaded in Durostorum, the Roman camp in Moesia Inferior and died as martyrs. L. Arik Greenberg: My Share of God's Reward. Exploring the Roles and Formulations of the Afterlife in Early Christian Martyrdom, Reihe: Studies in Biblical Literature - Band 121, New York, Berlin, Frankfurt am Main, Wien 2009, ISBN 978-1-4331-0487-9, S. 195–198. Julius the Veteran at Patron Saints Index Saints of May 27 at St. Patrick Catholic Church in Washington D. C. Julius von Dorostorum
The Bulgaria–Romania border is the state border between Bulgaria and Romania. For most of its length, the border follows the course of the lower Danube River up until the town of Silistra, where the river continues north into the Romanian territory. East of that point, the land border passes through the historical region of Dobruja, dividing it into Northern Dobruja in Romania and Southern Dobruja in Bulgaria; the Bulgaria–Romania border is an internal border of the European Union. However, as of 2019 neither country is part of the Schengen Area; as a result, border controls are conducted between the two countries, albeit jointly. Vidin–Calafat: road, railway Oryahovo-Bechet: ferry Nikopol-Turnu Măgurele: ferry Svishtov-Zimnicea: ferry Ruse–Giurgiu: road, railway Silistra–Ostrov: road Kaynardzha–Lipnița: road Kardam–Negru Vodă: road, railway Durankulak–Vama Veche: road Bulgaria–Romania relations
Dasius of Durostorum
Dasius of Durostorum is a Christian martyr of the early 4th century AD. He was a Roman soldier of Legio XI Claudiana at Durostorum, Moesia Inferior, beheaded in the early 4th century after his refusal to take the part of "king" in the local Saturnalia celebrations. Dasius was the first of twelve martyrs executed at Durostorum during the Diocletianic Persecution. A Greek Passion of St. Dasius survives known as the Acta Dasii, dated to between the late 4th and late 6th centuries; this text was discovered in the 1890s by Franz Cumont in an 11th-century manuscript. Before Cumont's discovery, the saint had only been known from short entries in various medieval martyrologies; the text of the Acta Dasii as it survives does not have an earlier date than the late 4th century, as Dasius is anachronistically depicted as professing the Neo-Nicene creed as laid down in 381. Cumont himself dated the text to the 5th or 6th century, considering the possibility that this text was in turn based on an older, 4th-century Latin text, which would have been written within a few decades of the historical event.
Cumont's assumptions are based on linguistic considerations on the numerous Latinisms in the Greek text. Cumont was of the opinion. A number of minor anachronisms were introduced when the Latin text was translated into Greek in the 5th or 6th century. There was a significant scholarly debate on the text during the years following Cumont's conclusions. Pillinger has called into question some of Cumont's opinions in her more recent edition of the text; the text purports to present a record of the questioning of Dasius by a legate called Bassus. In this dialogue, Dasius refuses to honour the Imperial cult; the situation as described in the text thus presupposes the fourth Diocletian edict of 304, which required Roman soldiers to sacrifice to the emperor. Many veteran legionaries had been Christian during many years of service and now found themselves before the choice of either renouncing their religion or facing execution. After being questioned, Dasius is tortured and decapitated by one Johannes Aniketos.
But hagiographical tradition tends to assign earlier date to the martyrdom, either 302, 303 or 292. A parallel case is recorded in the passion of Julius the Veteran; the text is unusual for a passio because it dedicates about one third of its content to a description of the Saturnalia festival celebrated by the pagan legionaries stationed in Durostorum. Each year, a legionary was chosen by lot to be the "king" of the festival for one month, which gave him unusual privileges and licence, but at the end of the month this "king" would be sacrificed before the altar of Saturn. In the year in question, the lot fell on Dasius, for whom, as a Christian, this was doubly condemning, as not only would he have to spend a month worshipping pagan idols, he would then lose his life as a sacrifice to a pagan deity and damn his soul. Therefore, he preferred to refuse to accept the role of king and accept torture and execution instead. After the Avar invasion of lower Moesia in the 6th century, Dasius's remains were transferred to Ancona.
They now rest in a marble sarcophagus kept in the Museo Diocesiano next to Ancona Cathedral. Veneration of the saint was widespread during the 5th to 7th centuries, his feast day is 20 November. In the Martyrologium Hieronymianum, Dasius's name is recorded as Bassus, Taxius an Dasus, with various feast days, among others 5 August in Irakleio, Attica, 21 December in Axiopolis in Moesia and 20 October in Puteoli; the oldest known icon of the saint is under the date of 20 November. On the occasion of his visit to Bulgaria in 2002, John Paul II donated the right humerus of Dasius, taken from the Ancona relics, to the church of Silistra; the bone was presented in a small marble chest made to look similar to the Ancona sarcophagus. The Acta Dasii is one source for the reconstruction of Saturnalia customs in Late Antiquity. Dasius was chosen by lot to act as "king" in the Saturnalia celebrations during one month, after which he would have to cut his own throat before Saturn's altar in a form of human sacrifice.
This supposed "custom" is not found in any other source, though Saturnalia is among the best-attested Roman festivals. The emperor Nero. Cumont doubted that the claim that the sacrifice of the Saturnalian "king" reflects historical practice, he found it more that the king would be required to sacrifice to Saturn. Cumont thought that the account of Dasius's execution by one Johannes Aniketos might be an error in translation, as Johannes was a Christian name, which would suggest that one Christian executed another. Cumont suggested. Cumont's publication attracted much attention among scholars. A review by Léon Parmentier was published still in 1897. Not all of Cumont's conclusions were accepted, some critics tended to believe that the Saturnalia customs among legionaries at the time might indeed have involved a human sacrifice. Parmentier believed that no actual human sacrifice would have taken place, but argued that the claim of such was genuine to the original text, in an instance of 4th-century Christian propaganda depicting pagan customs as abhorrent.
Frazer in his Golden Bough accepts the historicity of the human sacrifice, its late presence in Moesia as an archaism preserving a practice which had once been universal. In the conte
Battle of Southern Buh
The Battle of Southern Buh occurred near the banks of the eponymous river, in modern Ukraine. The result was a great Bulgarian victory which forced the Magyars of the Etelköz realm to abandon the steppes of southern Ukraine, as well as their aspirations of subduing Danube Bulgaria, retreating to the newly occupied lands beyond the Carpathian Mountains, centering on Pannonia, from where they will stage their next war, against Moravians this time, defeating them and establishing a new Hungary, after the Etelköz state in modern Ukraine, which succeeded an earlier stage of statehood for the Magyars, the legendary although short-lived Levedia, one before that, in the actual country of origin for the Magyars, beyond river Ob. In 894 a war broke out between Bulgaria and Byzantium after the decision of Emperor Leo VI the Wise, to implement a request of his father-in-law, basileopater Stylianos Zaoutzes, to move the center of the Balkan trade activities from Constantinople to Thessaloniki, turned out inducing higher tariffs on Bulgarian trade.
So Bulgaria's Tsar Simeon I defeats the Byzantines near Adrianople. But the Byzantines turn to their standard method for handling such situations: they bribe a third party to assist, on this case, they hire the Magyars of the Etelköz State to attack Danube Bulgaria from the northeast; the Magyars cross the Danube in 895, are victorious over the Bulgars twice. So Simeon withdraws to Durostorum, which he defends, while during 896 he finds some assistance for his side, persuading the Byzantine-friendly Pechenegs to help him out. While the Pechenegs began to combat the Magyars on their eastern frontier and his father Boris I, the former tsar who left his monastery retreat to assist his heir in the occasion, gather an enormous army and march to the north to defend their empire. Simeon ordered three days of fasting, saying that the soldiers should repent for their sins and seek help in God; when this was done, the battle began. It was long and unusually fierce but in the end the Bulgarians were victorious.
The victory allowed Simeon to lead his troops to the south where he decisively defeated the Byzantines in the battle of Boulgarophygon. The war ended with a peace treaty which formally lasted until around Leo VI's death in 912, under which Byzantium was obliged to pay Bulgaria an annual tribute in exchange for the return of 120,000 captured Byzantine soldiers and civilians. Under the treaty, the Byzantines ceded an area between the Black Sea and Strandzha to the Bulgarian Empire, while the Bulgarians promised not to invade Byzantine territory. Andreev, Jordan; the Bulgarian Tsars. Veliko Tarnovo: Abagar. ISBN 954-427-216-X. Obolensky, Dimitri; the Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500-1453. London: Cardinal. Peychev, Atanas. 1300 Years On Guard. Sofia: Voenno Izdatelstvo. Runciman, Steven. "The Two Eagles". A History of the First Bulgarian Empire. London: George Bell & Sons. OCLC 832687. Whittow, Mark; the Making of Byzantium. Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20497-2. Zlatarski, Vasil.
History of the Bulgarian state in the Middle Ages. I. History of the First Bulgarian Empire.. Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo. OCLC 67080314."Part I. From the Slavianization to the Fall of the First Empire. Struggle with Byzantium for Political Supremacy. Emperor Simeon and his first war with Byzantium". Http://www.promacedonia.org/vz1b/vz1b_4_1.html. Йордан Андреев, Милчо Лалков, Българските ханове и царе, Велико Търново, 1996
Western Roman Empire
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court. The terms Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire are modern descriptions that describe political entities that were de facto independent; the Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476, the Western imperial court was formally dissolved in 480. The Eastern imperial court survived until 1453. Though the Empire had seen periods with more than one Emperor ruling jointly before, the view that it was impossible for a single emperor to govern the entire Empire was institutionalised to reforms to Roman law by emperor Diocletian following the disastrous civil wars and disintegrations of the Crisis of the Third Century, he introduced the system of the tetrarchy in 286, with two separate senior emperors titled Augustus, one in the East and one in the West, each with an appointed Caesar. Though the tetrarchic system would collapse in a matter of years, the East–West administrative division would endure in one form or another over the coming centuries.
As such, the Western Roman Empire would exist intermittently in several periods between the 3rd and 5th centuries. Some emperors, such as Constantine I and Theodosius I, governed as the sole Augustus across the Roman Empire. On the death of Theodosius I in 395, he divided the empire between his two sons, with Honorius as his successor in the West, governing from Mediolanum, Arcadius as his successor in the East, governing from Constantinople. In 476, after the Battle of Ravenna, the Roman Army in the West suffered defeat at the hands of Odoacer and his Germanic foederati. Odoacer became the first King of Italy. In 480, following the assassination of the previous Western emperor Julius Nepos, the Eastern emperor Zeno dissolved the Western court and proclaimed himself the sole emperor of the Roman Empire; the date of 476 was popularized by the 18th century British historian Edward Gibbon as a demarcating event for the end of the Western Empire and is sometimes used to mark the transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages.
Odoacer's Italy, other barbarian kingdoms, would maintain a pretence of Roman continuity through the continued use of the old Roman administrative systems and nominal subservience to the Eastern Roman court. In the 6th century, emperor Justinian I re-imposed direct Imperial rule on large parts of the former Western Roman Empire, including the prosperous regions of North Africa, the ancient Roman heartland of Italy and parts of Hispania. Political instability in the Eastern heartlands, combined with foreign invasions and religious differences, made efforts to retain control of these territories difficult and they were lost for good. Though the Eastern Empire retained territories in the south of Italy until the eleventh century, the influence that the Empire had over Western Europe had diminished significantly; the papal coronation of the Frankish King Charlemagne as Roman Emperor in 800 marked a new imperial line that would evolve into the Holy Roman Empire, which presented a revival of the Imperial title in Western Europe but was in no meaningful sense an extension of Roman traditions or institutions.
The Great Schism of 1054 between the churches of Rome and Constantinople further diminished any authority the Emperor in Constantinople could hope to exert in the west. As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the central government in Rome could not rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were problematic given the vast extent of the Empire. News of invasion, natural disasters, or epidemic outbreak was carried by ship or mounted postal service requiring much time to reach Rome and for Rome's orders to be returned and acted upon. Therefore, provincial governors had de facto autonomy in the name of the Roman Republic. Governors had several duties, including the command of armies, handling the taxes of the province and serving as the province's chief judges. Prior to the establishment of the Empire, the territories of the Roman Republic had been divided in 43 BC among the members of the Second Triumvirate: Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Antony received the provinces in the East: Achaea and Epirus, Bithynia and Asia, Syria and Cyrenaica.
These lands had been conquered by Alexander the Great. The whole region the major cities, had been assimilated into Greek culture, Greek serving as the lingua franca. Octavian obtained the Roman provinces of the West: Italia, Gallia Belgica, Hispania; these lands included Greek and Carthaginian colonies in the coastal areas, though Celtic tribes such as Gauls and Celtiberians were culturally dominant. Lepidus received the minor province of Africa. Octavian soon took Africa while adding Sicilia to his holdings. Upon the defeat of Mark Antony, a victorious Octavian controlled a united Roman Em
The Bulgarian–Hungarian wars were a series of conflicts that occurred during the 9th–14th centuries between the Bulgarian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. The nearly 500-year conflict encompassed the northern and western Balkans, or what is known today as north-western Serbia and northern Bulgaria; the first clashes occurred in the late 9th century. During the 10th century, the Hungarians overran the Bulgarian dukes in what is now Transylvania and conquered the eastern parts of the Pannonian Plain, their raids against Bulgaria continued until the middle of the century. Both countries sustained friendly relations until 1003 when another war broke out, further diminishing Bulgarian power in Eastern Europe. In 1185, after the re-establishment of the Bulgarian Empire, both states fought numerous conflicts for control over the provinces of Belgrade, Branicevo and Severin Banat. In 862, at the invitation of their ally the Moravian leader Rastislav, the Hungarians first raided Pannonia; the following year, Louis the German, king of Eastern Francia, retaliated by forging an alliance with the Bulgarians.
Boris I of Bulgaria sent mounted troops to help defeat Rastislav. This retaliation began an ongoing conflict which lasted for 25 years, pitting Hungarians and Moravians against Bulgarians and Franks; the Hungarian Conquest was one of the factors. In 881, prior to the Conquest, the Moravian Svatopluk received assistance from the Hungarians who advanced as far as Vienna. Two years Svatopluk suffered a punishing blow from the Bulgarians. In 892, when Svatopluk once again refused to pay obeisance to the Franks, his Hungarian allies continued to aid him, but the Bulgarians retaliated again; the situation took a decisive turn in September 892, when the Bulgarian Prince Vladimir informed the Frankish king Arnulf's envoys that the Franks could no longer count on his military aid in the Carpathian Basin. The Frank delegation was still there. In response, the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI's envoy Niketas Skleros met on the Lower Danube with the Hungarian ruling princes Árpád and Kurszán, they agreed to form an alliance.
As a result, a Hungarian force, led by Árpád's son, Liüntika, was ferried across the Danube by the Byzantines and attacked Simeon's Bulgarians from the rear. Simeon suspended his campaign against Byzantium to turn against the Hungarians. Defeated by the Hungarians, he sought refuge in the castle at Drastar; that same year, in 894, Hungarian warriors advanced into the Carpathian Basin and Pannonia to aid the Moravians in their fight against the Bulgarians' Frankish allies. When they learned of Svatopluk's death, the Hungarians pulled back, though only as far as the region of the Upper Tisza. In spring 895, Árpád followed with his army and, after some skirmishes on the Great Plain, defeated the Bulgarian army. Having hurriedly made peace with Byzantium, the Bulgarians concentrated their forces to defeat Liüntika's Hungarians. After the Hungarians retreated, Simeon pretended to agree to negotiations – but the Byzantine envoy Leo Chirosphact who arrived to the Bulgarian capital Preslav was put in custody and Simeon deliberately prolonged the peace talks.
In the meantime he allied with the Pechenegs and launched attacks on the Hungarian encampments in the Etelköz. In the bloody battle of Southern Buh the Bulgarians led by Simeon I and his father Boris I decisively defeated the Hungarians; the ensuing, massive withdrawal by the Hungarians ended in the'conquest', or rather settlement, of what became the Hungarian's permanent homeland. Soon after the Bulgarian victory, the Simeon stopped the negotiations and in the summer of 896 the Byzantine army was routed at Boulgarophygon; when the Hungarians arrived to settle in the Carpathian Basin, they encountered little resistance on the part of the Bulgarians. The small but noteworthy communities implanted by the Bulgarians in Transylvania and between the Tisa and Danube did not have the option of fleeing from the Hungarians, who came in overwhelming force; the Moravians came under Hungarian rule but continued to use their burial grounds into the early 10th century. With the emergence of the Árpád dynasty after Kurszán's death, a new clan ruled over the Hungarians.
There is no indication of the time when the ruling gyulas transferred their headquarters and residence to the middle Maros valley. The gyula must have been in charge of eastern and southern affairs, for he directed the raids against Byzantium and Bulgaria in April 934 and April 943; the blows suffered at the hands of the Pechenegs and Bulgarians in 895–896 induced great caution in the Hungarians. Constantine Porphyrogenetos noted that the Hungarians feared the Pechenegs, who were used by the Bulgarians to keep the Hungarians in check. When, early in the 10th century, Byzantine envoys urged the Hungarian leaders to attack the Pechenegs, their proposal was rejected on the grounds that it carried too many risks, they tried to preserve peaceful relations with the Pechenegs so that they would be free to concentrate on more westerly targets. The Pechenegs, for their part, preferred to raid the richer lands of the Bulgarians and Byzantines rather than the poorer Carpathian Basin, in a state of some turmoil due to the Hungarian conquest.
Thus the anti-Hungarian alliance of the Bulgarians and the Byzantine empire fell apart, the two old enemies, the
First Bulgarian Empire
The First Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in Southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. It was founded in 681. There they secured Byzantine recognition of their right to settle south of the Danube by defeating – with the help of local South Slavic tribes – the Byzantine army led by Constantine IV. At the height of its power, Bulgaria spread from the Danube Bend to the Black Sea and from the Dnieper River to the Adriatic Sea; as the state solidified its position in the Balkans, it entered into a centuries-long interaction, sometimes friendly and sometimes hostile, with the Byzantine Empire. Bulgaria emerged as Byzantium's chief antagonist to its north; the two powers enjoyed periods of peace and alliance, most notably during the Second Arab siege of Constantinople, where the Bulgarian army broke the siege and destroyed the Arab army, thus preventing an Arab invasion of Southeastern Europe. Byzantium had a strong cultural influence on Bulgaria, which led to the eventual adoption of Christianity in 864.
After the disintegration of the Avar Khaganate, the country expanded its territory northwest to the Pannonian Plain. The Bulgarians confronted the advance of the Pechenegs and Cumans, achieved a decisive victory over the Magyars, forcing them to establish themselves permanently in Pannonia. During the late 9th and early 10th centuries, Simeon I achieved a string of victories over the Byzantines. Thereafter, he was recognized with the title of Emperor, proceeded to expand the state to its greatest extent. After the annihilation of the Byzantine army in the battle of Anchialus in 917, the Bulgarians laid siege to Constantinople in 923 and 924; the Byzantines, however recovered, in 1014, under Basil II, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Bulgarians at the Battle of Kleidion. By 1018, the last Bulgarian strongholds had surrendered to the Byzantine Empire, the First Bulgarian Empire had ceased to exist, it was succeeded by the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185. After the adoption of Christianity, Bulgaria became the cultural center of Slavic Europe.
Its leading cultural position was further consolidated with the invention of the Glagolitic and Early Cyrillic alphabets shortly after in the capital Preslav, literature produced in Old Bulgarian soon began spreading north. Old Bulgarian became the lingua franca of much of Eastern Europe and it came to be known as Old Church Slavonic. In 927, the independent Bulgarian Patriarchate was recognized; the ruling Bulgars and other non-Slavic tribes in the empire mixed and adopted the prevailing Slavic language, thus forming the Bulgarian nation from the 7th century to the 9th century. Since the late 9th century, the names Bulgarians and Bulgarian gained prevalence and became permanent designations for the local population, both in literature and in common parlance; the development of Old Church Slavonic literacy had the effect of preventing the assimilation of the South Slavs into neighbouring cultures, while stimulating the formation of a distinct Bulgarian identity. The First Bulgarian Empire became known as Bulgaria since its recognition by the Byzantine Empire in 681.
Some historians use the terms First Bulgarian State, or First Bulgarian Tsardom. Between 681 and 864 the country was known as the Bulgarian Khanate, Danube Bulgarian Khanate, or Danube Bulgar Khanate in order to differentiate it from Volga Bulgaria, which emerged from another Bulgar group. During its early existence, the country was called the Bulgar state or Bulgar Khaghanate. Between 864 and 917/927, the country was known as the Principality of Bulgaria or Knyazhestvo Bulgaria. In English language sources, the country is known as the Bulgarian Empire. Parts of the eastern Balkan Peninsula were in antiquity inhabited by the Thracians who were a group of Indo-European tribes; the whole region as far north as the Danube River was incorporated into the Roman Empire by the 1st century AD. The decline of the Roman Empire after the 3rd century AD and the continuous invasions of Goths and Huns left much of the region devastated, depopulated and in economic decline by the 5th century; the surviving eastern half of the Roman Empire, called by historians the Byzantine Empire, could not exercise effective control in these territories other than in the coastal areas and certain cities in the interior.
Nonetheless, it never relinquished the claim to the whole region up to the Danube. A series of administrative, legislative and economic reforms somewhat improved the situation but despite these reforms disorder continued in much of the Balkans; the reign of Emperor Justinian I saw temporary recovery of control and reconstruction of a number of fortresses but after his death the empire was unable to face the threat of the Slavs due to the significant reduction of revenue and manpower. The Slavs, of Indo-European origin, were first mentioned in written sources to inhabit the territories to the north of the Danube in the 5th century AD but most historians agree that they had arrived earlier; the group of Slavs that came to be known as the South Slavs was divided into Antes and Sclaveni who spoke the same language. The Slavic incursions in the Balkans increased during the second half of Justinian I's reign and while these were pillaging raids, large-scale settlement began in the 570s and 580s; this migration is associated with the arrival of the Avars who settled in the plains of Pannonia between the rivers Danube and Tisza in the 560s subjugating various Bulgar and Slavic tribes in the process.
Consumed in bitter wars with th