SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Silkeborg

Silkeborg is a Danish town with a population of 46,179. Silkeborg is the seat of Silkeborg City Council. Silkeborg is located in the middle of the Jutlandic peninsula west of the geographical centre of Denmark; the city is situated on the Gudenå River in the hilly and lush landscape of Søhøjlandet, surrounded by Denmark’s largest forest district and a great number of lakes. Silkeborg is known as Denmark’s outdoor capital; the lakes between Silkeborg and Ry that are linked by the Gudenå, are known collectively as Silkeborgsøerne. The city is divided on a north-south axis by the lake of Silkeborg Langsø, which at the eastern side of the city, flows into the Gudenå River. Silkeborg was the site of a castle, a monastery and a farming estate, established in the 15th century, some 6 km from Alling Abbey; the modern town grew around the Drewsen og Sønner paper mill, established in 1844. Silkeborg Papirfabrik was located near the Gudenå River where Silkeborg castle once stood, in order to exploit the river as a source of energy for the mill, as a resource for paper production and as a means of transport.

Michael Drewsen, regarded as the founder of the city, was responsible for the daily management of the mill. A statue of Michael Drewsen now stands in front of the old city hall in the town square. A commission to establish Silkeborg as a trading centre was set up in 1845, the site grew into a small settlement, from a population of 30 in 1844 to 556 in 1850 and to 1,204 in 1855; the City Council and the Parish were both established in 1855. The railway was built in 1871. Silkeborg was given the status of market town in 1900; the population was recorded as being 7,228 in 1901, 8,792 in 1911. During the German occupation of Denmark, the Gestapo turned the Silkeborg Bad, which had until served as the municipal sanatorium, into its Danish headquarters; the remnants of German bunkers can still be seen today, one of these bunkers is now a public museum. Silkeborg is located in region known as Søhøjlandet in mid-eastern Jutland, regarded as one of the most beautiful areas in Denmark; the landscape consists of lakes, extensive woodlands and some of the highest points in Denmark, including Himmelbjerget.

It is one of the most expensive areas in Denmark in which to live, the neighbouring village of Sejs is known for its large mansions and lakeside villas at Brassø. For many years the paper mill was the most prominent business in the city, but during the 1990s it suffered financial difficulties. In 1993, the German corporation, Drewsen Spezialpapiere, bought the mill, but in 2000 decided to close it. An urban renewal project turned the industrial area closest to the city centre into a new commercial district with a hotel, a cinema, a concert hall and cafés; the city has a large number of car dealerships, is the headquarters of Jyske Bank, Denmark's third-largest bank. Silkeborg Museum: The oldest preserved building in the city is Silkeborg Manor constructed in 1767; this building is now Silkeborg Museum where you can see the mummified corpse of the Tollund man, who lived during the 4th century BC. City square: The old city square is the centre of Silkeborg and is together with the surrounding streets a pedestrian area.

The city square is surrounded by the Hotel Dania. The Old Town Hall and the city church. On the city square, there are two fountains and the bronze statue of Michael Drewsen, the founder of Silkeborg. On Saturdays, the square hosts the city's weekly market. Hjejlen: The world’s oldest steamboat Hjejlen is one of the tour boats that take off from Silkeborg harbor. Aqua: The freshwater aquarium Aqua is one of the region’s best-visited sights. In the indoor aquarium and outdoor animal park and animals characteristic of Danish wildlife are on show to locals and visitors alike.. Museum Jorn: Silkeborg was the home city of COBRA painter Asger Jorn, many of his most famous paintings can be seen there. Silkeborg Bad: The former sanatorium, Silkeborg Bad served as headquarters for the Nazi German Gestapo during WWII. A Bunker Museum is now located in the beautiful park and in the old sanatorium buildings houses an art museum. Many of the museum's sculptures can be seen in the park for free; the natural spring, Arnakkekilden, is located in the park next to Lake Ørnsø.

Danish brewery Carlsberg has used the water for bottled spring water for many years. Himmelbjerget: The third highest point in Denmark is called Himmelbjerget and is not located in the city, in fact not in Silkeborg County. However, it remains a sight linked to the city as tour boats all summer depart from Silkeborg Harbour; the lake fountains: The fountains in Silkeborg Langsø are among the largest in northern Europe and are a landmark of the city. Constructed in 1970 the fountains are built into the lake in front of City Hall; the fountains have a magnificent light show and after dark the water cascades change colour. The colour change is programmed to last 30–40 minutes. Indelukket: The marina and recreation area Indelukket is located close to Museum Jorn, is a popular spot for social gatherings over the summer months. There is a restaurant and Denmark's oldest miniature golf course; the SCC country music festival has been an annual event since 1986. The festival takes place in Indel

Long Parliament

The Long Parliament was an English Parliament which lasted from 1640 until 1660. It followed the fiasco of the Short Parliament which had convened for only three weeks during the spring of 1640, which in turn had followed an 11-year parliamentary absence. In September 1640, King Charles I issued writs summoning a parliament to convene on 3 November 1640, he intended it to pass financial bills, a step made necessary by the costs of the Bishops' Wars in Scotland. The Long Parliament received its name from the fact that, by Act of Parliament, it stipulated it could be dissolved only with agreement of the members; the parliament sat from 1640 until 1648. After this point, the remaining members of the House of Commons became known as the Rump Parliament. In the chaos following the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, General George Monck allowed the members barred in 1648 to retake their seats, so that they could pass the necessary legislation to allow the Restoration and dissolve the Long Parliament.

This cleared the way for a new parliament to be elected, known as the Convention Parliament. Some key members of the Long Parliament, such as Sir Henry Vane the Younger and General Edmond Ludlow were barred from the final acts of the Long Parliament, they claimed the parliament was not dissolved, its final votes a procedural irregularity by General George Monck to ensure the restoration of King Charles II of England. On the restoration the general was awarded with a dukedom; the Long Parliament became a key moment in Whig histories of the seventeenth century. American Whig historian Charles Wentworth Upham believed the Long Parliament comprised "a set of the greatest geniuses for government that the world saw embarked together in one common cause" and whose actions produced an effect, which, at the time, made their country the wonder and admiration of the world, is still felt and exhibited far beyond the borders of that country, in the progress of reform, the advancement of popular liberty.

He believed. The sole reason Charles I assembled Parliament in November, 1640 was to ask it to pass finance bills, since the controverted taxation of ship money was unpopular, since the Bishops' Wars had bankrupted him. Instead, Parliament proceeded to impeach William Laud, the Archbishop of Canterbury, of high treason, on 18 December. John Finch was impeached the following day, he fled to the Netherlands with Charles's permission on 21 December; the parliament was influenced by John Pym and his supporters. Pym entered into a particular enumeration of the troubles of the kingdom. Early in the Long Parliament's proceedings, the house unanimously accused the Earl of Strafford of high treason, other high crimes and misdemeanors; this marked a new unanimity in Irish politics, whereby Old English, Gaelic Irish and New English settlers joined together in a legal body to present evidence against governor Strafford. However, the evidence was supplied indirectly by Henry Vane the Younger through the acquisition of notes of his father Henry Vane the Elder.

Vane the Elder, on the King's Privy Council, remained loyal to his king and was aghast when he learned in public hearings of the theft of his notes of the Privy Council meetings by his son. On 10 April, Pym's case against Strafford collapsed, but Pym made a direct appeal to the Younger Vane to produce a copy of the notes from the Privy Council, which the Younger Vane had discovered and secretly turned over to Pym, to his father's great anguish; these handwritten notes of the elder Vane obtained by Henry Vane the Younger were confirmed by independent testimony. Lord Strafford had told the King: Sir, you have done your duty, your subjects have failed in theirs. Parliament, as representatives of the people, felt betrayed, accused Strafford of raising an Irish army for the purpose of subduing England, abolishing English freedoms, collecting revenues for the King. Pym moved a Bill of Attainder, asserting Strafford's guilt and ordering that he be put to death. Charles, promised Strafford that he would not sign the attainder, so it could not be passed.

The Lords opposed the severity of the death sentence imposed upon Strafford, but increased tensions and an attempted army coup in support of Strafford began to sway the issue. On 21 April, the bill went unopposed in the Commons, the Lords acquiesced. Charles, fearing for his family's safety, signed the death warrant on 10 May. Strafford was beheaded two days later. With the king having been implicated, the Long Parliament passed the Triennial Act known as the Dissolution Act, in May 1641, to which the royal assent was granted. In the meantime both Parliament and the King agreed to an independent investigation of royal involvement in Strafford's plot; this Triennial Act required Parliament to be summoned at least once every three years, stipulated that when the King failed to issue proper summons, the members could assemble on their own. This act forbade ship money without Parliament's consent, declared unlawful both fines in destraint of knighthood and forced loans cut back monopolies, abolished the courts of Star Chamber and High Commission by the Habeas Corpus Act 1640 and the

Timeline of Maastricht

The following is a timeline of the history of the municipality of Maastricht, Netherlands. Circa 10 BC - Construction of Roman main road from Cologne to the coast. 1st half of 1st century AD - Maastricht Roman bridge built. Ca. 150 - Construction of Roman baths and walled sanctuary. Ca. 270 - Destruction of Roman Maastricht by invading Germanic tribes. 333 - Roman Castellum, Maastricht built. 384 - Death of Saint Servatius in Maastricht. Ca. 570 - Bishop Monulph builds a large stone church on the grave of Saint Servatius. Ca. 590-670 - At least twelve royal mint masters active in Maastricht. 595 - Childebert II in Maastricht. 667-670 - Childeric II in Maastricht. 690-695 - Clovis IV in Maastricht. Ca. 700 - Murder of Lambert of Maastricht. 720 - Seat of the Maastricht diocese moved to Liège. Late 8th/early 9th c. - Alcuin and Einhard abbots of Saint Servatius. 881 - Sack of Maastricht by Vikings. 1001 - Reburial of Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine in the crypt of the church of Saint Servatius. 11th/12th c.

- Chapter of Saint Servatius at its apogee. 1204 - Siege of Maastricht by Hugues de Pierrepont, prince-bishop of Liège, Louis II, Count of Loon. 1229 - Duke of Brabant gives permission to replace the earthen defence works by stone city wall. 1230 - Order of St Mary Magdalene establish monastery in Maastricht. 1234 - Franciscans establish a monastery in Maastricht. Ca. 1240 - Hospital Brothers of St. Anthony establish monastery in Maastricht. Ca. 1250 - Dominicans and Augustinians establish monasteries in Maastricht. 1251 - First mention of Nieuwenhof beguinage turned into several monasteries of Third Order Franciscan nuns and friars. 1275 - Roman bridge collapses during a procession. 1280-98 - Sint Servaasbrug built. 1282 - Teutonic Order establish a commandry in Maastricht. Mid-14th century - second Medieval city wall built, enlarging the city surface by 400%. 1376 - first mention of Saint Andrew Monastery, first a beguinage a monastery of Third Order Franciscan nuns. 1391 - First recorded instance of the seven-yearly Pilgrimage of the Relics.

1407/08 - Siege of Maastricht by Liège rebels. 1438 - Crosier Monastery, Maastricht established ca. 1470 - Dinghuis courthouse built. 1476 - Beyart established, monastery of Third Order Franciscan nuns. 1535 - Fifteen anabaptists burned in Vrijthof. 1551 - Jacob Bathen starts printing and publishing business. 1566 - Beeldenstorm in Maastricht. 1570 - Jesuits establish a monastery and a college. 1576 - Sack of Maastricht by Spanish troops and German mercenaries. 1579 - Siege of Maastricht by Spanish forces, followed by three-day sack. 1632 - Capture of Maastricht by Dutch forces. 1638 - Maastricht Treason: 22 traitors accused of helping the Spanish in recapturing the city. 1659-83 - Maastricht City Hall built. 1662 - Municipal library founded. 1673 - Siege of Maastricht by French forces. 1678 - Peace of Nijmegen: French vacate the city. 1748 - Siege of Maastricht by French forces. 1789 - Bonbonnière theatre opens. 1793 - Siege of Maastricht by French forces. 1794 - Capture of Maastricht by French forces.

1795 - Maastricht becomes capital of the French Meuse-Inférieure département as part of the First French Empire. 1796 - Suppression of the monasteries and religious chapters in Maastricht. 1805 - Generaalshuis built in Vrijthof. 1811 - General Cemetery Tongerseweg established. 1815 - Maastricht becomes capital of the Province of Limburg, as part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. 1822 - Société des Amis des Sciences, Lettres et Arts founded. 1824 - Population: 20,271. 1826 - Zuid-Willemsvaart, including Bassin opened. 1834 - Petrus Regout manufacturer of glass and pottery in business. 1837 - Maastricht City Park in use. 1838 - Saint Nicholas Church, Maastricht demolished. 1840 - Maastricht Synagogue built. 1850 - Luik-Maastricht Canal dug. 1851 - Le Courrier de la Meuse French-language newspaper begins publication. 1853 - Aken-Maastrichtsche Spoorweg-Maatschappij begins operating. 1859 - Saint Martin's Church, Maastricht built. 1861 - Liège–Maastricht railway begins operating. 1863 - Société Céramique manufactory in business.

1865 - Maastricht–Venlo railway begins operating. 1866 - Population: 28,495. 1871 - Advertentieblad voor Limburg newspaper begins publication. 1877 - Population: 29,083. 1878 - Fortifications dismantled. 1881 - Limburg State Archives headquartered in Maastricht, in the Oude Minderbroederskerk. 1884 - Bonnefantenmuseum established. 1886 - Courrier du Limbourg newspaper begins publication. 1902 - MVV Maastricht football club formed. 1912 - Maastricht Natural History Museum founded. 1915 - Maastricht railway station opens (current s