John Brown University
John Brown University is a private, interdenominational, Christian liberal arts college in Siloam Springs, Arkansas. Founded in 1919, JBU enrolls more than 2,500 students from 41 states and 50 countries in its traditional undergraduate, graduate and concurrent education programs; the 200-acre main campus in northwest Arkansas has been the site of the university since it was founded in 1919. JBU has 2,1613 students as of the 2017-2018 school year, 1,379 of whom are traditional undergraduates. Of these, 932 live on campus; the Graduate School at John Brown University has 641 students and offers 16 graduate degrees in business, education and cybersecurity. JBU is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and competes athletically in the Sooner Athletic Conference. In 2017, U. S. News & World Report named JBU the top ranked Arkansas university in its cohort, it named JBU a "Best College for Veterans. Programs within the university have specialized accreditation from Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Council for Accreditation of Educator Preparation, American Council for Construction Education, Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs, Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education.
John E. Brown was not afforded the opportunity to pursue much education, as his family's financial difficulties forced him to begin working at the age of 11; as a teenaged laborer in Arkansas, Brown encountered the Salvation Army and underwent a conversion experience. After his conversion, he became an itinerant Methodist evangelist, with his travels taking him across Arkansas, Missouri and the Indian Territory. Subsequent to becoming a well-known young evangelist, Brown accepted a position as president of Scarrit Collegiate Institute in Neosho, his two years as president were instrumental in developing his plan to establish his own college. However, Brown felt that the strong emphasis of that school on education without the benefit of life training was harmful to the students; as he said in 1903, "It might be my privilege to have a part in the building of school that would turn the minds of youth back from this exaggerated concept of the value of book knowledge, to the realization that all this is valuable only as it becomes a background for, or the foundation under, the real things of life."
Maintaining this goal of establishing a college that would provide an interdenominational, Christian education for needy students, who like himself, might not have had a chance of receiving an education, Brown laid the foundation in 1919 for the institution that would be called John Brown University, John E. Brown College. To pay for the institution's free tuition, Brown developed his school as a Christian vocational college. Students helped in constructing the buildings on campus; the typical work-day was four hours in addition to class time. Seeking to expand the reach of the growing college, John Brown announced in 1934 that the school was to be changed into a four-year university; the new university was divided into three colleges: the academic and Bible colleges, fitting John Brown's stated vision of educating "head and hand". Spreading the new university's fields of study into new technology, Brown soon purchased a local radio station from which to broadcast Christian programming and his own sermons.
Brown had used radio extensively before, but was eager to get resources of radio into the hands of the university. The expanded facilities, such as the distinctive Cathedral Group, which took root in the 1930s and 1940s, caused expenses for which the university had to pay. JBU began charging tuition in 1939, albeit a small amount, John Brown began to realize that financially, the vocational aspect of the school was more costly than anticipated; the university relied on outside donations to break financially. As the university grew, Brown continued to preach on the radio, he was well known for his attacks on liquor, gambling and other Christian fundamentalist issues of the time. This brought him into close proximity with Bob Jones, Sr. founder of Bob Jones University, who presented Brown with an honorary doctorate in 1937. In fact, the whole existence of the university was a part of the larger American fundamentalist reaction against the influences of moderate/mainstream Christian or secular universities.
In the 1940s, the close ties between JBU and the Christian fundamentalist movement began to wane, as the university took an unexpected turn away from fundamentalism. John Brown himself was always a proponent of interdenominationalism, by aligning himself with Youth for Christ and other evangelical organizations after World War II, JBU was making a statement. John Brown's description of the school in 1948 as "interdenominational and evangelical" is telling in this regard; when John Brown Sr. relinquished control of the university in 1948, he began a period of much-needed consolidation. During World War II the student body had dropped to over a hundred, the high echelons of the school's leadership were being run exclusively by the Brown family. Under the second Brown and administrators were hired who had more advanced degrees, the Board of Trustees began to develop as a more independent body, the students elected representatives to an independent council. All of this was beginning to occur by the end of the 1940s.
The university began construction on its Cathedral Group, composed of the chapel sanctuary, known as the Cathedral of the Ozarks, the Science building, the Library symbolizing in building form the idea of educ
The Cherokee Nation known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States. It was established in the 20th century and includes people descended from members of the Old Cherokee Nation who relocated from the Southeast due to increasing pressure to Indian Territory and Cherokee who were forced to relocate on the Trail of Tears; the tribe includes descendants of Cherokee Freedmen and Natchez Nation. Over 299,862 people are enrolled in the Cherokee Nation, with 189,228 living within the state of Oklahoma. According to Larry Echo Hawk, former head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the current Cherokee Nation is not the historical Cherokee tribe but instead a "successor in interest". Headquartered in Tahlequah, the Cherokee Nation has a tribal jurisdictional area spanning 14 counties in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma; these are Adair, Craig, Mayes, McIntosh, Nowata, Rogers, Tulsa and Washington counties. During 1898–1906, beginning with the Curtis Act of 1898, the US federal government all but dissolved the former Cherokee Nation's governmental and civic institutions, to make way for the incorporation of Indian Territory into the new state of Oklahoma.
From 1906 to 1938, the structure and function of the tribal government was not defined. After the dissolution of the tribal government of the Cherokee Nation in the 1900s and the death of William Charles Rogers in 1917, the Federal government began to appoint chiefs to the Cherokee Nation in 1919; the service time for each appointed chief was so brief that it became known as "Chief for a Day". Six men fell under this category, the first being A. B. Cunningham who served from November 8 to November 25; the short service times were just long enough to have one sign a treaty to cede more land. In the 1930s, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration worked to improve conditions by supporting the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which encouraged tribes to reconstitute their governments and write constitutions. On August 8, 1938, the tribe convened a general convention in Oklahoma to elect a Chief, they choose J. B. Milam as principal chief. President Franklin D. Roosevelt confirmed the election in 1941.
W. W. Keeler was appointed chief in 1949. After the U. S. government under President Richard Nixon had adopted a self-determination policy, the nation was able to rebuild its government. The people elected W. W. Keeler as chief. Keeler, the president of Phillips Petroleum, was succeeded by Ross Swimmer. In 1975 the tribe drafted a constitution, under the name Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, ratified on June 26, 1976; the tribe has conducted litigation using this name. In 1985 Wilma Mankiller was elected as the first female chief of the Cherokee Nation; the Cherokee Nation was destabilized in May 1997 in what was variously described as either a nationalist "uprising" or an "anti-constitutional coup" instigated by Joe Byrd, the Principal Chief. Elected in 1995, Byrd became locked in a battle of strength with the judicial branch of the Cherokee tribe; the crisis came to a head on March 22, 1997, when Byrd said in a press conference that he would decide which orders of the Cherokee Nation's Supreme Court were lawful and which were not.
A simmering crisis continued over Byrd's creation of a armed paramilitary force. On June 20, 1997 his private militia illegally seized custody of the Cherokee Nation Courthouse from its legal caretakers and occupants, the Cherokee Nation Marshals, the Judicial Appeals Tribunal and its court clerks, they ousted the lawful occupants at gunpoint. The court demanded that the courthouse be returned to the judicial branch of the Cherokee Nation, but these requests were ignored by Byrd; the Federal authorities of the United States refused to intervene because of potential breach of tribal sovereignty. The State of Oklahoma recognized. By August, it sent in state troopers and specialist anti-terrorist teams. Byrd was required to attend a meeting in Washington, DC with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, at which he was compelled to reopen the courts, he served the remainder of his elected term. In 1999 Byrd lost the election for Principal Chief to Chad Smith but was elected to the Tribal Council in 2013. A new constitution was drafted in 1999 that included mechanisms for voters to remove officials from offices, changed the structure of the tribal council, removed the need to ask the Bureau of Indian Affairs' permission to amend the constitution.
The tribe and Bureau of Indian Affairs negotiated changes to the new constitution and it was ratified in 2003. Confusion resulted. To overcome the impasse, the Cherokee Nation voted by referendum to amend its 1975/1976 Constitution "to remove Presidential approval authority," allowing the tribe to independently ratify and amend its own constitution; as of August 9, 2007, the BIA gave the Cherokee Nation consent to amend its Constitution without approval from the Department of the Interior. Certain non-Cherokee groups contest the viability of this constitution; the Cherokee freedmen, descendants of African American slaves owned by citizens of the Cherokee Nation during the Antebellum Period, were first guaranteed Cherokee citizenship under a treaty with the United States in 1866. This was in the wake of the American Civil War, when the US emancipated slaves and passed US constitutional amendments granting freedmen citizenship in the United States. In reaching peace with the Cherokee, who had sided with the Confederates, the US government required that they end s
In geology and physical geography, a plateau called a high plain or a tableland, is an area of a highland consisting of flat terrain, raised above the surrounding area with one or more sides with steep slopes. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment as intermontane, piedmont, or continental. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Volcanic plateaus are produced by volcanic activity; the Columbia Plateau in the northwestern United States is an example. They may be formed by upwelling of volcanic extrusion of lava; the underlining mechanism in forming plateaus from upwelling starts when magma rises from the mantle, causing the ground to swell upward. In this way, flat areas of rock are uplifted to form a plateau. For plateaus formed by extrusion, the rock is built up from lava spreading outward from cracks and weak areas in the crust.
Plateaus can be formed by the erosional processes of glaciers on mountain ranges, leaving them sitting between the mountain ranges. Water can erode mountains and other landforms down into plateaus. Dissected plateaus are eroded plateaus cut by rivers and broken by deep narrow valleys. Computer modeling studies suggest that high plateaus may be a result from the feedback between tectonic deformation and dry climatic conditions created at the lee side of growing orogens. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment. Intermontane plateaus are the highest in the world, bordered by mountains; the Tibetan Plateau is one such plateau. Lava or volcanic plateaus are the plateau; the magma that comes out through narrow cracks or fissures in the crust spread over large area and solidifies. These layers of lava sheets form volcanic plateaus; the Antrim plateau in Northern Ireland, The Deccan Plateau in India and the Columbia Plateau in the United States are examples of lava plateaus. Piedmont plateaus are bordered on one side by mountains and on the other by a sea.
The Piedmont Plateau of the Eastern United States between the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coastal Plain is an example. Continental plateaus are bordered on all sides by oceans, forming away from the mountains. An example of a continental plateau is the Antarctic Polar Plateau in East Antarctica; the largest and highest plateau in the world is the Tibetan Plateau, sometimes metaphorically described as the "Roof of the World", still being formed by the collisions of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian tectonic plates. The Tibetan plateau covers 2,500,000 km2, at about 5,000 m above sea level; the plateau is sufficiently high to reverse the Hadley cell convection cycles and to drive the monsoons of India towards the south. The second-highest plateau is the Deosai Plateau of the Deosai National Park at an average elevation of 4,114 m, it is located in northern Pakistan. Deosai means'the land of giants'; the park protects an area of 3,000 km2. It is known for its rich flora and fauna of the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe ecoregion.
In spring it is covered by a wide variety of butterflies. The highest point in Deosai is Deosai Lake, or Sheosar Lake from the Shina language meaning "Blind lake" near the Chilim Valley; the lake lies at an elevation of 4,142 m, one of the highest lakes in the world, is 2.3 km long, 1.8 km wide, 40 m deep on average. Some other major plateaus in Asia are: Najd in the Arabian Peninsula elevation 762 to 1,525 m, Armenian Highlands, Iranian plateau, Anatolian Plateau, Mongolian Plateau, the Deccan Plateau. Another large plateau is the icy Antarctic Plateau, sometimes referred to as the Polar Plateau, home to the geographic South Pole and the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, which covers most of East Antarctica where there are no known mountains but rather 3,000 m high of superficial ice and which spreads slowly toward the surrounding coastline through enormous glaciers; this polar ice cap is so massive that the echolocation sound measurements of ice thickness have shown that large parts of the Antarctic "dry land" surface have been pressed below sea level.
Thus, if that same ice cap were removed, the large areas of the frozen white continent would be flooded by the surrounding Antarctic Ocean or Southern Ocean. On the other hand, were the ice cap melts away too the surface of the land beneath it would rebound away through isostasy from the center of the Earth and that same land would rise above sea level. A large plateau in North America is the Colorado Plateau, which covers about 337,000 km2 in Colorado, Utah and New Mexico. In northern Arizona and southern Utah the Colorado Plateau is bisected by the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon. How this came to be is that over 10 million years ago, a river was there, though not on the same cours
Cornus is a genus of about 30–60 species of woody plants in the family Cornaceae known as dogwoods, which can be distinguished by their blossoms and distinctive bark. Most are deciduous trees or shrubs, but a few species are nearly herbaceous perennial subshrubs, a few of the woody species are evergreen. Several species have small heads of inconspicuous flowers surrounded by an involucre of large white petal-like bracts, while others have more open clusters of petal-bearing flowers; the various species of dogwood are native throughout much of temperate and boreal Eurasia and North America, with China and Japan and the southeastern United States rich in native species. Species include the common dogwood Cornus sanguinea of Eurasia, the cultivated flowering dogwood of eastern North America, the Pacific dogwood Cornus nuttallii of western North America, the Kousa dogwood Cornus kousa of eastern Asia, two low-growing boreal species, the Canadian and Eurasian dwarf cornels, Cornus canadensis and Cornus suecica respectively.
Depending on botanical interpretation, the dogwoods are variously divided into one to nine genera or subgenera. The name "dog-tree" entered the English vocabulary before 1548, becoming "dogwood" by 1614. Once the name dogwood was affixed to this kind of tree, it soon acquired a secondary name as the Hound's Tree, while the fruits came to be known as dogberries or houndberries. Another theory advances the view that "dogwood" was derived from the Old English dagwood, from the use of the slender stems of its hard wood for making "dags". Another, earlier name of the dogwood in English is the whipple-tree. Geoffrey Chaucer uses "whippletree" in The Canterbury Tales to refer to the dogwood. A whippletree is an element of the traction of a horse-drawn cart, linking the drawpole of the cart to the harnesses of the horses in file. Dogwoods have simple, untoothed leaves with the veins curving distinctively as they approach the leaf margins. Most dogwood species have opposite leaves, while a few, such as Cornus alternifolia and C. controversa, have their leaves alternate.
Dogwood flowers have four parts. In many species, the flowers are borne separately in open clusters, while in various other species, the flowers themselves are clustered, lacking showy petals, but surrounded by four to six large white petal-like bracts; the fruits of all dogwood species are drupes with one or two seeds brightly colorful. The drupes of species in the subgenera Cornus are edible. Many are without much flavor. Cornus kousa and Cornus mas are sold commercially as edible fruit trees; the fruits of Cornus kousa have a tropical pudding like flavor in addition to hard pits. The fruits of Cornus mas are both tart and sweet when ripe, they have been eaten in Eastern Europe for centuries, both as food and medicine to fight colds and flus. They are high in vitamin C. However, those of species in subgenus Swida are mildly toxic to people, though eaten by birds. Dogwoods are used as food plants by the larvae of some species of butterflies and moths, including the emperor moth, the engrailed, the small angle shades, the following case-bearers of the genus Coleophora: C. ahenella, C. salicivorella, C. albiantennaella, C. cornella and C. cornivorella, with the latter three all feeding on Cornus.
Dogwoods are planted horticulturally, the dense wood of the larger-stemmed species is valued for certain specialized purposes. Cutting boards and other fine turnings can be made from this fine beautiful wood. Over 32 different varieties of game birds, including quail, feed on the red seeds. Various species of Cornus the flowering dogwood, are ubiquitous in American gardens and landscaping. S. except the hottest and driest areas". In contrast, in England the lack of sharp winters and hot summers makes Cornus florida shy of flowering. Other Cornus species are stoloniferous shrubs that grow in wet habitats and along waterways. Several of these are used along highways and in naturalizing landscape plantings those species with bright red or bright yellow stems conspicuous in winter, such as Cornus stolonifera; the following cultivars, of mixed or uncertain origin, have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit: ‘Eddie’s White Wonder’ ‘Norman Hadden’ ‘Ormonde’ ‘Porlock’ The species Cornus mas is cultivated in southeastern Europe for its showy, edible berries, that have the color of the carnelian gemstone.
Cornelian-cherries are used in syrups and preserves. Dense and fine-grained, dogwood timber has a density of 0.79 and is prized for making loom shuttles, tool handles, roller skates and other small items that require a hard and strong wood. Though it is tough for woodworking, some artisans favor dogwood for small projects such as walking canes, arrow making, mountain dulcimers and fine inlays. Dogwood wood is an excellent substitute for persimmon wood in the heads of certain golf clubs. Dogwood lumber is rare in that it is not available with any manufacturer and must be cut down by the person wanting to use it. Larger items have been made of dogwood, such as the screw-in basket-style
The Ozarks called the Ozark Mountains or Ozark Plateau, is a physiographic region in the U. S. states of Missouri, Arkansas and extreme southeastern Kansas. The Ozarks cover a significant portion of northern Arkansas and most of the southern half of Missouri, extending from Interstate 40 in Arkansas to the Interstate 70 in central Missouri. There are two mountain ranges within the Ozarks: the Boston Mountains of Arkansas and the St. Francois Mountains of Missouri. Buffalo Lookout, the highest point in the Ozarks, is located in the Boston Mountains. Geologically, the area is a broad dome with the exposed core in the ancient St. Francois Mountains, some of the oldest rocks in North America; the Ozarks cover nearly 47,000 square miles, making it the most extensive highland region between the Appalachians and Rockies. Together with the Ouachita Mountains, the area is known as the U. S. Interior Highlands; the Salem Plateau, named after Salem, makes up the largest geologic area of the Ozarks. The second largest is the Springfield Plateau, named after Springfield, nicknamed the “Queen City of the Ozarks”.
On the northern Ozark border are the cities of Columbia, Missouri. Significant cities in Arkansas include Fayetteville. Near the Missouri-Arkansas border is Branson, Missouri, a tourist destination and popularizer of Ozark culture. Ozarks is a toponym believed to be derived as an English-language adaptation of the French abbreviation aux Arcs. In the decades prior to the French and Indian War, aux Arkansas referred to the trading post at Arkansas Post, located in wooded Arkansas Delta lowland area above the confluence of the Arkansas River with the Mississippi River. "Arkansas" seems to be the French version of what the Illinois tribe called the Quapaw, who lived in eastern Arkansas in the area of the trading post. The term came to refer to all Ozark Plateau drainage into the Arkansas and Missouri Rivers. An alternative origin for the name "Ozark" relates. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, French cartographers mapped the Arkansas and Mississippi Rivers; the large, top most arc or bend in this part of the Arkansas River was referred to as being aux arcs—the top or northernmost arc in the whole of the lower Arkansas.
Travelers arriving by boat would disembark at this top bend of the river to explore the Ozarks. Other possible derivations include aux arcs meaning " of the arches," in reference to the dozens of natural bridges formed by erosion and collapsed caves in the Ozark region; these include Clifty Hollow Natural Bridge in Missouri, Alum Cove in the Ozark – St. Francis National Forest, it is suggested aux arcs is an abbreviation of aux arcs-en-ciel, French for "toward the rainbows," which are a common sight in the mountainous regions. After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, American travelers in the region referred to various features of the upland areas using the term Ozark, such as Ozark Mountains and Ozark forests. By the early 20th century, the Ozarks had become a generic and used term; the Ozarks consist of five physiographic subregions: the Boston Mountains of north Arkansas and Cookson Hills of east Oklahoma. Karst features such as springs, losing streams and caves are common in the limestones of the Springfield Plateau and abundant in the dolostone bedrock of the Salem Plateau and Boston Mountains.
Missouri is known as "The Cave State" with over 6000 recorded caves. The Ozark Plateaus aquifer system affects groundwater movement in all areas except the igneous core of the St. Francois Mountains. Geographic features include limestone and dolomite glades, which are rocky, desert-like area on hilltops. Kept open by periodic fires that limit growth of grasses and forbs in shallow soil, glades are home to collared lizards, scorpions and other species more typical of the desert southwest; the Boston Mountains contain the highest elevations of the Ozarks with peaks over 2,500 feet and form some of the greatest relief of any formation between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. The Ouachita Mountains to the south rise a few hundred feet higher, but are not geographically associated with the Ozarks; the Boston Mountains portion of the Ozarks extends north of the Arkansas River Valley 20 to 35 miles and is 200 miles and are bordered by the Springfield and Salem Plateau to the north of the White River.
Summits can reach elevations of just over 2,560 feet with valleys 500 to 1,550 feet deep. Turner Ward Knob is the highest named peak. Located in western Newton County, its elevation is 2,463 feet. Nearby, five unnamed peaks have elevations at or above 2,560 feet. Drainage is to the White River, with the exception of the Illinois River, although there is considerab
The term "ecumenism" refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings. The term is often used to refer to efforts towards the visible and organic unity of different Christian denominations in some form; the adjective ecumenical can be applied to any interdenominational initiative that encourages greater cooperation among Christians and their churches, whether or not the specific aim of that effort is full, visible unity. The terms ecumenism and ecumenical come from the Greek οἰκουμένη, which means "the whole inhabited world", was used with specific reference to the Roman Empire; the ecumenical vision comprises both the search for the visible unity of the Church and the "whole inhabited earth" as the concern of all Christians. In Christianity the qualification ecumenical is used in terms such as "ecumenical council" and "Ecumenical Patriarch" in the meaning of pertaining to the totality of the larger Church rather than being restricted to one of its constituent local churches or dioceses.
Used in this original sense, the term carries no connotation of re-uniting the separated Christian denominations, but presumes a unity of local congregations in a worldwide communion. The word was used in the context of large ecumenical councils that were organized under the auspices of Roman Emperors to clarify matters of Christian theology and doctrine; these "Ecumenical Councils" brought together bishops from around the inhabited world as they knew it at the time. There were a total of seven ecumenical councils accepted by both Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism held before the Great Schism. Thus, the modern meaning of the words ecumenical and ecumenism derives from this pre-modern sense of Christian unity, the impulse to recreate this unity again. There are a variety of different expectations of what that Christian unity looks like, how it is brought about, what ecumenical methods ought to be engaged, what both short- and long-term objectives of the ecumenical movement should be. Ecumenism and nondenominational or post denominational movements are not the same thing.
If ecumenism is the quest for Christian unity, it must be understood what the divisions are which must be overcome. Christianity has not been a monolithic faith since the first century or Apostolic Age, if and today there exists a large variety of groups that share a common history and tradition within and without mainstream Christianity. Christianity is the largest religion in the world and the various divisions have commonalities and differences in tradition, church government and language; the world's 2.2 billion Christians are visibly divided into different communions or denominations, groupings of Christians and their churches that are in full communion with one another, but to some degree exclusive of other Christians. The exact number of these denominations is disputed, based on differing definitions used; the largest number quoted is "approximately 45,000" from the Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. The World Christian Encyclopedia lists "approximately 33,000" in 2001.
Yet, at the same time, the World Council of Churches counts only 348 member churches, representing more than half a billion members. This, with the Catholic Church's 1.25 billion Christians, indicates that 349 churches/denominations account for nearly 80% of the world's Christian population. One problem with the larger numbers is. For example, the Catholic Church is a single church, or communion, comprising 24 distinct self-governing particular churches in full communion with the bishop of Rome. Further, the Catholic Church presence in each country is counted as a different denomination—though this is in no way an ecclesiologically accurate definition; this can result in the one Catholic Church being counted as 242 distinct denominations, as in the World Christian Encyclopedia. Additionally, single nondenominational congregations or megachurches without denominational affiliation are counted each as its own denomination, resulting in cases where entire "denominations" may account for only a handful of people.
Other denominations may be small remnants of once larger churches. The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing have only two full members, for example, yet are a distinct denomination. Most current divisions are the result of historical schisms—a break in the full communion between united Churches, bishops, or communities; some historical schisms proved temporary and were healed, others have hardened into the denominations of today. However individual denominations are counted, it is acknowledged that they fall into the following major "families" of churches: The Catholic Church; some of these families are in themselves a single communion, such as the Catholic Church. Other families are a general movement wit
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding