The Alian Kızılbaşī community, are a Shi`a order, similar to the Sufi Mevlevi, who live in several regions of Bulgaria. Alians revere the name "Ali" carried by their circle of 12 Ministers, which they consider an emanation of God, they follow the mystical rituals of the wandering dervishes. Their exact origin is not certain, since few relevant historical records have been preserved, but according to the prevailing theory they fled to Bulgaria from Central Anatolia after the 1512 victory by the Ottoman Sultan Selim I, a Sunni, over the first Turcoman Safavid shah of the Persians, Ismail I. Alians appear to be descendants of a Sufi-dervish-like group of priests but they themselves believe about 10% are the descendants of the earliest Christians of Asia Minor who fled the Sunni invasion of Anatolia, they believe. Ali for them is not one single historical person but the ineffable name kept by God's Ministers, it has been suggested that they first came to the Balkans during the 15th century, in order to keep up the morale of Ottoman soldiers and to help integrate the newly conquered peoples into the empire.
However, it is not since the Ottomans were Sunnis while the Alians are viewed as ghulat by other Muslims for their heterodox views concerning Muhammad and Ali. However, the reverse accusation is returned that their attackers are Munafiqun for abandoning the articles of Imaan that concerning belief in the 4 books which Alians believe and for adopting ibn Hazm's doctrine of Tahrif instead which Alians reject; the Alians have similar beliefs and practices to the Alevis and along with Alevis are surviving examples of pre-Sunni Islam because the Alians are believed to be descendants of a member of the Banu Eli tribe, called Abbas ibn Ali and Umm ul-Banin so their 12 imams has nothing to do with Twelver Shiism. They believe the Quran was compiled by an Alian ex-convert to Monophysitism from Zoroastrianism called Salman e Fars whom they hold in high esteem, their tafsir of the Quran based on syncretic harmony between the 4 books places them within the Judeo-Christian tradition. They are a closed society and zealously hide their rituals.
Circumcision, reserved for the priests, is done. At the age of 13 years his pubic hair may be trimmed in a special ceremony where only male Elders are present, they should only marry other Alians. Marriages may be arranged years in advance by the families but the couple are only married together as young men and women because, contrary to general Islamic practice, child marriages are abhorred by Alians, it is known that Alians are mysticists and believe in personal communication with God through a near-trance state during Zikr. They do not use the Sunni Islamic rituals, but the Persian calendar, an Old Rite-style breviary and use candles and wine during their Mass which they call Dzhem on Thursday nights to achieve the Haqq–Muhammad–Ali communion, they celebrate Christmas and Easter while revering Christian saints Saint Nicholas as well as Sufi saints using icons and crosses alongside tasbih. Along with other Alevis, they are considered crypto-Jews for sharing many practices and traditions in common with Judaism.
They placed a great role among themselves for converting Christians in Bulgaria. A tradition is performed among Alians and other Alevis after the 3rd week of December until the first week of January where St Nicholas and his bride Fadike and a character known as the Arab will visit the homes in the community to perform a play and collect gifts go on to distribute them to others in the community Zeyi and distribute nuts, sweets and dried fruits to children. Alian shrines are visited by Balkan Christians and do themselves sometimes attend Christian Churches and frequent Balkan Christian Shrines. However, Alians have always refused to visit madrassahs in the Ottoman Empire, because orthodox Sunni Islam was taught there; as a consequence, they educated their children only within the bounds of their society, that has led to a decline among them. The situation, along with the reticence of their esoteric culture, the urbanization, doomed them to gradual assimilation into Orthodox Christianity or secularism.
By the Second World War and the following communism in Bulgaria, many Alians fled in the European part of Turkey. In recent decades, the Muslim Brotherhood has pushed an agenda to assimilate them into Sunni Islam but have failed miserably. In fact, Alians have converted thousands of Sunnis to their form of Islam since World War 2. Demir Baba teke is a sacred place to Alians and other Islamic sects because Demir Baba, a famous dervish who lived during the 16th century, is buried there in the lands of northeastern Bulgaria; the tekke of Otman Baba, located in the Haskovo-region village of Teketo, is another Alian holy site. In Bulgaria, Alians inhabit predominantly the villages of Yablanovo and Malko Selo in Sliven Province.
Murāqabah refers to meditation in Sufi terminology. Through murāqbah a person watches over their heart and gains insight into the heart’s relation with its creator and its own surroundings. Murqābah is a core concept in found ṭarīqas; the objective of murāqbah is to purge one's base characters and develop lofty character in its place. The word murāqabah is derived from the base of rā-qāf-bāʿ; the base has the meaning of guarding and watching over with the expectation of noticing any change, unique qualities or abnormalities of a given thing. The word is on verb scale three, which gives a connotation of exaggeration and partnership; this implies that the one, doing murāqabah is diligent and hardworking with the expectation that someone else is doing a similar task. In ancient Arabic, the word murāqabah referred to one, they would scan the sky in hopes to see the first signs of early stars to begin their journey. Due to the intense heat and difficult terrain of the Arabian Peninsula, the ability to recognize the constellations and their seasonal divergences was a critical skill.
In the classic poem, “the observer of the night is as vigilant as a fish in search of water”. This etymology can be connected to the modern linguistical and technical meaning of what murāqabah is understood to be today. Murāqabah is seen to be both with a connotation of persistence and exertion. According to al-Qushayrī and al-Jurjānī murāqabah is for one to be aware that their lord is perpetually aware of his subordinates. Not only is the person continuously in a state of mindfulness but they are cognizant that their lord is aware as well, creating a reciprocal relation. One of the most significant sentiments of the great philosopher and theologian Al-Ghāzālī centers around God-consciousness; that is to obey him. The Creator’s eternal knowledge encompasses the ephemeral existence of mortals, from before their conception to the ages after they have passed on, his Knowledge envelops the internal and the metaphysical. He is the creator. Once one understands this, they must follow a level of etiquette and protocol which are but not limited to: Having humility and modesty Staying silent and only speaking when appropriate, as it is mentioned in the narration, “the one who believes in Allah and the last day should only speak good or stay quiet”.
Resolve to do the best that one can in every action. Rush to do good deeds and avoiding sin. To be content with what one must deal with daily. Continuous reflection on one's internal world around them. Standing up for the truth; the physical benefits of murāqabah is akin to the benefits of standard meditation. Metaphysically speaking, the intended result of murāqabah is to refrain from any actions contrary to What is obligatory. and maintain one’s mindfulness in a state that one’s Lord finds them where He is pleased with them and not one where he is displeased with them. To continue to progress in murāqabah one must be consistent for a lengthy period of time to experience the aforementioned benefits. Although it may prove difficult in the beginning, one may always regain their state of mindfulness after recognizing a change from their initial state. Here are the Maqāmāt in which Sufis have broadly categorised their journey of ascension; the categorization is an arbitrary one, each level is further divided into several sublevels.
During the process of enlightenment, some stages overlap each other. Fanāʾ Fī al-Shaykh - Become One or Annihilated in or with the Master, Teacher or Murshid Fanāʾ Fī al-Rasūl - Become One and Annihilated in or with Muhammad Fanāʾ Fī al-Qurʾān- Become One and Annihilated with or in Quran and its commandments. Fanāʾ Fī ʾilāh - Become One and Annihilated in or with God; this is the starting level of meditation. A person who starts meditation enters a somnolent or sleep state. With the passage of time, the person goes into a state between sleep and wakefulness; the person can remember seeing something but not what it is. With continuous practice of meditation, the sleepiness from meditation decreases; when the conscious mind is not suppressed by sleep and is able to focus, the person can receive the spiritual knowledge from his subconscious mind. At this stage, the person is unable to see or hear anything but is able to experience or perceive it; when Idrāk becomes deep, it is exhibited as sight. The stage of Wurūd starts when somnolence is at its minimum.
As soon as the mind is focused, the spiritual eye is activated. The conscious mind is not used to see through the spiritual eye so concentration goes; the mind gets used to this kind of visions, the mental focus is sustained. With practice, the visions/experience becomes so deep that the person starts considering himself a part of the experience rather than considering himself an observer. Kashf or ʾlhām is the stage of starting to get information that most other people are unable to observe. In the beginning, this occurs without personal control. With practice, the mind gets so energized. A person can get any information about any event/person at will; this stage is broadly categorized according to activation of the senses: The person c
A tariqa is a school or order of Sufism, or a concept for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking Haqiqa, which translates as "ultimate truth". A tariqa has a murshid; the members or followers of a tariqa are known as muridin, meaning "desirous", viz. "desiring the knowledge of God and loving God". The metaphor of "way, path" is to be understood in connection of the term sharia which has the meaning of "path", more "well-trodden path; the "path" metaphor of tariqa is that of a further path, taken by the mystic, which continues from the "well-trodden path" or exoteric of sharia towards the esoteric haqiqa. A fourth "station" following the succession of shariah and haqiqa is called marifa; this is the "unseen center" of haqiqa, the ultimate aim of the mystic, corresponding to the unio mystica in Western mysticism. Tasawwuf, Arabic word that refers to mysticism and Islamic esotericism, is known in the West as Sufism; the most popular tariqa in the West is the Mevlevi Order, named after Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi.
In the same time the Bektashi Order was founded, named after the Alevi Muslim saint Haji Bektash Veli. Four large tariqas in South Asia are: the Naqshbandi Order, named after Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari. Large tariqats in Africa include Tijaniyya. Others can be offshoots of a tariqa. For example, the Qalandariyya has roots in Malamatiyya and Wafa'i of orders are offshoots of the Suhrawardi order; the Ashrafia after the 13 the century illustrious sufi saint Ashraf Jahangir Semnani is the sub branch of Chisti spiritual lineage. The Maizbhandari Tariqa or Maizbhandari Sufi Order is a liberated Sufism order established in the Bangladesh in the 19th century by the Gausul Azam Shah Sufi Syed Ahmadullah Maizbhandari, 27th descendent of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Membership of a particular Sufi order is not exclusive and cannot be likened to the ideological commitment to a political party. Unlike the Christian monastic orders which are demarcated by firm lines of authority and sacrament, Sufis are members of various Sufi orders.
The non-exclusiveness of Sufi orders has consequences for the social extension of Sufism. They cannot be regarded as indulging in a zero sum competition which a purely political analysis might have suggested. Rather their joint effect is to impart to Sufism a cumulant body of tradition, rather than individual and isolated experiences. In most cases the sheikh nominates his khalifa or "successor" during his lifetime, who will take over the order. In rare cases, if the sheikh dies without naming a khalifa, the students of the tariqa elect another spiritual leader by vote. In some orders it is recommended to take a Khalif from the same order as the murshid. In some groups it is customary for the khalifa to be the son of the sheikh, although in other groups the khalīfa and the sheikh are not relatives. In yet other orders a successor may be identified through the spiritual dreams of its members. Tariqas have silsilas "chain, lineage of sheikhs". All orders except the Naqshbandi order claim a silsila that leads back to Muhammad through Ali..
Every Murid, on entering the tariqa, gets his awrad, or daily recitations, authorized by his murshid. These recitations are extensive and time-consuming. One must be in a state of ritual purity; the recitations change. The Initiation ceremony is routine and consists of reading chapter 1 of the Quran followed by a single phrase prayer. Criteria have to be met to be promoted in rank: the common way is to repeat a single phrase prayer 82,000 times or more as in the case of Burhaniyya, a number that grows with each achieved rank. Murids who experience unusual interaction during meditation: hear voices like "would you like to see a prophet?" or see visions who might communicate with the Murid are held dear in the "Haḍra", the weekly group-chanting of prayers in attempt of reaching spirits as they are to experience something unusual and pass it on. This Murid is promoted faster than others; the least common way is to cause a miracle to happen with criteria similar to that of Catholic Sainthood. Being followers of the spiritual traditions of Islam loosely referred to as Sufism, these groups were sometimes distinct from the Ulma or mandated scholars, acted as informal missionaries of Islam.
They provided accepted avenues for emotional expressions of faith, the Tariqas spread to all corners of the Muslim world, exercised a degree of political influence inordinate to their size (take for example the influence that the sheikhs of the Safavid had over the armies of Tamerlane, or the missionary work of Ali-Shir Nava'i in Tu
İsmailağa Jamia or İsmail Ağa Jamia is a branch of the Gümüşhanevî Dergâh of Nakşibendi-Khālidī Ṭarīqah in Turkey. It takes its name from the İsmailağa Mosque in Istanbul, it is aligned with the Naqshbandi spiritual order of Sunni Islam Sufism in the silsilah of Khalidiyya and is led by Mahmut Ustaosmanoğlu, imam of the İsmailağa Mosque from 1954 to 1996. It has significant influence over daily life in few streets of Fatih, the capital district of Istanbul. However, once in 2006 a politician had described the whole district of Fatih as an "İsmailağa republic". There are communities including Erzincan. According to Ahmet Hakan Coşkun, the jamia requires strict Islamic-clothing, with members wearing beards and shalwar trousers, turbans of white muslin when praying. Women wear a face-covering Çarşaf. A number of leading Turkish politicians are associated with the wider Naqshbandi order; this might explain how the wire-tapping ordered by public prosecutor İlhan Cihaner in 2007 to 2009 in relation to İsmailağa included Erdoğan.
Their most famous imam is Ahmet Mahmut Ünlü. In the 1990s the group sent missionaries to parts of the Caucasus, trained people at its madrassa in the İsmailağa Mosque; the work continued more after new restrictions on religious activities in Turkey 1997. The İsmailağa Jamia came to wider public attention in Turkey through three murders committed in the İsmailağa Mosque - the son-in-law of Mahmut Ustaosmanoğlu in 1998 and in 2006 a retired imam and the man who stabbed him, lynched. From 2007 to 2009 the local Chief Public Prosecutor in Erzincan, İlhan Cihaner, investigated the community and ordered wire-tapping after reports of the community offering unauthorised Koran courses and preventing girls from attending school. Www.ismailaga.org.tr Picture series of the mosque
Linxia City, once known as Hezhou, is a county-level city in the province of Gansu of the People's Republic of China, the capital of the multi-ethnic Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture. It is located in the valley of 150 km southwest of the provincial capital Lanzhou; the population of the entire county-level city of Linxia is estimated at 250,000. According to the prefectural government, 51.4% of Linxia City's population belongs to the "Hui nationality", i.e. the Chinese-speaking Muslims. Some members of Linxia Prefecture other minority ethnic groups, such as Dongxiang and Salar, live in the city. For centuries, Hezhou/Linxia has been one of the main religious and commercial centers of China's Muslim community, earning itself the nickname of "the little Mecca of China". In the words of the ethnologist Dru Gladney, "Almost every major Islamic movement in China finds its origin among Muslims who came to Linxia disseminating new doctrines after pilgrimage to Middle Eastern Islamic centers", it remains the main center of China's Khufiyya Sufi orders.
Administratively, Linxia City is an incorporated county-level city. Unlike many Chinese county-level cities, which include a county-size expanse of the countryside, the boundaries of Linxia City include only a small area, stretched along the Daxia River, which in this region flows towards the northeast; the wide fertile valley of the river is flanked by loess plateau escarpments on both sides, the countryside beyond these limits, to the northwest and southeast of the valley, belongs to a separate administrative unit, called Linxia County. Linxia City borders on Linxia County in the southwest as well, but in the northeast it has a short border with Dongxiang Autonomous County; the main urban area of Linxia City is located in the center of the city's administrative boundaries, on the left bank of the Daxia River. Administratively, the County-level City of Linxia is divided into 10 township-level units: 6 jiedao within the main urban area, four towns in the adjacent rural and semi-rural areas upstream and downstream of the central city and across the river from it.
The central business district of Linxia City, corresponding to the former walled city of Hezhou, is located a couple of kilometers to the north of the Daxia River, contains the city's more upscale shopping and entertainment precincts, as well as the prefectural government. The old city wall is gone, but its existence is remembered in many place names: Xi Guan Lu, Chengjiao Mosque, Nanmen Guangchang with Nanguan Mosque, Dongguan neighborhood, Bei Chengjiao Gongbei. A small river, called Hongshui He, flows along what must have been the southern part of the city wall; the main street within this central area is Tuanjie Lu, running north-south. The area between the former south gate and to the Daxia River is commercial, with vibrant markets taking up much of the street space on market days. Beyond Nanguan, Tuanjie Lu becomes Jiefang Lu, after reaching the river, it continues south as Provincial Highway 309. Many of the city's mosques and gongbei shrines are located in the Muslim district to the west and southwest of the city center.
Hongyuan Square, with Hongyuan Park, the Prefecture Museum, a sports complex are in this area as well. The northeast of this city is a modern multi-story residential area. Campuses of a number of educational institutions as well as the local garrison compound are located there. A major landmark of Linxia City is Wanshou Guan, its pagoda is perched on top of the loess plateau bluff that forms the natural northern limit for the city expansion. Great views of the city open from the bluff, the pagoda can be seen from everywhere in the city as well. In the past, Linxia City was called Hezhou, the surrounding area was sometimes known as Hezhou Prefecture. Throughout its history, Hezhou was the crossing of important trade routes: one of the alternative paths of the east-way Silk Route, connecting China's heartland with Central Asia, the north-south route linking Mongolia and Tibet. During parts of the Song Dynasty period, when the Western Xia took control of the more northerly path of the Silk Route, the more southerly Didao-Hezhou-Xining alternative path of the Silk Route may have become important, making all three cities important commercial centers.
Historians think that it was during the Song Dynasty, that the Muslims of Hezhou built their first mosque. Hezhou was an important Islamic center in the 1670s, when the Kashgarian Sufi master Āfāq Khoja made his tour of the Muslim communities of Qing Empire's northwestern borderlands. While his preaching in Xining and Lanzhou is better documented, he most preached in Hezhou as well. In any event, both Āfāq Khoja's Chinese disciple Ma Tai Baba and another Chinese Sufi master, Qi Jingyi-the founder of the Chinese branch of the Qadiriyyah school-were buried in Hezhou; the gongbei shrines around their tombs on Linxia City's west side continue to be important centers of Islamic scholarship
The Jerrahi are a Sufi tariqah derived from the Halveti order. Their founder is Hazreti Pîr Muhammad Nureddin al-Jerrahi, who lived in Istanbul and is buried at the site of his tekke in Karagumruk, Istanbul. During the late Ottoman period, this Order was widespread throughout the Balkans Macedonia and southern Greece; the Halveti-Jerrahi Order of Dervishes is a cultural and social relief organization with members from diverse professional and national backgrounds. Muhammad Nureddin was a direct descendant of Muhammad both from his father; the path he founded is dedicated to the teachings and traditions, through an unbroken chain of spiritual transmission, that go directly back to Muhammad. The head dergah "convention" of the Halveti-Jerrahi Order is in Istanbul. There are some substations in Turkey and it has branches in some European countries, South Africa, South America and North America, including Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco and Chicago. Branches of the Halveti-Jerrahi Order conduct gatherings where the dervishes perform Sufi remembrance ceremonies, practice sufi music, serve dinner, pray together and listen to the discourses of their Sufi guides.
The main branch of the Jerrahi Order of America is in Chestnut Ridge, Rockland County, New York with a congregation of mixed immigrant and local convert backgrounds. During the Bosnian War, the Order's American branch worked with the Fellowship of Reconciliation to bring 160 Bosnian refugees to the US; this Sufi Order was brought to Western countries by Muzaffer Ozak, the 19th Grand Sheikh of the Order from 1966 until his death in 1985. Sefer Dal was Grand Sheikh of the Order from 1985 until his own death in 1999. Omer Tugrul Inancer has been Grand Sheikh of the Order since 1999. According to Gift of the Givers founder Imtiaz Sooliman, it was Sefer Dal, 20th Grand Sheikh of the Order, who advised him to establish the organization during a visit to Dal's Istanbul mosque. Inancer, the current Grand Sheikh of the Order, was a speaker at the World Sufi Forum organized by the All India Ulema and Mashaikh Board in 2016. Nur Ashki Jerrahi Sufi Order Muzaffer Ozak Malamatiyya Mevlevi Order Bektashiyyah Bayramiyya Halveti Jerrahi order of America Halveti Jerrahi order in Mexico Halveti Jerrahi order in Canada Halveti Jerrahi order in Argentina, tekke of Orhan Baba.
Murillo 686, Buenos Aires Tel: 48575336 Halveti Jerrahi order in Argentina Halveti Jerrahi in Chicago Halveti Jerrahi in Los Angeles Halveti Jerrahi order in Italy Halveti Jerrahi Order in Brazil Zawiya of the Tariqa Halveti-Cerrahi in Granada, Spain First khalyfa Jerrahi in Italy Interview with Sheikh Tosun Bayrak al-Jerrahi Interview with Sheikh Ragip al-Jerrahi Interviews with Rabbi David Edelman and Sheikh Tosun Bayrak al-Jerrahi The Unveiling of Love Sufism and the Remembrance of God By Sheikh Muzaffer Ozak IRSHAD Wisdom of a Sufi Master By Sheikh Muzaffer Ozak Al-Jerrahi Garden of Paradise - Sufi Ceremony of Remembrance - Music CD Sheikh Muzzafer Ozak and the Halveti-Jerrahi Order of Dervishes Lifting the Boundaries: Muzaffer Efendi and the Transmission of Sufism to the West by Gregory Blann
The Aissawa is a religious and mystical brotherhood founded in Meknes, Morocco, by Sheikh al-Kamil Mohamed al-Hadi ben Issa, best known as the Shaykh Al-Kamil, or "Perfect Sufi Master". The terms Aissawiyya and Aissawa, derive from the name of the founder, designate the brotherhood and its disciples, they are known for their spiritual music, which comprises songs of religious psalms, characterized by the use of the oboe ghaita accompanied by percussion using polyrhythm. Complex ceremonies, which use symbolic dances to bring the participants to ecstatic trance, are held by the Aissawa in private during domestic ritual nights, in public during celebrations of national festivals as well as during folk performances or religious festivities, such as Ramadan, or mawlid, the "birth of the Prophet." These are organized by the Algerian States. Some details regarding Ben Issa remain unknown, he has a controversial genealogy and a hagiography that projects the image of a Sufi master and legendary ascetic of considerable spiritual influence.
Ben Issa built his own mausoleum in Zaouia in the city of Meknes. This is now a destination for his modern followers to visit and pray while participating in individual or collective acts of piety. Ben Issa was initiated into Sufism by three masters of the tariqa Shadhiliyya/Jazuliyya: Abu al-Abbas Ahmad Al-Hariti, Abdelaziz al-Tebaa and Muhammad as-Saghir as-Sahli; the spiritual doctrine of the Issawa follows the earlier mystical tradition of the tariqa Shadhiliyya/Jazuliyya. This religious teaching first appeared in 15th century Marrakesh and is the most orthodox mystical method to appear in the western region of North Africa known as the Maghreb. Issawa disciples are taught to follow the instruction of their founder by adhering to Sunni Islam and practising additional psalms including the long prayer known as "Glory to the Eternal"; the original Issawa doctrine makes no mention of ecstatic or ritual exercises such as music and dance. The Zaouia or monastery in Meknes is the main spiritual centre of the Issawa brotherhood.
Founded by Muhammad Ben Issa at the end of the 15th century, construction resumed three centuries under sultan Mohammed ben Abdallah. Renovated by the Ministry for Habous and Islamic Affairs and maintained by the municipal services, this is the center of the brotherhood's international network; the site is open to the public all year round and is the location of the tombs of founder Shiekh al-Kamil, his disciple Abu ar-Rawayil, the alleged son of the founder, Issa Al-Mehdi. Issawa's international growth began in the 18th century. From Morocco, it has spawned organizations in Algeria, Libya, Egypt and Iraq. Outside of these countries, Issawi practice without immediate access to Issawa institutions, as in France, Italy, the Netherlands, the USA and Canada. There is a building movement in the United States, focused in Chicago. Theoretically, the brotherhood's network is led from the mother-monastery in Meknes by direct biological descendants of Muhammad Ben Issa; the leader is Sidi Allal al-Issawi, a teacher and member of the League of Oulemas of Morocco and Senegal, as well as a poet and historian.
In Morocco, the brotherhood – the musicians together with their rituals and music – enjoy a particular vogue. The basic cell of the religious order in Morocco is the team, which takes the form of a traditional musical orchestra with twenty to fifty disciples. Since a decision taken in the 17th century by the mother-monastery, groups of musicians are placed under the authority of a delegate. There are orchestras of the brotherhood across Morocco, but they are numerous in the towns of Fes and Meknes, under the authority of the master Haj Azedine Bettahi, a well-known Sufi musician; as leader of the muqaddem-s, Haj Azedine Bettahi has under his authority the following individuals: Haj Mohamed Ben Bouhama Haj Muhammad'Azzam Haj Said El Guissy Haj Said Berrada Abdeljelil Al Aouam'Abdelatif Razini'Adnan Chouni'Omar'Alawi'Abou Lhaz Muhammad'Abdallah Yaqoubi Muhammad Ben Hammou Haj Hussein Lbaghmi Idriss Boumaza Haj'Abdelhak Khaldun Muhammad Ben Chabou Mohcine Arafa Bricha Moustafa Barakat Nabil Ben Slimane Hassan Amrani Youssef'Alami Youssef Semlali'Abdellah al-Mrabet Benaissa Ghouali Djamel Sahli Nadjib Mekdia Lounis Ghazali Djamel Blidi Essaid Haddadou Mustapha Ben Ouahchia Hadj Ali Al Badawi Cheikhuna Hakim Meftah Al Bedri Abdelillah BerrahmaAll Issawa groups lead ceremonies that mix mystical invocation with exorcisms and trance-inducing group dances.
In Morocco, the ceremonies of the Issawa brotherhood take the form of domestic nightly rituals, organized by Imam Shiekh Boulila, at the request of women sympathizers. Women are the principal customers of the orchestras of the brotherhood in Morocco; as the Aissawa are supposed to bring to people blessings, reasons for organizing a ceremony are varied and include celebration of a Muslim festivity, birth, circumcision, or exorcism, the search for a cure for illness or to make contact with the divine through the extase. Rituals have standardized phases among all the Aissawa orchestras; these include mystical recitations of Sufi litanies and the singing of spiritual poems along with exorcisms, collective dances. Ludic aspects of the ceremony are attested to by the participants' laughter and dances, alongside ecstatic emo