Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest a sawmill or a lumber yard. In common usage, the term may cover a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging refers to, it can refer to the harvesting, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests. Clearcut logging is not considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method, is called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as "gyppo loggers". Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value diseased or malformed trees, is referred to as high grading, it is sometimes called selective logging, confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees.
Logging refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land, flooded by damming to create reservoirs; such trees are by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests. Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a method of harvesting that removes all the standing trees in a selected area. Depending on management objectives, a clearcut may or may not have reserve trees left to attain goals other than regeneration, including wildlife habitat management, mitigation of potential erosion or water quality concerns. Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation. Other methods include shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut, retention cutting; the above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods: Trees are felled and delimbed and topped at the stump.
The log is transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash in the cut area, where it must be further treated if wild land fires are of concern. Trees and plants are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. There have been advancements to the process which now allows a logger or harvester to cut the tree down and delimb a tree in the same process; this ability is due to the advancement in the style felling head. The trees are delimbed and bucked at the landing; this method requires. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops; this technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, depending on the species, many of the limbs are broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.
Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, delimbing and sorting at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree and buck it, place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder; this method is available for trees up to 900 mm in diameter. Harvesters are employed in level to moderately steep terrain. Harvesters are computerized to optimize cutting length, control harvesting area by GPS, use price lists for each specific log to archive most economical results during harvesting. Felled logs are generally transported to a sawmill to be cut into lumber, to a paper mill for paper pulp, or for other uses, for example, as fence posts. Many methods have been used to move logs from where they were cut to a rail line or directly to a sawmill or paper mill; the cheapest and most common method is making use of a river's current to float floating tree trunks downstream, by either log driving or timber rafting. To help herd the logs to the mill, in 1960 the Alaskan Lumber and Pulp Mill had a specially designed boat, constructed of 1 1⁄2 inch steel.
In the late 1800s and the first half of the 1900s, the most common method was the high-wheel loader, a set of wheels over ten feet tall that the log or logs were strapped beneath. Oxen were at first used with the high-wheel loaders. In 1960 the largest high wheel loader was built for service in California. Called the Bunyan Buggie, the unit was self-propelled and had wheels 24 feet high and a front dozer blade, 30 feet across and 6 feet high. Log transportation can be challenging and costly since trees are far from roads or watercourses. Road building and maintenance may be restricted in National Forests or other wilderness areas since it can cause erosion in riparian zones; when felled logs sit adja
Oregon Parks and Recreation Department
The Oregon Parks and Recreation Department known as the State Parks and Recreation Department, is the government agency of the U. S. state of Oregon which operates its system of state parks. In addition, it has programs to protect and provide public access to natural and historic resources within the state, including the State Historic Preservation Office, Oregon Heritage Commission, Oregon Commission on Historic Cemeteries, recreation trails, the Ocean Shores Recreation Area, scenic waterways and the Willamette River Greenway; the department's chief sources of funding are the state park user fees. And recreation vehicle license fees; the department manages the system of rest areas along the highways and freeways within the state. In 2006 the department was delegated responsibility for managing the Oregon State Fair; the department was created in 1921 as a branch of the Oregon Highway Department. The 1989 Oregon Legislative Assembly transferred authority to a newly created department under its current name effective January 1, 1990.
Oregon parks attract more than 42 million visitors annually, ranking fifth in the U. S. in number of day-use park visitors, eighth in number of overnight visitors. 7.5 percent of lottery revenues in Oregon are dedicated to state and local parks, leading to new park acquisitions and a reduced backlog of maintenance at existing parks. Oregon ranks 30th in the nation in state park acreage per 1,000 people. At the same time it ranks second nationally for the number of park visitors per acre, indicating that the state’s limited area of parks are intensively used. List of Oregon State Parks Official website
A waterfall is an area where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls are formed in the upper course of a river in steep mountains; because of their landscape position, many waterfalls occur over bedrock fed by little contributing area, so may be ephemeral and flow only during rainstorms or significant snowmelt. The further downstream, the more perennial a waterfall can be. Waterfalls can have a wide range of depths; when the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens and is dominated by impacts of water-borne sediment on the rock, while downstream the erosion occurs more rapidly. As the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it may pluck material from the riverbed, if the bed is fractured or otherwise more erodible. Hydraulic jets and hydraulic jumps at the toe of a falls can generate large forces to erode the bed when forces are amplified by water-borne sediment.
Horseshoe-shaped falls focus the erosion to a central point enhancing riverbed change below a waterfalls. A process known as "potholing" involves local erosion of a deep hole in bedrock due to turbulent whirlpools spinning stones around on the bed, drilling it out. Sand and stones carried by the watercourse therefore increase erosion capacity; this causes the waterfall to recede upstream. Over time, the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, it will carve deeper into the ridge above it; the rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one-and-a-half metres per year. The rock stratum just below the more resistant shelf will be of a softer type, meaning that undercutting due to splashback will occur here to form a shallow cave-like formation known as a rock shelter under and behind the waterfall; the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall. These blocks of rock are broken down into smaller boulders by attrition as they collide with each other, they erode the base of the waterfall by abrasion, creating a deep plunge pool in the gorge downstream.
Streams can become wider and shallower just above waterfalls due to flowing over the rock shelf, there is a deep area just below the waterfall because of the kinetic energy of the water hitting the bottom. However, a study of waterfalls systematics reported that waterfalls can be wider or narrower above or below a falls, so anything is possible given the right geological and hydrological setting. Waterfalls form in a rocky area due to erosion. After a long period of being formed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat, causing a horizontal pit parallel to the waterfall wall; as the pit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply sloping stretch of river bed. In addition to gradual processes such as erosion, earth movement caused by earthquakes or landslides or volcanoes can cause a differential in land heights which interfere with the natural course of a water flow, result in waterfalls. A river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks. Waterfalls can occur along the edge of a glacial trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted.
The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon, referred to as a hanging valley. Another reason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other. Waterfalls can be grouped into ten broad classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls. Classes of other well-known waterfalls include Kaieteur Falls. Alexander von Humboldt "Father of Modern Geography" Humboldt was marking waterfalls on maps for river navigation purposes. Oscar von Engeln Published "Geomorphology: systematic and regional", this book had a whole chapter devoted to waterfalls, is one of the earliest examples of published works on waterfalls. R. W. Young Wrote "Waterfalls: form and process" this work made waterfalls a much more serious topic for research for modern Geoscientists. Ledge waterfall: Water descends vertically over a vertical cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock.
Block/Sheet: Water descends from a wide stream or river. Classical: Ledge waterfalls where fall height is nearly equal to stream width, forming a vertical square shape. Curtain: Ledge waterfalls which descend over a height larger than the width of falling water stream. Plunge: Fast-moving water descends vertically, losing complete contact with the bedrock surface; the contact is lost due to horizontal velocity of the water before it falls. It always starts from a narrow stream. Punchbowl: Water descends in a constricted form and spreads out in a wider pool. Horsetail: Descending water maintains contact with bedrock most of the time. Slide: Water glides down maintaining continuous contact. Ribbon: Water descends over a long narrow strip. Chute: A large quantity of water forced through a narrow, vertical passage. Fan: Water spreads horizontally as
Fred Frank Girod is a Republican politician from the U. S. state of Oregon. He serves in the Oregon State Senate representing District 9, in the mid-Willamette Valley, lives in Stayton. Girod graduated from Stayton High School in Oregon, he earned a Bachelor of Science degree from Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon, a DMD from Oregon Health & Science University School of Dentistry, a Masters of Public Administration from Harvard University. He has been a practicing dentist for 26 years, served in the Oregon House of Representatives in the early 1990s, chairing the Rules Committee, he ran for the U. S. Congress in 1994, but lost in the primary to Jim Bunn. Girod served on the Stayton City Council, he was selected by Marion and Linn County Republicans to run again for the House in 2006, in district 17, following then-Representative Jeff Kropf's sudden departure from the 2006 election. He won that election, defeating Democrat Dan Thackaberry, was appointed in 2008 to succeed Senator Roger Beyer of District 9 upon his resignation.
He was sworn in in January 2008, was re-elected in November 2008, 2010, 2012, 2016. Legislative website Project VoteSmart biography
Oregon House of Representatives
The Oregon House of Representatives is the lower house of the Oregon Legislative Assembly. There are 60 members of the House, representing 60 districts across the state, each with a population of 65,000; the House meets at the Oregon State Capitol in Salem. Members of the House serve two-year terms without term limits. In 2002, the Oregon Supreme Court struck down the decade-old law, Oregon Ballot Measure 3, that had restricted State Representatives to 3 terms on procedural grounds. In the last legislative session, Democrat Tina Kotek from Portland served as Speaker. 1914: Marian B. Towne became the first woman elected to the Oregon House 1972: Bill McCoy became the first African American to serve in the House 1985: Margaret Carter became the first black woman elected to the House 1991: Gail Shibley became the first gay person to serve in the House The Republican Party held the majority in the House for many years until the Democratic Party gained a majority following the 2006 elections. After losing several seats in the 2010 elections, resulting in a split control between both parties for one legislative term, Democrats regained their majority in the 2012 elections, attained a supermajority in the 2018 elections.
Meanwhile, the Oregon State Senate has been under continuous Democratic control since 2005. List of Speakers of the Oregon House of Representatives Oregon State Capitol Oregon Legislative Assembly Oregon State Senate Oregon House of Representatives Map of House Districts Lists of legislators and legislative staff going back to pre-statehood Oregon
A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that covers large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava. Flood basalt provinces such as the Deccan Traps of India are called traps, after the Swedish word trappa, due to the characteristic stairstep geomorphology of many associated landscapes. Michael R. Rampino and Richard Stothers cited eleven distinct flood basalt episodes occurring in the past 250 million years, creating large volcanic provinces and mountain ranges. However, more have been recognized such as the large Ontong Java Plateau, the Chilcotin Group, though the latter may be linked to the Columbia River Basalt Group. Large igneous provinces have been connected to five mass extinction events, may be associated with bolide impacts; the formation and effects of a flood basalt depend on a range of factors, such as continental configuration, volume, duration of eruption and setting, the preexisting climate, the biota resilience to change.
One proposed explanation for flood basalts is that they are caused by the combination of continental rifting and its associated decompression melting, in conjunction with a mantle plume undergoing decompression melting, producing vast quantities of a tholeiitic basaltic magma. These have a low viscosity, why they'flood' rather than form taller volcanoes. Another explanation is that they result from the release, over a short period, of melt that has accumulated in the mantle over a long period; the Deccan Traps of central India, the Siberian Traps, the Columbia River Plateau of western North America are three regions covered by prehistoric flood basalts. The Mesoproterozoic Mackenzie Large Igneous Province in Canada contains the Coppermine River flood basalts related to the Muskox layered intrusion; the maria on the Moon are additional more extensive, flood basalts. Flood basalts on the ocean floor produce oceanic plateaus; the surface covered by one eruption can vary from around 200,000 km² to 1,500,000 km².
The thickness can vary from 2000 metres to 12,000 m. These are smaller than the original volumes due to erosion. Flood basalts have olivine compositions; the composition of the basalts from the Paraná is typical of that of flood basalts. These phenocrysts are pyroxenes, opaque crystals such as titanium rich magnetite or ilmenite, some olivine. Sometimes more differentiated volcanic products such as andesites and rhyodacites have been observed, but only in small quantities at the top of former magma chambers. Subaerial flood basalts can be of two kinds: with a smooth or twisted surface: compact surface. Degassing was easy; such lava flows may form underground rivers. With a chaotic surface: the basalt flood is rich in bubbles of gas, with an irregular, fragmental surface. Degassing was difficult. In the Massif Central in Auvergne, there is a good example of chaotic lava flow, produced by eruptions from Puy de la Vache and Puy de Lassolas. Large Igneous Provinces were defined as including voluminous outpourings, predominantly of basalt, over geologically short durations.
This definition did not specify minimum size, petrogenesis, or setting. A new attempt to refine classification focuses on setting. LIPs characteristically cover large areas and the great bulk of the magmatisim occurs in about less than 1 Ma. Principal LIPs in the ocean basins include Oceanic Volcanic Plateaus and Volcanic Passive Continental Margins. Oceanic flood basalts are LIPs distinguished from oceanic plateaus by some investigators because they do not form morphologic plateaus, being neither flat-topped nor elevated more than 200 m above the seafloor. Examples include the Caribbean, East Mariana, Pigafetta provinces. Continental flood basalts or plateau basalts are continental manifestations, or traps referencing the step-like geomorphology of eroded flow layers. Geochemical analysis of the major oxides reveals a composition close to that of mid-ocean ridge basalts but close to that of ocean island basalts; these are in fact tholeiites with a silicon dioxide percentage close to 50%. Two kinds of basaltic flood basalts can be distinguished: those poor in P2O5 and in TiO2, called low phosphorus and titanium those rich in P2O5 and in TiO2, called high phosphorus and titaniumThe isotopic ratios 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb are different from that observed in general, which shows that the basalt flood magma was contaminated as it passed through the continental crust.
It is this contamination that explains the difference between the two kinds of basalt mentioned above. The low phosphorus and titanium type has an excess of elements from the crust such as potassium and strontium; the content in incompatible elements of flood basalts is lower than that of ocean island basalts, but higher than that of mid-ocean ridge basalts. Basalt floods on th
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo