LA Weekly is a free weekly alternative newspaper in Los Angeles, California. It was founded in 1978 by Jay Levin, who served as president and editor until 1991. Voice Media Group sold the paper in late 2017 to Semanal Media LLC. According to its website, LA Weekly has been the premier source for award-winning coverage of Los Angeles music, film, culture, events." The LA Weekly recognizes outstanding small theatre productions in Los Angeles, with their annual LA Weekly Theater Awards, established in 1979. Starting in 2006, LA Weekly has hosted the LA Weekly Detour Music Festival every October; the entire block surrounding Los Angeles City Hall is closed off to accommodate the festival's three stages. Some of its most famous writers were Pulitzer Prize-winning food writer Jonathan Gold, who left in early 2012, Nikki Finke, who blogged about the film industry through the Weekly's website and published a print column in the paper each week, leaving in June 2009 after the blog she founded, Deadline Hollywood Daily, was acquired by an online firm.
The paper was founded in 1978 by Jay Levin, who served as its editor from 1978 to 1991 and its president from 1978 to 1992. Levin put together an investment group that included actor Michael Douglas, Burt Kleiner, Joe Benadon and Pete Kameron; the majority of its core of initial staff members came from the Austin Sun, a similar-natured bi-weekly, which had ceased publication. Although some former employees have complained about personnel moves since the Weekly's parent company's acquisition by New Times Media in 2004, the paper has won a Pulitzer Prize, broke the story of the "Grim Sleeper" serial killer; some of those disgruntled ex-employees complained when New Times replaced news editor Alan Mittelstaedt with veteran New Times editor Jill Stewart. But in the 2009 LA Press Club Awards, the Weekly won six first-place awards, including three by staff writer Christine Pelisek, honored as the city's best reporter in investigative reporting, hard news, news feature. Harold Meyerson, once the Weekly's political editor, charged in a departing email to Weekly staffers in 2006 that the new owners had grafted a cookie-cutter template for editorial content onto the publication.
Writers once associated with the Weekly but let go by the paper's current management include Meyerson, classical music critic Alan Rich, theater critic Steven Leigh Morris, film critic Ella Taylor, columnist Marc Cooper. Internal cut backs have resulted in the paper eliminating the position of managing editor, letting go several staff writers and other editorial department positions, as well as cutting the entire fact checking department. On June 1, 2009, the paper announced that Editor-in-Chief Laurie Ochoa, who began helming the paper in 2001, was "parting ways" with the Weekly. On that same day, ads for her replacement appeared on Journalismjobs.com. Though some speculated that Stewart was a shoo-in for the position, the job went to Drex Heikes of the Los Angeles Times; when Heikes left in 2011, he was replaced by Sarah Fenske. Weekly management said. However, some of the cuts are attributable to philosophical differences with the paper's then-owners, who have since sold the chain. Former staff writer Matthew Fleischer said at the time that "as part of the company's'plug-and-play' management strategy, writers and ad directors were moved from city to city within the chain, without regard for local knowledge.
Any old-school Village Voice Media manager who resisted the metamorphosis was denounced as a'lefty,' a'throwback,' and worse. They were fired or fled."Since 2008, LA Weekly has hosted a food and wine festival, now dubbed The Essentials, that draws sizable crowds. In 2009, former'Los Angeles Times food writer Amy Scattergood became food blogger at LA Weekly's Squid Ink, was promoted to food editor. In late 2009, the paper hired Dennis Romero of Ciudad magazine, as a full-time news blogger. Following the recession, in 2012 the paper added food critic Besha Rodell, a James Beard nominee and former food editor of Atlanta's Creative Loafing. In 2013, LA Weekly named Amy Nicholson as its lead film critic. In 2016, LA Weekly named multimedia journalist and Emmy-winning producer Drew Tewksbury as managing editor. In September 2012, Village Voice Media executives Scott Tobias, Christine Brennan and Jeff Mars bought Village Voice Meda's papers and associated web properties from its founders and formed Voice Media Group.
The paper won journalism awards before and after this transition, with two of its news writers, Patrick Range McDonald and Gene Maddaus, winning the Los Angeles Press Club's nod for Journalist of the Year. For a time in the Los Angeles market, LA Weekly competed against two now-defunct publications, including Brand X and LA CityBeat, a smaller alternative weekly newspaper owned by Southland Publishing, which ceased publication in March 2009. Southland owns the Pasadena Weekly, The Argonaut on the Westside of Los Angeles, other print products in Southern California. In November 2017, the publication was sold to Semanal Media LLC. In December 2017, it was revealed that the new owners of Semanal Media LLC are men from Orange County and include "David Welch, a Los Angeles-based attorney with ties to the cannabis industry.
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
A dog park is a park for dogs to exercise and play off-leash in a controlled environment under the supervision of their owners. These parks have varying features, although they offer a 4' to 6' fence, separate double-gated entry and exit points, adequate drainage, benches for humans, shade for hot days, parking close to the site, tools to pick up and dispose of animal waste in covered trash cans, regular maintenance and cleaning of the grounds. Dog parks may offer wheel-chair access, a pond for swimming and a separate enclosure for small dogs. Off-leash dog areas, or dog parks, provide a community setting in which people can gather and socialize and where they can observe the interaction of groups of dogs at play. Dog parks allow owners and their dogs to spend time together and offer dogs a space for play and companionship with others. Leashes can cause dogs to become territorial. Roaming free is beneficial for dogs. Organizations like the ASPCA view. According to Dan Emerson of DogChannel.com, proponents of dog parks cite the following benefits: "They promote responsible pet ownership and the enforcement of dog-control laws.
Dog park regulations vary from park to park. In the United States, Great Britain, Australia, the number of dog owners has grown by several millions from the 1990s to the 2000s, the number of dogs per household has increased. In her 2007 Master's Thesis, Dog Parks: Benefits and Liabilities, author Laurel Allen wrote: "In urban environments dogs are confined to a crate, portions of the home, or small sections of the yard most of the time. Dogs are taken on daily walks, but because of strict leash laws, they cannot run free or socialize with other dogs." Studies have shown that people find it easier to talk to each other with dogs as the initial focus, breaking down the usual social barriers that make people perceive others as strangers. Many of whom are unable to properly exercise their dogs and who could benefit from taking their dogs to a dog park. Additional benefits of a dog park to the community include promoting responsible dog ownership as well as accommodating dogs and their owners in a public open space, shown to lead dog owners to higher levels of compliance with relevant laws.
The benefits of exercise for dogs are well documented, although dogs can learn and reinforce bad behaviors if owners are not vigilant or careful. Cesar Millan, the Dog Whisperer, cautions that the dog park should not be used as a substitute for a daily walk, he suggests that the owners walk their dogs briskly for 35 minutes to calm them before placing them unleashed inside a dog park enclosure. Dogs that are socialized and exercised are healthier and less aggressive in behavior, they are less to bark or be destructive or aggressive if they are able to expend pent-up energy during regular play or exercise. Establishing a dog park can create contention within a community when residents worry about noise and traffic; the town of Leesburg took eight years to approve a small dog park in Loudoun County, Virginia that will hold only 20 dogs at once. The town of South Windsor, CT built a Bark Park on town owned land within a few hundred feet of private residences, without discussion nor notification of the homeowners.
The homeowners hear car traffic while in their homes. This has led to a lawsuit against the town for noise nuisance. Laurel Allen, author of Dog Parks: Benefits and Liabilities points out that few experienced experts in park design or dog behavior are consulted during the design process of dog parks: Most dog parks result from the perceived needs of a local dog owners' community without guidance or input from experienced park designers, veterinarians, or experts on dog behavior. There is no comprehensive reference manual outlining the requirements for the design of a safe and well-maintained dog park; the only available reference for local dog park advocates is Susyn Stecchi's So You Want to Build a Dog Park?, written from the perspective of an AAHA certified animal hospital practice manager and dog owner and co-founder of the first public dog park in Florida. Untapped authorities who could be used to assist novices in the design of dog parks include livestock farmers and ranchers, game-farmers, kennel owners, zookeepers most of whom have had decades of experiences with animal husbandry.
Some experts caution that a dog park is no substitute for a daily walk, contend that if owners walk their dogs on a leash for at least 20–30 minutes per day and play with them for 15 minutes daily, their dogs will be well-adjusted to the urban environment. Before introducing a dog park to the community, it is best to plan thoroughly. Advocate for a park on the local level with partners that can help, like public parks staff, solicit for funding, establish a set of firm rules that will be enforced by dog park officials. A primary objective - and one of the toughest - is to ensure that the location is appropriate for the dogs, their owners, the community; the park should not be placed in environmentally sensitive areas, it must be free of poisonous plants that might hurt the dogs and dangerous topography such as steep cliffs that might present a danger to their owners. The second objective is to ensure that the park is safe for dogs and wildlife; this will requ
Shade balls are small plastic spheres floated on top of a reservoir for environmental protection and to slow evaporation. Known as bird balls, they were developed to prevent birds from landing on toxic tailing ponds produced by mining operations, they have been used by airports to prevent birds from being attracted to drainage ponds and thus risking collisions with planes. Shade balls were known as bird balls, as they were developed to prevent birds from landing on toxic tailing ponds produced by mining operations, they have been used by airports to prevent birds from being attracted to drainage ponds and thus risking collisions with planes. Starting in mid-2008, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power deployed about 400,000 of these devices in the Ivanhoe reservoir with the main objective of preventing the formation of a carcinogenic chemical, which forms when occurring bromine reacts with chlorine in the presence of sunlight. In the original release by the LADWP, there is no mention of water conservation as an objective, the project was planned for a five year life span, until a Griffith Park project was completed.
However, the reduction in evaporation led to an estimated savings of about 1.1 billion liters of water in one year. In 2014 and 2015, the LADWP deployed 96 million shade balls on its largest reservoir in response to the United States Environmental Protection Agency's surface water treatment rule, which requires large reservoirs of treated water to be covered; the LADWP claims that in addition to reducing evaporation, they will reduce UV radiation by-products and algae growth. The balls saved 1.7 million cubic metres of water from evaporating during their deployment from August 2015 to March 2017. However they required 2.9 million cubic metres of water in their manufacture. The balls have a lifespan of ten years, the plastic may be reused after that; the shade balls used in the Los Angeles project are made of high-density polyethylene with carbon black additive to protect the plastic from ultraviolet radiation. Adding carbon black prevents the formation of bromate, a suspected human carcinogen.
They are about 4 inches in diameter, are filled with water to avoid being blown by wind. HDPE plastic is used for food and beverage containers as well as water distribution pipes; the black coating on the balls, called carbon black, is a petroleum derivative, classified as a carcinogen if inhaled as dust. The black color balls have been claimed to prevent UV light from reaching the water more than lighter color balls. Video of 2014 Shade Ball Deployment on YouTube
South Los Angeles
South Los Angeles is a region in southern Los Angeles County and lies within the city limits of Los Angeles, just south of downtown. According to the Los Angeles Times, South Los Angeles ”is defined on Los Angeles city maps as a 16-square-mile rectangle with two prongs at the south end.” In 2003, the Los Angeles City Council renamed this area "South Los Angeles". The name South Los Angeles can refer to a larger 51-square mile area that includes areas within the city limits of Los Angeles as well as five unicorporated neighborhoods in the southern portion of the County of Los Angeles; the City of Los Angeles delineates South Los Angeles as an area of 15.5 square miles. Adjacent neighborhoods include West Adams, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park to the west and the Southeast Los Angeles region of the city on the east. According to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project, South Los Angeles comprises 51 square miles, consisting of 25 neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles as well as three unincorporated neighborhoods in the County of Los Angeles.
Google Maps delineates a similar area to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project with notable differences on the western border. On the northwest, it omits a section of Los Angeles west of La Brea Avenue. On the southwest, it includes a section of the City of Inglewood north of Century Boulevard. According to the Mapping L. A. survey of the Los Angeles Times, the South Los Angeles region consists of the following neighborhoods: In 1880, the University of Southern California, in 1920, the Doheny Campus of Mount St. Mary's College, were founded in South Los Angeles; the 1932 and 1984 Olympic Games took place near the USC campus at neighboring Exposition Park, where the Los Angeles Coliseum is located. Until the 1920s, the South Los Angeles neighborhood of West Adams was one of the most desirable areas of the City; as the wealthy were building stately mansions in West Adams and Jefferson Park, the white working class was establishing itself in Crenshaw and Hyde Park. Affluent blacks moved into West Adams and Jefferson Park.
As construction along the Wilshire Boulevard corridor increased in the 1920s, the development of the city was drawn west of downtown and away from South Los Angeles. At the same time, the area of modest bungalows and low-rise commercial buildings along Central Avenue emerged as the heart of the black community in southern California, it had one of the first jazz scenes in the western U. S. with trombonist Kid Ory a prominent resident. Under racially restrictive covenants, blacks were allowed to own property only within the Main-Slauson-Alameda-Washington box and in Watts, as well as in small enclaves elsewhere in the city; the working- and middle-class blacks who poured into Los Angeles during the Great Depression and in search of jobs during World War II found themselves penned into what was becoming a overcrowded neighborhood. During the war, blacks faced such dire housing shortages that the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles built the all-black and Latino Pueblo Del Rio project, designed by Richard Neutra.
When the Supreme Court banned the legal enforcement of race-oriented restrictive covenants in 1948's Shelley v. Kraemer, blacks began to move into areas outside the overcrowded Slauson-Alameda-Washington-Main settlement area. For a time in the early 1950s, southern Los Angeles became the site of significant racial violence, with whites bombing, firing into, burning crosses on the lawns of homes purchased by black families south of Slauson. In an escalation of behavior that began in the 1920s, white gangs in nearby cities such as South Gate and Huntington Park accosted blacks who traveled through white areas; the black mutual protection clubs that formed in response to these assaults became the basis of the region's fearsome street gangs. As in most urban areas, 1950s freeway construction radically altered the geography of southern Los Angeles. Freeway routes tended to reinforce traditional segregation lines. Beginning in the 1970s, the rapid decline of the area's manufacturing base resulted in a loss of the jobs that had allowed skilled union workers to have a middle class life.
Downtown Los Angeles' service sector, which had long been dominated by unionized African Americans earning high wages, replaced most black workers with newly arrived Mexican and Central American immigrants. Widespread unemployment and street crime contributed to the rise of street gangs in South Central, such as the Crips and Bloods, they became more powerful with money from drugs the crack cocaine trade, dominated by gangs in the 1980s. By the early 2000s, the crime rate of South Los Angeles had declined significantly. Redevelopment, improved police patrol, community-based peace programs, gang intervention work, youth development organizations lowered the murder and crime rates to levels that had not been seen since the 1940s and'50s. South Los Angeles was still known for its gangs at the time. In mid 2003, the City of Los Angeles changed the region's name from South Central to South Los Angeles, a move supporters said would "help erase a stigma that has dogged the southern part of the city."On August 11, 2014, just two days after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, a resident of South L.
A. Ezell Ford, described as "a mentally ill 25-year-old man," was fatally shot by two Los Angeles police officers. Since a number of protests focused on events in Ferguson have taken place in South Los Angeles. After the 2008 economic recession, housing prices in South Los Angeles recovered and by 2018, many had come to see South Los Angeles as a
Silver Lake, Los Angeles
Silver Lake is a residential and commercial neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, United States. Named Ivanhoe in the 1900s by a resident from Scotland, it was built around what was a city reservoir which gives the district its name; the "Silver" in Silver Lake is not because of the water's color, but named for a local politician who helped create the reservoir. The area is known for its restaurants and hipster hangouts, many notable people have made their homes there; the neighborhood has several private schools. Silver Lake is flanked on the northeast by Atwater Village and Elysian Valley, on the southeast by Echo Park, on the southwest by Westlake, on the west by East Hollywood and on the northwest by Los Feliz. Street and other boundaries are: the Los Angeles River between Glendale Boulevard and Fletcher Drive and Riverside Drive on the northeast, the Glendale Freeway on the east, Effie Street, Coronado Street, Berkeley Avenue and Fletcher Drive on the southeast, the Hollywood Freeway on the south, Virgil Avenue on the west and Fountain Avenue and Hyperion Avenue on the northwest.
The prime real estate around the lake is known by realtors as the "Moreno Highlands." The Silver Lake neighborhood council has mapped the boundaries of its council region. During the 1930s, Walt Disney built his first large studio in Silver Lake at the corner of Griffith Park Boulevard and Hyperion Avenue the site of Gelson's Market; as consequence, the name "Hyperion" is used by Walt Disney Company and its subsidiaries, with company entities past and present carrying the name, such as Hyperion Books and the Hyperion Theater at Disney California Adventure Park. The fictional Seattle neighborhood of Hyperion Heights in the final season of the Disney-owned ABC series Once Upon a Time traces its name to the same origin. Several blocks away on Glendale Boulevard was the studio of early Western films' star Tom Mix; the location is now occupied by the Mixville Shopping Center. It is rumored that Mix buried his steed "the Wonder Horse" on the property; the neighborhood is crisscrossed by numerous municipal staircases that provide pedestrian access up and down the neighborhood's signature hills.
Among these are the Descanso Stairs, Redcliffe Stairs and the Music Box Stairs. The famous flight of stairs in Laurel and Hardy's film The Music Box are located between lower Descanso Drive and Vendome Street, as it winds up and around the hill. In the 1950s and 60s Silver Lake, like Echo Park, was home to a middle class Latino community; the community was formed by people who worked in the then-bustling manufacturing hub of downtown Los Angeles. In the 1970s, outsourcing brought to an end the group's prosperity, as they saw their jobs shipped overseas to Taiwan and China along with manufacturing; the neighborhood lost its prominence amid urban decay. Beginning in the 1970s, the neighborhood became the nexus of Los Angeles' gay leather subculture, the equivalent of the SoMA neighborhood in San Francisco. Since the late 1990s, gentrification has changed the area by pushing out public sex and "gay cruising", by facilitating the opening of many independent upscale boutiques, coffee shops, fitness studios, restaurants.
The neighborhood was named for Water Board Commissioner Herman Silver, instrumental in the creation of the Silver Lake Reservoir in the neighborhood, one of the water storage reservoirs established in the early 1900s. This is one of ten. In the community of Silver Lake lies the namesake reservoir composed of two basins, with the lower named Silver Lake and the upper named Ivanhoe; the lower body of water was named in 1906 for Herman Silver. The reservoirs are owned and maintained by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, could provide water to 600,000 homes in downtown and South Los Angeles. At capacity, they hold 795 million gallons of water; the Silver Lake Reservoir's water resources will be replaced by the Headworks Reservoir, an underground reservoir north of Griffith Park, slated for completion by December 2017. Within the grounds of the reservoir are several popular recreational facilities: the Silver Lake Recreation Center, which includes an adjacent city park. On the northeast corner of the property is the Neighborhood Nursery School, which since 1976 has been at the corner of Tesla Avenue and Silver Lake Boulevard.
It is a parent-participation cooperative preschool, affiliated with the California Council of Parent Participation Nursery Schools. As of 2015, Silver Lake is represented by Los Angeles City Council Members Mitch O'Farrell and David Ryu and the Silver Lake Neighborhood Council; the Silver Lake Neighborhood Council was formed in the early 2000s and certified as part of the City of Los Angeles Neighborhood Council system in February 2003. Its 21-member governing board is elected for two-year terms in September. Recent projects have included "Street Medallions" created by artist Cheri Gaulke, "ArtCans", the "Electrical Art Box Project", the second annual "Make Music LA" created by several different artists and the SLNC Arts & Culture Committee, whose current co-chairs are Renee Dawson and Jenifer Palmer Lacy; the Silver Lake Residents Association, the Silver Lake Improvement Association, the Silver Lake Reservoirs Conservancy, the Silver Lake Chamber of Commerce are all active in the area. The 2000 U.
S. census counted 30,972 residents in the 2.75 square miles neighborhood—an average of 11,266 people per square mile, about the
Griffith Park is a large municipal park at the eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains, in the Los Feliz neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. The park covers 4,310 acres of land, it is the second-largest city park in California, after Mission Trails Preserve in San Diego, the 11th largest municipally owned park in the United States. It has been referred to as the Central Park of Los Angeles but is much larger, more untamed, rugged than its New York City counterpart. After investing in mining, Griffith J. Griffith purchased Rancho Los Feliz in 1882 and started an ostrich farm there. Although ostrich feathers were used in making women's hats in the late-19th century, Griffith's purpose was to lure residents of Los Angeles to his nearby property developments, which were haunted by the ghost of Antonio Feliz. After the property rush peaked, Griffith donated 3,015 acres to the city of Los Angeles on December 16, 1896. Griffith was tried and convicted of shooting and wounding his wife in a 1903 incident.
When released from prison, he attempted to fund the construction of an amphitheater, planetarium, a girls' camp and boys' camp in the park. His reputation in the city was tainted by his crime, however, so the city refused his money. In 1912, Griffith designated 100 acres of the park, at its northeast corner along the Los Angeles River, be used to "do something to further aviation"; the Griffith Park Aerodrome was the result. Aviation pioneers such as Glenn L. Martin and Silas Christoffersen used it, the aerodrome passed to the National Guard Air Service. Air operations continued on a 2,000-foot -long runway until 1939, when it was closed due to danger from interference with the approaches to Grand Central Airport across the river in Glendale, because the City Planning commission complained that a military airport violated the terms of Griffith's deed; the National Guard squadron moved to Van Nuys, the Aerodrome was demolished, though the rotating beacon and its tower remained for many years.
From 1946 until the mid-1950s, Rodger Young Village occupied the area, the Aerodrome. Today that site is occupied by the Los Angeles Zoo parking lot, the Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum, soccer fields, the interchange between the Golden State Freeway and the Ventura Freeway. Griffith set up a trust fund for the improvements he envisioned, after his death in 1919 the city began to build what Griffith had wanted; the amphitheater, called the Greek Theatre, was completed in 1930, Griffith Observatory was finished in 1935. Subsequent to Griffith's original gift further donations of land, city purchases, the reversion of land from private to public have expanded the Park to its present size. In December, 1944 the Sherman Company donated 444 acres of Hollywoodland open space to Griffith Park; this large, eco-sensitive property borders the Lake Hollywood reservoir, the former Hollywoodland sign, Bronson Canyon where it connects into the original Griffith donation. The Hollywoodland residential community is surrounded by this land.
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Civilian Conservation Corps camp contained within Griffith Park was converted to a holding center for Japanese Americans arrested as "enemy aliens" before they were transferred to more permanent internment camps. The Griffith Park Detention Camp opened immediately after the Pearl Harbor attack, taking in 35 Japanese immigrants suspected of fifth column activity because they lived and worked near military installations; these men fishermen from nearby Terminal Island, were transferred to an Immigration and Naturalization Service detention station after a brief stay, but Issei internees arrested in the days and weeks following the outbreak of the war arrived soon after to take their place. Up to 550 Japanese Americans were confined in Griffith Park from 1941 to 1942, all subsequently transferred to Fort Lincoln, Fort Missoula and other DOJ camps. On July 14, 1942, the detention camp became a POW Processing Center for German and Japanese prisoners of war, operating until August 3, 1943, when the prisoners were transferred elsewhere.
The camp was changed to the Army Western Corps Photographic Center and Camouflage Experimental Laboratory until the end of the war. Hired as part of a welfare project, 3,780 men were in the park clearing brush on October 3, 1933, when a fire broke out in the Mineral Wells area. Many of the workers were ordered to fight the fire. In all, 29 men were killed and 150 were injured. Professional firefighters limited the blaze to 47 acres. On May 12, 1961, a wildfire on the south side of the park burned 814 acres, it destroyed eight homes and damaged nine more, chiefly in the Beachwood Canyon area. Another fire occurred circa 1971 in the Toyon Canyon area. Repelled by the ugliness of the devastated area, Amir Dialameh replanted a portion of it himself by hand. Over the course of more than 30 years, he tended the garden he built there with the help of occasional volunteers. On May 8, 2007, a major wildfire burned more than 817 acres, destroying the bird sanctuary, Dante's View, Captain's Roost, forcing the evacuation of hundreds of people.
The fire came right up to one of the largest playgrounds in Los Angeles, Shane's Inspiration, the Los Angeles Zoo, threatened the Griffith Observatory, but left such areas intact. Several local organizations, including SaveGriffithPark.org, have been working since with local officials to restore the park in a way that would benefit all. It was the third fire