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Silver certificate (United States)

Silver certificates are a type of representative money issued between 1878 and 1964 in the United States as part of its circulation of paper currency. They were produced in response to silver agitation by citizens who were angered by the Fourth Coinage Act, which had placed the United States on a gold standard; the certificates were redeemable for their face value of silver dollar coins and in raw silver bullion. Since 1968 they have been redeemable only in Federal Reserve Notes and are thus obsolete, but still valid legal tender at their face value and thus are still an accepted form of currency. Large-size silver certificates were issued in denominations from $10 to $1,000 and in 1886 the $1, $2, $5 were authorized. In 1928, all United States bank notes were re-designed and the size reduced; the small-size silver certificate was only issued in denominations of $1, $5, $10. The complete type set below is part of the National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History.

The Coinage Act of 1873 intentionally omitted language authorizing the coinage of “standard” silver dollars and ended the bimetallic standard, created by Alexander Hamilton. While the Coinage Act of 1873 stopped production of silver dollars, it was the 1874 adoption of Section 3568 of the Revised Statutes that removed legal tender status from silver certificates in the payment of debts exceeding five dollars. By 1875 business interests invested in silver wanted the bimetallic standard restored. People began to refer to the passage of the Act as the Crime of'73. Prompted by a sharp decline in the value of silver in 1876, Congressional representatives from Nevada and Colorado, states responsible for over 40% of the world’s silver yield in the 1870s and 1880s, began lobbying for change. Further public agitation for silver use was driven by fear that there was not enough money in the community. Members of Congress claimed ignorance that the 1873 law would lead to the demonetization of silver, despite having had three years to review the bill prior to enacting it to law.

Some blamed the passage of the Act on a number of external factors including a conspiracy involving foreign investors and government conspirators. In response, the Bland–Allison Act, as it came to be known, was passed by Congress on 28 February 1878, it did not provide for the "free and unlimited coinage of silver" demanded by Western miners, but it did require the United States Treasury to purchase between $2 million and $4 million of silver bullion per month from mining companies in the West, to be minted into coins. The first silver certificates were issued in denominations of $10 through $1,000. Reception by financial institutions was cautious. While more convenient and less bulky than dollar coins, the silver certificate was not accepted for all transactions; the Bland–Allison Act established that they were “receivable for customs and all public dues,” and could be included in bank reserves, but silver certificates were not explicitly considered legal tender for private interactions. Congress used the National Banking Act of July 12, 1882 to clarify the legal tender status of silver certificates by authorizing them to be included in the lawful reserves of national banks.

A general appropriations act of 4 August 1886 authorized the issue of $1, $2, $5 silver certificates. The introduction of low-denomination currency increased circulation. Over the 12-year lifespan of the Bland–Allison Act, the United States government would receive a seigniorage amounting to $68 million, while absorbing over 60% of U. S. silver production. Treasury Secretary Franklin MacVeagh appointed a committee to investigate possible advantages to issuing smaller sized United States banknotes. Due in part to the outbreak of World War I and the end of his appointed term, any recommendations may have stalled. On August 20, 1925, Treasury Secretary Andrew W. Mellon appointed a similar committee and in May 1927 accepted their recommendations for the size reduction and redesign of U. S. banknotes. On July 10, 1929 the new small-size currency was issued. In keeping with the verbiage on large-size silver certificates, all the small-size Series 1928 certificates carried the obligation "This certifies that there has been deposited in the Treasury of the United States of America X silver dollar payable to the bearer on demand" or "X dollars in silver coin payable to the bearer on demand".

This required that the Treasury maintain stocks of silver dollars to back and redeem the silver certificates in circulation. Beginning with the Series 1934 silver certificates the wording was changed to "This certifies that there is on deposit in the Treasury of the United States of America X dollars in silver payable to the bearer on demand." This freed the Treasury from storing bags of silver dollars in its vaults, allowed it to redeem silver certificates with bullion or silver granules, rather than silver dollars. Years after the government stopped the redemption of silver certificates for silver, large quantities of silver dollars intended to satisfy the earlier obligation for redemption in silver dollars were found in Treasury vaults; as was usual with currency during this period, the year date on the bill did not reflect when it was printed, but rather a major design change. Additional changes when either of the two signatures was altered, led to a letter bein

Something Special – The Best of Bigbang

Something Special – The Best of BigBang is a compilation of greatest hits of the Norwegian rock band BigBang, released in Norway on December 3, 2007. "Wild Bird" "Saturn Freeway" "I Don't Wanna" "To the Mountains" "New Glow" "Fly Like a Butterfly Sting Like a Bee" "Girl in Oslo" "One of a Kind" "Long Distance Man" "Frontside Rock'n'Roll" "In Your Heart" "Early December" "Hurricane Boy" "All the Time" "From a Distance" "Smiling For" "Something Special"

Old Capitol City Roller Derby

Old Capitol City Roller Derby is a women's flat track roller derby league based in Iowa City, Iowa. Founded in 2008, the league consists of two teams which compete against teams from other leagues. Old Capitol City is a member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association; the league began practicing in late 2008. In April 2010, it defeated the Des Moines Derby Dames travel team, for that league's first loss. Old Capitol City was accepted into the Women's Flat Track Derby Association Apprentice Program in October 2010, became a full member of the WFTDA in January 2012. Old Capitol City changed their name in 2015 to Old Capitol City Roller Derby in order to project more gender inclusiveness, at the same time changed the league organization to a non-profit