A chalice is a goblet or footed cup intended to hold a drink. In general religious terms, it is intended for drinking during a ceremony, chalices are often made of precious metal, and they are sometimes richly enamelled and jewelled. The gold goblet was symbolic for family and tradition, the ancient Roman calix was a drinking vessel consisting of a bowl fixed atop a stand, and was in common use at banquets. Chalices have been used since the early church, because of Jesus command to his disciples to Do this in remembrance of me. And Pauls account of the Eucharistic rite in 1 Corinthians 11, 24-25, the vessels used in this important act of worship were highly decorated and treated with great respect. A number of examples of chalices have a large bowl. Over time, the size of the bowl diminished and the base became larger for better stability, over time, official church regulations dictated the construction and treatment of chalices. Some religious traditions still require that the chalice, at least on the inside of the cup, in Western Christianity, chalices will often have a pommel or node where the stem meets the cup to make the elevation easier.
In Roman Catholicism, chalices tend to be tulip-shaped, and the cups are quite narrow, Roman Catholic priests will often receive chalices from members of their families when first ordained. In Eastern Christianity, chalices will often have icons enameled or engraved on them, in Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholicism, all communicants receive both the Body of Christ and the Blood of Christ. To accomplish this, a portion of the Lamb is placed in the chalice, for this reason, eastern chalices tend to have larger, rounded cups. In the Russian Orthodox Church, the faithful will kiss the foot of the chalice after receiving Holy Communion. In other traditions, they kiss the cup. Although Orthodox monks are not permitted to hold personal possessions, the permit a hieromonk to keep a chalice. In the early and medieval church, when a deacon was ordained, early written accounts of the ordination of deaconesses reflect this practice. In the West the deacon carries the chalice to the altar at the offertory, in the East, the priest carries the chalice and the deacon carries the paten.
Only wine, water and a portion of the Host are permitted to be placed in the chalice, the chalice is considered to be one of the most sacred vessels in Christian liturgical worship, and it is often blessed before use. Among the Eastern Churches there are varying practices regarding blessing, in some traditions the very act of celebrating the Sacred Mysteries is the only blessing necessary, in others, there is a special rite of blessing
Jewellery or jewelry consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, necklaces and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes, for many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest type of archaeological artefact – with 100, the most widespread influence on jewellery in terms of design and style have come from Asia. Jewellery may be made from a range of materials. Gemstones and similar such as amber and coral, precious metals and shells have been widely used. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a symbol, for its material properties, its patterns. Jewellery has been made to nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings. The word jewellery itself is derived from the jewel, which was anglicised from the Old French jouel. In British English, Indian English, New Zealand English, Hiberno-English, Australian English, both are used in Canadian English, though jewelry prevails by a two to one margin.
Numerous cultures store wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or make jewellery as a means to store or display coins, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good, an example being the use of slave beads. Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles, originated as functional items. Jewellery can symbolise group membership or status, wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures. These may take the form of symbols, plants, body parts, in creating jewellery, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewellery, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, palladium, most contemporary gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity, many whimsical fashions were introduced in the extravagant eighteenth century.
Cameos that were used in connection with jewellery were the attractive trinkets along with many of the objects such as brooches, ear-rings. Some of the necklets were made of pieces joined with the gold chains were in and bracelets were made sometimes to match the necklet
Tableware is the dishes or dishware used for setting a table, serving food and dining. It includes cutlery, serving dishes and other items for practical as well as decorative purposes. The quality, nature and number of objects according to culture, number of diners, cuisine. For example, Middle Eastern, Indian or Polynesian food culture and cuisine sometimes limits tableware to serving dishes, special occasions are usually reflected in higher quality tableware. Sets of dishes are referred to as a service, dinner service or service set. Table settings or place settings are the dishes and glassware used for formal and informal dining, in Ireland such items are normally referred to as delph, the word being an English language phonetic spelling of the word delft, the town from which so much delftware came. Silver service or butler service are methods for a butler or waiter to serve a meal, Setting the table refers to arranging the tableware, including individual place settings for each diner at the table as well as decorating the table itself in a manner suitable for the occasion.
Tableware and table decoration is more elaborate for special occasions. Unusual dining locations demand tableware be adapted, dishes are usually made of ceramic materials such as earthenware, faience, bone china or porcelain. However, they can be made of materials such as wood, silver, glass. Before it was possible to purchase mass-produced tableware, it was fashioned from available materials, industrialisation and developments in ceramic manufacture made inexpensive washable tableware available. It is sold either by the piece or as a set for a number of diners, normally four, eight. Large quantities are purchased for use in restaurants, individual pieces, such as those needed as replacement pieces for broken dishes, can be procured from open stock inventory at shops, or from antique dealers if the pattern is no longer in production. Possession of tableware has to a large extent been determined by individual wealth, the greater the means, the higher was the quality of tableware that was owned and the more numerous its pieces.
In the London of the 13th century, the more affluent citizens owned fine furniture and silver, while those of straiter means possessed only the simplest pottery and kitchen utensils. By the 16th century, even the poorer citizens dined off pewter rather than wood and had plate, the nobility often used their arms on heraldic china. Table decoration may be ephemeral and consist of items made from confectionery or wax - substances commonly employed in Roman banqueting tables of the 17th century, in modern times, ephemeral table decorations continue to be made from sugar or carved from ice. In wealthy countries such as 17th century France, table decorations for the aristocracy were made of silver
A swage block is a large, heavy block of cast iron or steel used in smithing, with variously-sized holes in its face and usually with forms on the sides. The through-holes are of shapes and sizes and are used to hold. Operations performed on a swage block include but are not limited to bending, cutting and forming, the sides are scalloped to present formed shapes for forging operations. Shapes are for example the curve of a wheel, which could be used to finish a wheel rim, other shapes, such as the half hexagon, can be used with a matching top swage to form a hexagonal cross-section on a bar. The various shapes around the edge of the swage block all have corresponding shapes in the form of top swages to shape iron bar into various sections. The image shows a 15-inch, square block with various semi-circular, hexagonal. There are two types of swage block, Industrial, as described above, & Artistic. Artist Blacksmiths sometimes require a tool that will allow metal to be formed in ways that an anvil or traditional industrial swage block will not allow, a special Artists block is often used.
As with industrial swage blocks, artistic blocks come in shapes and sizes, common features are hemispherical and ovoid depressions, asymmetrical curves. In addition, individual blocks may contain unique features of specific use or relevance to a particular smith or branch of the blacksmithing craft. The example pictured below is a block ten inches square by four deep and allows a smith to form metal to various angles and shapes, most notably as spoons, ladles
Soid Borax, known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid. Powdered borax is white, consisting of colorless crystals that dissolve easily in water. Borax has a variety of uses. It is a component of many detergents and enamel glazes, in artisanal gold mining, the borax method is sometimes used as a substitute for toxic mercury in the gold extraction process. Borax was reportedly used by miners in parts of the Philippines in the 1900s. The term borax is used for a number of closely related minerals or chemical compounds that differ in their water content. Commercially sold borax is partially dehydrated, Borax was first discovered in dry lake beds in Tibet and was imported via the Silk Road to the Arabian Peninsula in the 8th Century AD. However, it is formulated as Na2·8H2O, since borax contains the 2− ion. In this structure, there are two four-coordinate boron atoms and two boron atoms. Borax is converted to boric acid and other borates.
When borax is added to a flame, it produces a green color. Borax is not used for purpose in fireworks due to the overwhelming yellow color of sodium. Boric acid is used to color methanol flames a transparent green, the English word borax is Latinized, the Middle English form was boras, from Old French boras, bourras. That may have been from medieval Latin baurach, borax, or maybe directly from the Arabic, along with Spanish borrax and Italian borrace, the Arabic was بورق bauraq/bwrk, a word used for borax. Traditional Arabic dictionaries say that it derives from the verb to glisten, which is written بورق bwrq, but it seems to actually derive from the Persian būrah. The word borax is found in Arabic būraq, meaning white, which is from Middle Persian bwrk, another name for borax is tincal, from Sanskrit. The word tincal /ˈtɪŋkəl/ tinkle, or tincar /ˈtɪŋkər/ tinker, refers to crude borax, before it is purified, as mined from deposits in Tibet, Persia. The word was adopted in the 17th century from Malay tingkal and from Urdu/Persian/Arabic تنکار tinkār/tankār and these all appear to be related to the Sanskrit टांकण ṭānkaṇa
Charcoal is a lightweight, black residue, consisting of carbon and any remaining ash, obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis- the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen, the whole pile is covered with turf or moistened clay. The firing is begun at the bottom of the flue, the success of the operation depends upon the rate of the combustion. The operation is so delicate that it was left to colliers. They often lived alone in small huts in order to tend their wood piles, for example, in the Harz Mountains of Germany, charcoal burners lived in conical huts called Köten which are still much in evidence today. The massive production of charcoal was a cause of deforestation. The increasing scarcity of easily harvested wood was a factor behind the switch to fossil fuel equivalents, mainly coal. Charcoal made at 300 °C is brown and friable, and readily inflames at 380 °C, made at higher temperatures it is hard and brittle, in Finland and Scandinavia, the charcoal was considered the by-product of wood tar production.
The best tar came from pine, thus pinewoods were cut down for tar pyrolysis, the residual charcoal was widely used as substitute for metallurgical coke in blast furnaces for smelting. Tar production led to deforestation, it has been estimated all Finnish forests are younger than 300 years. The end of tar production at the end of the 19th century resulted in rapid re-forestation, the charcoal briquette was first invented and patented by Ellsworth B. A. Zwoyer of Pennsylvania in 1897 and was produced by the Zwoyer Fuel Company. The process was popularized by Henry Ford, who used wood. Ford Charcoal went on to become the Kingsford Company, Charcoal has been made by various methods. The traditional method in Britain used a clamp and this is essentially a pile of wooden logs leaning against a chimney. The chimney consists of 4 wooden stakes held up by some rope, the logs are completely covered with soil and straw allowing no air to enter. It must be lit by introducing some burning fuel into the chimney, if the soil covering gets torn by the fire, additional soil is placed on the cracks.
Once the burn is complete, the chimney is plugged to prevent air from entering, the true art of this production method is in managing the sufficient generation of heat, and its transfer to wood parts in the process of being carbonised. A strong disadvantage of this method is the huge amount of emissions that are harmful to human health
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Goldsmiths must be skilled in forming metal through filing, sawing, casting, the trade has very often included jewellery-making skills, as well as the very similar skills of the silversmith. Many universities and junior colleges offer goldsmithing, compared to other metals, gold is malleable, rare, and it is the only solid metallic element with a yellow color. It may easily be melted and cast without the problems of oxides and gas that are problematic with other such as bronzes. It is fairly easy to weld, wherein similarly to clay two small pieces may be pounded together to make one larger piece. Gold is classified as a noble metal—because it does not react with most elements and it usually is found in its native form, lasting indefinitely without oxidization and tarnishing. Gold has been worked by humans in all cultures where the metal is available, either indigenously or imported, and the history of these activities is extensive.
Superbly made objects from the ancient cultures of Africa, Europe, North America, some pieces date back thousands of years and were made using many techniques that still are used by modern goldsmiths. Techniques developed by some of those goldsmiths achieved a level that was lost and remained beyond the skills of those who followed. In medieval Europe goldsmiths were organized into guilds and usually were one of the most important, the guild kept records of members and the marks they used on their products. These records, when they survive, are useful to historians. Goldsmiths often acted as bankers, since they dealt in gold and had sufficient security for the storage of valuable items. The Sunar caste is one of the oldest communities in goldsmithing in India, in India, Vishwakarma are the goldsmith caste. The printmaking technique of engraving developed among goldsmiths in Germany around 1430, the notable engravers of the fifteenth century were either goldsmiths, such as Master E. S. or the sons of goldsmiths, such as Martin Schongauer and Albrecht Dürer. A goldsmith might have an array of skills and knowledge at their disposal.
Gold, being the most malleable metal of all, offers opportunities for the worker. In todays world a variety of other metals, especially platinum alloys. 24 Carat is pure gold and historically, was known as fine gold, because it is so soft, however,24 Carat gold is rarely used
In metallurgy, a flux is a chemical cleaning agent, flowing agent, or purifying agent. Fluxes may have more than one function at a time and they are used in both extractive metallurgy and metal joining. Some of the earliest known fluxes were carbonate of soda, charcoal, borax, lead sulfide, iron ore was used as a flux in the smelting of copper. As cleaning agents, fluxes facilitate soldering and welding by removing oxidation from the metals to be joined, the slag is a liquid mixture of ash and other impurities. This reduction of slag viscosity with temperature, increasing the flow of slag in smelting, is the origin of the word flux in metallurgy. Fluxes are used in foundries for removing impurities from molten nonferrous metals such as aluminium, in high-temperature metal joining processes, the primary purpose of flux is to prevent oxidation of the base and filler materials. Tin-lead solder attaches very well to copper, but poorly to the oxides of copper. Flux is a substance which is inert at room temperature.
Additionally, flux allows solder to flow easily on the piece rather than forming beads as it would otherwise. In some applications molten flux serves as a heat transfer medium, fluxes for soft soldering are typically of organic nature, though inorganic fluxes, usually based on halogenides and/or acids, are used in non-electronics applications. Fluxes for brazing operate at higher temperatures and are therefore mostly inorganic. Organic fluxes typically consist of four components, Activators - chemicals disrupting/dissolving the metal oxides. Their role is to expose unoxidized, easily wettable metal surface and aid soldering by other means, highly active fluxes contain chemicals that are corrosive at room temperature. The compounds used include metal halides, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, Salts of mineral acids with amines are used as aggressive activators. Aggressive fluxes typically facilitate corrosion, require careful removal, and are unsuitable for finer work, Activators for fluxes for soldering and brazing aluminium often contain fluorides.
Milder activators begin to react with oxides only at elevated temperature, typical compounds used are carboxylic acids and sometimes amino acids. Some milder fluxes contain halides or organohalides, vehicles - high-temperature tolerant chemicals in the form of non-volatile liquids or solids with suitable melting point, they are generally liquid at soldering temperatures. Solid vehicles tend to be based on natural or modified rosin or natural or synthetic resins, water-soluble organic fluxes tend to contain vehicles based on high-boiling polyols - glycols, diethylene glycol and higher polyglycols, polyglycol-based surfactants and glycerol
A torch is a stick with combustible material at one end, which is ignited and used as a light source. Torches have been used throughout history, and are used in processions and religious events. In some countries, the torch is used as the term for a battery-operated portable light. Torch construction has varied through history depending the torchs purpose, Torches were usually constructed of a wooden stave with one end wrapped in a material which was soaked in a flammable substance. In ancient Rome some torches were made of sulfur mixed with lime and this meant that the fire would not diminish after being plunged into water. Modern procession torches are made from coarse hessian rolled into a tube, there is usually a wooden handle and a cardboard collar to deflect any wax droplets. They are an easy and relatively cheap way to hold a flame aloft in a parade, modern torches suitable for juggling are made of a wooden and metal or metal only stave with one end wrapped in a Kevlar wick. This wick is soaked in a liquid, usually paraffin.
The torch is an emblem of both enlightenment and hope. Thus the Statue of Liberty, actually Liberty Enlightening of the World, the torch is a symbol used by political parties, for instance by both Labour and the Conservatives in the UK, and the Malta Labour Party. In the seals of schools in the Philippines, the torch symbolizes the vision of education to provide enlightenment to all the students, a torch carried in relay by cross-country runners is used to light the Olympic flame which burns without interruption until the end of the Games. To a skilled juggler, there is only a chance of being burned. In former times, liturgical torches were carried in Eucharistic processions simply to give light, the Church eventually adopted their use for Solemn High Masses. According to Adrian Fortescue, the correct form of liturgical torches are non-freestanding. However, even in the Vatican, tall candles in ornate candle-stick holders have replaced the former type, the torches are carried by torchbearers, who enter at the Sanctus and leave after Communion.
Anglicans of the High Church and some Lutherans use torches in some of their liturgical celebrations as well. The association of a torch with love may date to the Greek and Roman tradition of a torch, lit in the bride’s hearth on her wedding night. Such a torch is associated with the Greek god of marriage Hymen, the idiom to carry a torch means to love or to be romantically infatuated with someone, especially when such feelings are not reciprocated
Solder is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces. The word solder comes from the Middle English word soudur, via Old French solduree and soulder, from the Latin solidare, meaning to make solid. In fact, solder must be melted in order to adhere to and connect the pieces together, whenever possible, the solder should be resistant to oxidative and corrosive effects that would degrade the joint over time. Solder that is intended for use in making connections between electronic components usually has favorable electrical characteristics. Soft solder typically has a melting point range of 90 to 450 °C, and is used in electronics, plumbing. Manual soldering uses an iron or soldering gun. Alloys that melt between 180 and 190 °C are the most commonly used, soldering performed using alloys with a melting point above 450 °C is called hard soldering, silver soldering, or brazing. In specific proportions, some alloys can become eutectic — that is, non-eutectic alloys have markedly different solidus and liquidus temperatures, and within that range they exist as a paste of solid particles in a melt of the lower-melting phase.
In electrical work, if the joint is disturbed in the pasty state before it has solidified totally, for electrical and electronics work, solder wire is available in a range of thicknesses for hand-soldering, and with cores containing flux. It is available as a paste or as a preformed foil shaped to match the workpiece, alloys of lead and tin were commonly used in the past, and are still available, they are particularly convenient for hand-soldering. Lead-free solders have been increasing in use due to regulatory requirements plus the health and they are almost exclusively used today in consumer electronics. Plumbers often use bars of solder, much thicker than the used for electrical applications. Jewelers often use solder in thin sheets, which cut into snippets. In the US, manufacturers may receive tax benefits by reducing the use of lead-based solder, lead-free solders in commercial use may contain tin, silver, indium, zinc and traces of other metals. Most lead-free replacements for conventional 60/40 and 63/37 Sn-Pb solder have melting points from 5 to 20 °C higher and it may be desirable to use minor modification of the solder pots used in wave-soldering, to reduce maintenance cost due to increased tin-scavenging of high-tin solder.
Lead-free solder may be desirable for critical applications, such as aerospace and medical projects. Tin-Silver-Copper solders are used by two-thirds of Japanese manufacturers for reflow and wave soldering, tin-based solders readily dissolve gold, forming brittle intermetallics, for Sn-Pb alloys the critical concentration of gold to embrittle the joint is about 4%. Indium-rich solders are more suitable for soldering thicker gold layer as the rate of gold in indium is much slower