Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty. He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his Records of the Grand Historian, a general history of China in the Jizhuanti style covering more than two thousand years beginning from the rise of the legendary Yellow Emperor and the formation of the first Chinese polity to the reigning sovereign of Sima Qian's time, Emperor Wu of Han; as the first universal history of the world as it was known to the ancient Chinese, the Records of the Grand Historian served as a model for official history-writing for subsequent Chinese dynasties and the Chinese cultural sphere up until the 20th century. Sima Qian's father Sima Tan first conceived of the ambitious project of writing a complete history of China, but only completed some preparatory sketches at the time of his death. After inheriting his father's position as court historian in the imperial court, he was determined to fulfill his father's dying wish of composing and putting together this epic work of history.
However, in 99 BC, he would fall victim to the Li Ling affair for speaking out in defense of the general, blamed for an unsuccessful campaign against the Xiongnu. Given the choice of being executed or castrated, he chose the latter in order to finish his historical work. Although he is universally remembered for the Records, surviving works indicate that he was a gifted poet and prose writer, he was instrumental in the creation of the Taichu calendar, promulgated in 104 BC; as his position in the imperial court was "Grand Historian" generations would accord him with the honorific title of "Lord Grand Historian" for his monumental work, though his magnum opus was completed many years after his tenure as Grand Historian ended in disgrace and after his acceptance of punitive actions against him, including imprisonment and subjection to servility. He was acutely aware of the importance of his work to posterity and its relationship to his own personal suffering. In the postface of the Records, he implicitly compared his universal history of China to the classics of his day, the Guoyu by Zuoqiu Ming, Lisao by Qu Yuan, the Art of War by Sun Bin, pointing out that their authors all suffered great personal misfortunes before their lasting monumental works could come to fruition.
Sima Qian was born at Xiayang in Zuopingyi around 145 BC, though some sources give his birth year as around 135 BC. Around 136 BC, his father, Sima Tan, received an appointment to the low-ranking position of "grand historian"; the grand historian's primary duty was to formulate the yearly calendar, identifying which days were ritually auspicious or inauspicious, present it to the emperor prior to New Year's Day. Besides these duties, the grand historian was to travel with the emperor for important rituals and to record the daily events both at the court and within the country. By his account, by the age of ten Sima was able to "read the old writings" and was considered to be a promising scholar. Sima grew up in a Confucian environment, Sima always regarded his historical work as an act of Confucian filial piety to his father. In 126 BC, around the age of twenty, Sima Qian began an extensive tour around China as it existed in the Han dynasty, he started his journey from the imperial capital, Chang'an went south across the Yangtze River to Changsha Kingdom, where he visited the Miluo River site where the Warring States era poet Qu Yuan was traditionally said to have drowned himself.
He went to seek the burial place of the legendary rulers Yu on Mount Kuaiji and Shun in the Jiuyi Mountains. He went north to Huaiyin to see the grave of Han dynasty general Han Xin continued north to Qufu, the hometown of Confucius, where he studied ritual and other traditional subjects. After his travels, Sima was chosen to be a Palace Attendant in the government, whose duties were to inspect different parts of the country with Emperor Wu in 122 BC. Sima had one daughter. In 110 BC, at the age of thirty-five, Sima Qian was sent westward on a military expedition against some "barbarian" tribes; that year, his father fell ill due to the distress of not being invited to attend the Imperial Feng Sacrifice. Suspecting his time was running out, he summoned his son back home to take over the historical work he had begun. Sima Tan wanted to follow the Annals of Spring and Autumn—the first chronicle in the history of Chinese literature, it appears. In the postface of the completed Shiji, there is a short essay on the six philosophical schools, explicitly attributed to Sima Tan.
Otherwise, there are only fragments of the Shiji that are speculated to be authored by Sima Tan or based on his notes. Fueled by his father's inspiration, Sima Qian spent much of the subsequent decade authoring and compiling the Records of the Grand Historian, completing it before 91 BC around 94 BC. Three years after the death of his father, Sima Qian assumed his father's previous position as taishi. In 105 BC, Sima was among the scholars chosen to reform the calendar; as a senior imperial official, Sima was in the position to offer counsel to the emperor on general affairs of state. In 99 BC, Sima became embroiled in the Li Ling affair, where Li Li
Rancho Las Cruces was a 8,888-acre Mexican land grant in the Santa Ynez Mountains of present-day Santa Barbara County, California given in 1837 by Governor Juan B. Alvarado to Miguel Cordero; the name means "the crosses". The grant was inland of the Gaviota Tunnel. Cordero, son of Mariano Antonio Cordero, was the former majordomo of Mission La Purísima Concepción. In 1822, Miguel Cordero married Maria Antonia Jimenez. Miguel Cordero retired from active military service in 1833, was granted the two square league Rancho Las Cruces; the rancho was only a few miles east Rancho Cañada de Salsipuedes granted to his brother Pedro Cordero in 1844. Miguel Cordero died in 1851, at about the same time the U. S. Congress passed "An Act to Ascertain and Settle Private Land Grant Claims in the State of California", his widow and children did not realize the new requirement. Maria Antonia Jimenez died in 1858, an undivided interest in Rancho Las Cruces to each of their 9 children. Establishing title became a priority after the enactment of the Homestead Act of 1862, when the US Surveyor General began measuring tracts for settlers.
The limiting date for filing a claim, established by the Act of 1851, had long since passed. In 1876, the claimants submitted a petition to the US Congress in order that the claim might be heard in the US District Court. Congress approved the petition; the grant was patented to the heirs of Miguel Cordero in 1883. In 1880 Vincente Cordero, son of Miguel Cordero, sold his interest to Colonel W. W. Hollister and Thomas and Albert Dibblee. Las Cruces Adobe; the home of Miguel Cordero family members constructed in the 1850s or earlier
Anderson Vieira Martins is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays for São Paulo FC as a centre-back. Born in Fortaleza, capital of Ceará state, Anderson Martins started his career with Bahia club Vitória. In December 2003 he signed a three-year contract and extended in March 2006 and in August 2007, he made his Brazilian Série B debut on 7 August 2007, at that time known as Anderson Martins to disambiguate with teammates Anderson Ferreira and Anderson Rodrigues. The team promoted to 2008 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A as the fourth place, he played 3 more seasons for Vitória, winning 2008 to 2010 Campeonato Baiano and 2010 Campeonato do Nordeste. In December 2010 he was signed by Traffic Group as an investment and loaned to Vasco da Gama in four-year deal. In August Traffic Group mutually agreed with him on a 4-year contract with El Jaish of Qatar, despite receiving offers from Portugal and France, he was persuaded by teammate Juninho who had a stint in Qatar, convincing him that football in Qatar is advanced and that it is a gateway to European clubs.
He has stated his desire to join a European club. His arrival to El Jaish was delayed until mid-season, he made his debut on 2 January 2012. On January, 12th, 2018, Martins was appointed for São Paulo. In his interview, defender said he came to Tricolor Paulista because they are "a winner club, I came in a search of titles." He will wear shirt number 4. Twelve days Martins made his debut with club, in a victory by 2–0 against Mirassol Futebol Clube, a match valid for São Paulo State League, he capped 3 times in 2005 Sendai Cup. Brazil was the champion. VitóriaBahia state championship: 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010Vasco da GamaBrazil Cup: 2011 Anderson Martins at Soccerway Profile at Traffic Futpedia