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Simon Magus

Simon Magus known as Simon the Sorcerer or Simon the Magician, was a religious figure whose confrontation with Peter is recorded in Acts 8:9–24. The act of simony, or paying for position and influence in the church, is named after Simon. According to Acts, Simon was a Samaritan magus or religious figure of the 1st century AD and a convert to Christianity, baptised by Philip the Evangelist. Simon clashed with Peter. Accounts of Simon by writers of the second century are not considered verifiable. Surviving traditions about Simon appear in orthodox texts, such as those of Irenaeus, Justin Martyr and Epiphanius, where he is described as the founder of Gnosticism, accepted by some modern scholars, while others reject that he was a Gnostic, just designated as one by the Church Fathers. Justin, himself a 2nd-century native of Samaria, wrote that nearly all the Samaritans in his time were adherents of a certain Simon of Gitta, a village not far from Flavia Neapolis. According to Josephus, Gitta was settled by the tribe of Dan.

Irenaeus held him as being the founder of the sect of the Simonians. Hippolytus quotes from a work he attributes to Simon or his followers the Simonians, Apophasis Megale, or Great Declaration. According to the early church heresiologists, Simon is supposed to have written several lost treatises, two of which bear the titles The Four Quarters of the World and The Sermons of the Refuter. In apocryphal works including the Acts of Peter, Pseudo-Clementines, the Epistle of the Apostles, Simon appears as a formidable sorcerer with the ability to levitate and fly at will, he is sometimes referred to as "the Bad Samaritan" due to his malevolent character. The Apostolic Constitutions accuses him of "lawlessness"; the canonical Acts of the Apostles features a short narrative about Simon Magus. But there was a certain man, called Simon, which beforetime in the same city used sorcery, bewitched the people of Samaria, giving out that himself was some great one: to whom they all gave heed, from the least to the greatest, saying, "This man is the great power of God.

And to him they had regard. But when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the kingdom of God, the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women. Simon himself believed also: and when he was baptized, he continued with Philip, wondered, beholding the miracles and signs which were done. Now when the apostles which were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent unto them Peter and John: who, when they were come down, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost: Then laid they their hands on them, they received the Holy Ghost, and when Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles' hands the Holy Ghost was given, he offered them money, saying, "Give me this power, that on whomsoever I lay hands, he may receive the Holy Ghost." But Peter said unto him, "Thy money perish with thee, because thou hast thought that the gift of God may be purchased with money. Thou hast neither lot in this matter: for thy heart is not right in the sight of God.

Repent therefore of this thy wickedness, pray God, if the thought of thine heart may be forgiven thee, for I perceive that thou art in the gall of bitterness, in the bond of iniquity." Answered Simon, said, "Pray ye to the Lord for me, that none of these things which ye have spoken come upon me." Josephus mentions a magician named as being involved with the procurator Felix, King Agrippa II and his sister Drusilla, where Felix has Simon convince Drusilla to marry him instead of the man she was engaged to. Some scholars have considered the two to be identical, although this is not accepted, as the Simon of Josephus is a Jew rather than a Samaritan. Justin Martyr and Irenaeus record that after being cast out by the Apostles, Simon Magus came to Rome where, having joined to himself a profligate woman of the name of Helen, he gave out that it was he who appeared among the Jews as the Son, in Samaria as the Father and among other nations as the Holy Spirit, he performed such signs by magic acts during the reign of Claudius that he was regarded as a god and honored with a statue on the island in the Tiber which the two bridges cross, with the inscription Simoni Deo Sancto, "To Simon the Holy God".

However, in the 16th century, a statue was unearthed on the island in question, inscribed to Semo Sancus, a Sabine deity, leading most scholars to believe that Justin Martyr confused Semoni Sancus with Simon. Justin and Irenaeus are the first to recount the myth of Simon and Helen, which became the center of Simonian doctrine. Epiphanius of Salamis makes Simon speak in the first person in several places in his Panarion, the implication is that he is quoting from a version of it, though not verbatim; as described by Epiphanius, in the beginning God had his first thought, his Ennoia, female, that thought was to create the angels. The First Thought descended into the lower regions and created the angels, but the angels rebelled against her out of jealousy and created the world as her prison, imprisoning her in a female body. Thereafter, she was reincarnated each time being shamed, her many reincarnations included Helen of Troy, among others

Mohamed Sahnoun

Mohamed Sahnoun was an Algerian diplomat who served as ambassador of Algeria to Germany, the United States and Morocco as well as permanent representative of Algeria to the United Nations. He served as the Organisation of African Unity's Assistant Secretary General, the Arab League's Assistant Secretary-general, the Secretary-General of the United Nations's Special Representative for Somalia in 1992 and the Secretary-General of the United Nations's Special Representative for the Great Lakes region of Africa in 1997 before continuing to work for peace and reconciliation through various UN-related or independent charities, he focused on developing intercultural and inter-religious dialogues and on healing wounded memories from past conflicts. Mohamed Sahnoun was born in 1931 in Algeria, he first studied at the Lycée of Algiers and went on at the Sorbonne in Paris. He was there on the day of the first hostilities of the Algerian War; as an activist of the FLN, he responded to the call to strike launched by the'’Union générale des étudiants musulmans algériens'’ on 19 May 1956, stopped studying in Paris and came back home in Algeria.

There, he started to work in the'Social Centers' created by former French Resistance fighter Germaine Tillon with the agreement of Jacques Soustelle in order to alleviate misery and illiteracy in Algerian populations. In March 1957, the organisation was raided and searched by police, who arrested and detained twelve Christians and twenty-three Muslims. Being one of the managers of the'Social Centers', Mohamed Sahnoun was part of this group, charged with conspiracy and tried in a loudly-trumpeted trial, nicknamed the “Progressive Christians” trial. Mohamed Sahnoun was subsequently detained in the infamous "Villa Sésini", the torture and detention centre of the 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment during the Battle of Algiers, he himself was subjected to torture. Released for lack of conclusive evidence, Mohamed Sahnoun sought refuge in metropolitan France, in Clichy in Switzerland in Lausanne, he was unable to go back to Algeria before independence. During his early years Mohamed Sahnoun got acquainted with the pacifist NGO Service Civil International in Algeria in 1952–53.

This provided him with an enduring philosophical background and with an important network of trusted friends who would be of great assistance to him through the events of the 1950s. Mohamed Sahnoun resumed his studies at New York University where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Master of Arts degrees, both in political science. Mohamed Sahnoun first became diplomatic advisor of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic. In 1962 he travelled with president Ben Bella on his first official visit to the USA, where he met with president John Kennedy, one of the supporters of the cause of Algerian independence; as the Algerian delegation was due to travel to Cuba, Kennedy showed Ben Bella the first secret pictures taken by U2 planes showing Russian missiles launch pads in Cuba. In the name of peace and human security, Ben Bella agreed to convey a message to Fidel Castro making clear how much the American regarded this situation as a casus belli ·. Mohamed Sahnoun held the following positions: Deputy Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity Deputy Secretary-General of the League of Arab States in charge of Arab-Africa dialogue.

Algerian Ambassador to Federal Republic of Germany Algerian Ambassador to France. Under his leadership, an agreement was reached between France and Algeria regarding social security and retirement settlement for Algerian workers in France. Head of the Algerian diplomatic mission to the United States Algerian Ambassadeur d'Algérie to the United States. During his tenure, he organised a state visit by president Chadli Bendjedid to Ronald Reagan, the first official visit of an Algerian head of state to the United States. In 1989, Sahnoun is called to take over urgently as Algeria's Ambassador to Morocco, in order to succeed ambassadeur Abdelhamid Mehri, himself urgently requested to take the presidency of FLN after the 1988 October riots in Algeria, his name was mentioned as a possible recourse candidate for the Algerian presidential election of April 1999 but it is Abdelaziz Bouteflika, a former foreign minister who had retired from public office since 1981, who stood as a " free candidate " for and from FLN.

Senior Adviser to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations to Somalia. In this position, the efficiency of his diplomatic style is unanimously recognised and promising results are achieved. Mohamed Sahnoun resigned in protest; the intervention led by the US-backed Unified Task Force ended in utter disaster. Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the OAU in the Congo. Special Adviser to the Director-General of the United Nations Educ


Choloy-Ménillot is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France. It is located 5 kilometres west of Toul. Near the village is the Royal Canadian Air Force Cemetery Choloy, which contains the remains of Canadian military personnel or their family members who died while serving with the Canadian No. 1 Air Division during the Cold War period of the 1950s and 1960s. It contains graves of Canadian and Commonwealth aircrew who died in World War II, including: RCAF pilot Andy Watson, 21, from Hamilton, Ont. who stayed with his Lancaster while the rest of the crew. Chemin de Fer du Val de Passey Communes of the Meurthe-et-Moselle department INSEE commune file

Sveti Lovrenc, Prebold

Sveti Lovrenc is a village in the Municipality of Prebold in east-central Slovenia. The area is part of the traditional region of Styria; the municipality is now included in the Savinja Statistical Region. The name of the settlement was changed from Sveti Lovrenc pri Preboldu to Gorenja Vas pri Preboldu in 1955; the name was changed on the basis of the 1948 Law on Names of Settlements and Designations of Squares and Buildings as part of efforts by Slovenia's postwar communist government to remove religious elements from toponyms. The name Sveti Lovrenc was restored in 1991; the local church, from which the village gets its name, is dedicated to Saint Lawrence and belongs to the Parish of Prebold. It was first mentioned in written documents dating to 1247, it was restyled in the 19th century. Sveti Lovrenc at Geopedia


Ringim is a Local Government Area of Jigawa State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Ringim, the LGA has an area of 1,057 km² and a population of 192,024 at the 2006 census. HISTORY Ringim emirate came into being in November, 1991 as a result of the creation of Jigawa state from Kano state on 27 August 1991 by the president and commander in-chief of the Nigerian Armed Forces, General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida; the emirate consist of four Local Government Areas, viz: Ringim, Taura and Babura. The current Emir of Ringim, Alh.. Sayyadi mahmoud; the Emir was the chairman co-operative of west Africa. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Historically, Ringim Local Government is popular all over the country for its economic development; the area has a fertile land for both dry seasons farming activities. The Local Government produces both subsistence and cash crops and has great number fruits trees scattered along the bank of the river. In addition to the farming activities majority of the populace, engaged in marketing.

These economic resources enable most of the parents to possess means of paying their children’s school fees. The town was famous for its rich in groundnuts, tobacco production and trade, this motivated the British to construct railway from Kano to Nguru via the town. EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT year 1930 was the beginning of various educational developments in Ringim. In 1930, the first elementary school was established in Ringim. Pupils recruited for 1931 was 39. In 1954, another elementary school was established; as a result of UPE programme in 1976 more schools were constructed in Ringim town and the pupils enrolments increased, Galadanchi primary school and conversion of St. Peters into Sabon Gari primary school; this brought the number of primary schools in Ringim into four in addition to a number of Islamiyya Schools. In 9176, Government Secondary School was formally moved to Ringim after it stayed temporarily for two years at dawakin Tofa and a higher institution under Jigawa Polytechnic was established in 1991.

POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT Ringim had played great role for the survival of Kano during various attacks of Gumel and Damagaran to Kano emirate. The Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic has its College of Legal Studies at Ringim; the postal code of the area is 733


Prestwood is a village in Buckinghamshire, England. It is located in the Chiltern Hills, about two miles west of Great Missenden and six miles north of High Wycombe; the village name is Anglo Saxon in origin, means'Priest-wood'. There is evidence of settlement in Prestwood from the Middle Ages, when the village was covered in oak and ash trees. Hatches Farm is one of the buildings. By 1849, more of the woodland had been cleared to make way for agriculture and common land, around which 100 houses now existed. Many villagers worked in cottage industries such as lace making, a wheelwrights was present in the village. Many of the villagers made use of the common land to graze animals. In addition, gorse was harvested for fuel. Beech trees made up the bulk of the woodland, were used in the local furniture industry; the small village population was served by five separate public houses. Prestwood came into being as an ecclesiastical parish in 1849, when the Holy Trinity Church was constructed; the new parish combined portions of the parishes of Missenden and Hampden.

The first vicar of Holy Trinity planted a set of ornamental trees behind the church. In the Victorian era and nearby Great Missenden lay on the road between London and Birmingham; the two villages became important resting points for travellers. Prestwood's pubs – now numbering twelve – owe part of their legacy to this fact. Following 1850, much of the common land was sold off for agricultural development. By 1900, only a small amount of common land remained; some of the watering holes remained, in addition to wells which were used for drinking water until the pipe network reached Prestwood in the 1930s. As well as the Holy Trinity church, a Methodist church was constructed on the High Street and another on Bryrants Bottom. In addition, a Baptist chapel was founded on Kiln Lane; the main industry in Prestwood continued to be agriculture. Prestwood continued to grow in population throughout the early part of the 20th century. Prestwood Infant School opened in Moat Lane in 1908; the village hall was opened in 1928 by Countess of Macclesfield.

The arrival of the railway in Great Missenden improved access to central London, leading to Prestwood becoming a commuter village. However, the expansion of the village was not without its setbacks. After a long absence, orchids have been spotted in Cadsden near Princes Risborough. Many agricultural businesses flourished in Prestwood. Wren Davis Dairy opened on Wycombe Road. Today the dairy owns several acres of fields in the north and west of Prestwood, on which its cows still graze. Cornelius Stevens established a farmhouse, gardens and butcher's shop on land known as Square Farm, in the centre of the village, his four eldest sons took over the business upon his death in 1932. Gaybird Ltd supplied pheasant chicks and eggs to shoots throughout the country, raising the birds in fields stretching from Prestwood as far away as Dunsmore, near Wendover, their produce was exhibited at the annual national Game Fair. A pie factory was constructed, called Farmer Giles. Prestwood was home to former British Prime Minister Earl Attlee from 1950.

He moved to Martinsend Lane in Great Missenden. The house was occupied by the late musician and broadcaster, Steve Race. World War II In the Second World War, a prisoner of war camp was established at Peterley Wood, whilst Prestwood Park House was used as a hospital. Two bombers collided over Prestwood with much of the wreckage falling close to Nanfans Farm on Honor End Lane. Only one member of the two crews survived the collision. A plaque commemorating the tragedy can be found outside the Limes Tea House at the local garden centre, Hildreths of Prestwood. By the 1960s, the last brickworks in the village had closed and many of the orchards had been concreted over. Despite the continued growth of the village population, four pubs closed down – the George, the Weathercock, the Golden Ball and the White Horse. In the 1960s and 70s many large houses were constructed in Prestwood, helping to attract families to the village; this was reflected in the building of two new schools – Prestwood Junior School and Prestwood Lodge School.

Despite the loss of the London Underground steam service to the nearby Great Missenden railway station, an overground service has and still does continue, run by Chiltern Railways. These benefits are one reason for the district in which Prestwood lies being the most expensive rural district in entire United Kingdom. In January 2000 a further elderly home consisting of 30 flats was called Cherry Orchard. Leading to an increase in the number of retired people living in the village. In the early hours of Saturday 9 December 2006, a large fire swept through the Cherry Orchard residential home, killing one elderly woman and forcing 12 others to be rescued. Most of the ground fl