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Simple DirectMedia Layer

Simple DirectMedia Layer is a cross-platform software development library designed to provide a hardware abstraction layer for computer multimedia hardware components. Software developers can use it to write high-performance computer games and other multimedia applications that can run on many operating systems such as Android, iOS, macOS, Windows. SDL manages video, input devices, CD-ROM, shared object loading and timers. For 3D graphics, it can handle Vulkan or Direct3D context. A common misconception is that SDL is a game engine. However, the library is suited to building games directly, or is usable indirectly by engines built on top of it; the library is internally written in C and depending on the target platform, C++ or Objective-C, provides the application programming interface in C, with bindings to other languages available. It is free and open-source software subject to the requirements of the zlib License since version 2.0, with prior versions subject to the GNU Lesser General Public License.

Under the zlib License, SDL 2.0 is available for static linking in closed-source projects, unlike SDL 1.2. SDL is extensively used in the industry in both small projects. Over 700 games, 180 applications, 120 demos have been posted on the library website. Sam Lantinga created the library, first releasing it while working for Loki Software, he got the idea while porting a Windows application to Macintosh. He used SDL to port Doom to BeOS. Several other free libraries were developed to work alongside SDL, such as SMPEG and OpenAL, he founded Galaxy Gameworks in 2008 to help commercially support SDL, although the company plans are on hold due to time constraints. Soon after putting Galaxy Gameworks on hold, Lantinga announced that SDL 1.3 would be licensed under the zlib License. Lantinga announced SDL 2.0 on 14 July 2012, at the same time announcing that he was joining Valve, the first version of, announced the same day he joined the company. Lantinga announced the stable release of SDL 2.0.0 on 13 August 2013.

SDL 2.0 is a major update to the SDL 1.2 codebase with a different, not backwards-compatible API. It replaces several parts of the 1.2 API with more general support for multiple input and output options. Some feature additions include multiple window support, hardware-accelerated 2D graphics, better Unicode support. Support for Mir and Wayland was added in SDL 2.0.2 and enabled by default in SDL 2.0.4. Version 2.0.4 provided better support for Android. SDL is a wrapper around the operating-system-specific functions; the only purpose of SDL is to provide a common framework for accessing these functions for multiple operating systems. SDL provides support for 2D pixel operations, file access, event handling and threading, it is used to complement OpenGL by setting up the graphical output and providing mouse and keyboard input, since OpenGL comprises only rendering. A game using the Simple DirectMedia Layer will not automatically run on every operating system, further adaptations must be applied; these are reduced to the minimum, since SDL contains a few abstraction APIs for frequent functions offered by an operating system.

The syntax of SDL is function-based: all operations done in SDL are done by passing parameters to subroutines. Special structures are used to store the specific information SDL needs to handle. SDL functions are categorized under several different subsystems. SDL is divided into several subsystems: Basics Initialization and Shutdown, Configuration Variables, Error Handling, Log Handling Video Display and Window Management, surface functions, rendering acceleration, etc. Input Events Event handling, Support for Keyboard, Mouse and Game controller Force Feedback SDL_haptic.h implements support for "Force Feedback" Audio SDL_audio.h implements Audio Device Management and Recording Threads multi-threading: Thread Management, Thread Synchronization Primitives, Atomic Operations Timers Timer Support File Abstraction Filesystem Paths, File I/O Abstraction Shared Object Support Shared Object Loading and Function Lookup Platform and CPU Information Platform Detection, CPU Feature Detection, Byte Order and Byte Swapping, Bit Manipulation Power Management Power Management Status Additional Platform-specific functionalityBesides this basic, low-level support, there are a few separate official libraries that provide some more functions.

These comprise the "standard library", are provided on the official website and included in the official documentation: SDL_image — support for multiple image formats SDL_mixer — complex audio functions for sound mixing SDL_net — networking support SDL_ttf — TrueType font rendering support SDL_rtf — simple Rich Text Format renderingOther, non-standard libraries exist. For example: SDL_Collide on Sourceforge created by Amir Taaki; the SDL 2.0 library has language bindings for: Because of the way SDL is designed, much of its source code is split into separate modules for each operating system, to make calls to the underlying system. When SDL is compiled, the appropriate modules are selected for the target system. Following back-ends are available: GDI back-end for Microsoft Windows. DirectX back-end. Sam Lantinga has stated. Quartz back-end for macOS. Xlib back-end for X11-based windowing system on various operating systems. OpenGL contexts on various platforms. EGL back-end. Raspberry Pi and other systems.

Vulkan contexts on platforms t

Pasadena Refining System

Chevron Pasadena Refinery is a refinery located in Pasadena, United States. According to an article published in the Daily Oil, the market suspected that company owner Henry Rosenberg was preparing to sell the company; the refinery reported a loss of 829.4 million dollars in 1998 due to a union boycott. Rosenberg was facing credit issues. An August 2000 document from the Golnoy Barge Company showed $66.6 million in net sales in the first six months of 2000 and $5.6 million net income in the first half of 2000, compared to a loss of $22 million a year earlier. This document stated that "anyone who wanted to purchase the Central Crown in 2000 should be prepared to refinance the debt of $125 million." In 2003, this debt had risen to $200 million. Members felt that in 2000 these values could be $83 million higher than what was reported; the refinery had a capacity to store more than 6 million barrels, so the value of these stocks could exceed $1 billion. In 2004 Astra bought Pasadena's stocks of oil and its derivatives for $42.5 million and made investments of nearly $100 million to modernize the refinery.

In November 2005, Petrobras signed an MoU with Astra Oil Company with the goal of establishing a joint operation of refining and marketing in the US. The acquisition was completed in September 2006; the total amount paid was $360 million: $190 million for 50% of the shares and $170 million for the refinery stocks. Disagreements among the partners led to Astra requesting the right to sell its remaining 50% to Petrobras; this right only existed because the Brazilian state had the final say about the direction and future investments in the refinery. If the Astra did not agree, they would have the option to sell and Petrobras would have the option to buy. An arbitration confirmed this right in April 2009 and set the value of the second half of the refinery at $296 million, plus $170 million for its share of the stock, totaling U. S. $466 million. This amount was supplemented by an additional $173 million corresponding to a refund of part of a bank guarantee by partners, interest and court costs; the total arbitration value was $639 million.

On March 10, 2010, the Federal Court in Houston, Texas, USA, confirmed the judgment, finding that PAI would be the holder of the Pasadena refinery and trading company. In June 2012, an extrajudicial agreement that provided for the termination of arbitration and other lawsuits, plus interest and legal costs, totaled $820 million. Part of this amount, $750 million, had been accrued for payment in the financial statements of Petrobras, leaving the additional provision of $70 million to be recognized in the income statement in the second quarter of 2012. Petrobras acquired the Pasadena refinery as well as Astra Trading, the commercial arm of the refinery; the debt inherited in the acquisition is unknown. Chevron U. S. A. Inc. announced on May 1 2019 that it that it had acquired from Petrobras America Inc. all the outstanding shares and equity interests of Pasadena Refining System, Inc. and PRSI Trading LLC for $350 million, excluding working capital. Texas portal Companies portal Energy portal [

The In-Between World of Vikram Lall

The In-Between World of Vikram Lall is a novel by M. G. Vassanji, published in 2003 by Doubleday Canada; the novel won the Scotiabank Giller Prize that year and narrates a story of Vikram Lall in the colonial and post-colonial Kenya. The title for the novel inspired the title for Elizabeth Nunez's novel Anna In-Between, published in 2009. Vikram Lall is an adult living in exile in Canada and the novel plots him contemplating over his life as a teenager of Indian origin living in Kenya in the 1950s. Vikram's paternal grandfather was brought to Africa from Northwest India as a labourer on the railways, while his father Ashok was born in Africa and became a member of the Asian Home Guard troops that worked for the British, his mother, the daughter of a police inspector, was born in India and moved to Africa after marrying Ashok. Both Vikram and his younger sister, were born in Africa and reside in the town of Nakuru. While Ashok strives to emulate the British colonists, their maternal uncle Mahesh disrupts their household with his support for the radical Mau Mau group seeking to overturn British rule.

While growing up in colonial Kenya and Deepa befriend Njoroge, a Kikuyu child whose grandfather Mwangi works as a labourer in the Lalls' household, British siblings and Annie Bruce, whose mother frequents Ashok's grocery store for British goods. When Mau Mau Uprising gains momentum, the Bruces are killed; because of Vikram's particular attachment to Annie, he remains affected by her death until adulthood because he secretly witnesses Mahesh stealing Ashok's gun to give to the rebels. Mwangi is arrested and killed by the British for his involvement in the Mau Mau group while Mahesh is deported to India. Seeking a more peaceful place to live, the Lalls move to Nairobi; as teenagers and Deepa reconnect with Njoroge, now a rising star in the new government led by Jomo Kenyatta. It becomes clear that Deepa and Njoroge are in love, but Sheila is adamantly opposed to their relationship and persuades Njoroge to give up on Deepa. Devastated by Njoroge's rejection, Deepa marries another suitor and settles down, while Njoroge marries a Kikuyu woman and continues to be an idealistic voice in government.

While Vik begins as a railway inspector, he finds himself moving up in the bureaucratic ladder as his superiors take advantage of his status as an Asian man in Africa - having neither native African roots nor strong ties to the former British rule - to fuel their corrupt activities as a middleman who takes bribes and launders currency. Though Vik is stunned by the political influence he gains, he is soon tossed aside as a scapegoat by his superior when a scam is opposed, he takes up a position in his in-laws jewellery business, but his connections continue follow him and he becomes known as one of the most corrupt men in Africa. As the years go by, Vik's parents are driven apart, though they become closer again when Sheila is diagnosed with breast cancer. Deepa and Njoroge meet again as friends, though their past feelings remain strong and rumours begin to circulate that they are having an affair; when Njoroge's mentor and political opponent to Jomo Kenyatta is killed, Njoroge's idealism makes him a target and he is killed at Deepa's shop.

Deepa mourns his death for years, but when her husband Dilip dies, the scandals around Njoroge and Dilip's deaths isolate her and she chooses to immigrate to the United States where her two grown children reside. Vik's increased involvement in various political scandals endangers the lives of family members. In present, Vik attempts to atone for Njoroge's death by looking out for Njoroge's son, who has come to Canada; when Joseph returns to Kenya and is arrested for his participation in a violent political protest, Vik chooses to return to Africa to leverage his account of the most notorious scandal he was involved in in order to secure Joseph's release. Though he succeeds in obtaining Joseph's release, Vik's chance for a fresh start is overturned when the investigating committee is abruptly dissolved and he is left vulnerable to his enemies hoping to keep their corruption secret. With his lawyer arrested, Vikram is left in hiding when his apartment building is set ablaze, leaving his fate ambiguous.

The novel was published on 11 October 2003 by Doubleday Canada. It is divided into four parts spread over four decades and begins with Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. Vassanji, born in Kenya dedicated the novel as a tribute to East Africa's Indian population and their contributions to the railroad and the politics of Kenya. In 2016, Vassanji went on a tour organized by Storymoja Festival in Kenya and Nairobi, on which the novel's plot is based on. Vassanji took part in book signing and discussions with students; the novel was published in the digital form as an e-book. Author Elizabeth Nunez, who grew up in Trinidad and moved to America noted on how she relates with the story of being straddled in the two different worlds, she appreciates the novel for capturing the essence of a life in a post-colonial country. She wrote a novel Anna In-Between about a character struggling in two identities and said that " just stole Vassanji's line,'in-between'". Novelist Sandra Hunter writing for The Guardian included the book in top 10 list revolving around Indian families.

Helon Habila of The Guardian notes that the novel's first part is slow in pace but it is about political and personal survival and is "a good example of how the post-colonial novel should be written, avoiding the

Albert E. Jenner Jr.

Albert Ernest Jenner Jr. was an American lawyer and one of the name partners at the law firm of Jenner & Block. He served as assistant counsel to the Warren Commission. S. National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence. Jenner was born in Chicago—his father was a police officer with the Chicago Police Department. Jenner attended the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. To help pay his way through college, Jenner earned money by competing as a professional boxer, he was the circulation editor at the Daily Illini. It was while working on the Daily Illini that Jenner met Nadine Newbill. After college, he studied at the University of Illinois College of Law, receiving his LL. B. in 1930. Following law school, he served as the reporter for the Illinois Civil Practice Act, he joined the firm of Poppenheusen, Johnston and Cole in 1933 and became a partner of the firm in 1939. Jenner thrived at the firm and, in 1947, at age 40, he became the president of the Illinois State Bar Association.

He would go on to serve as the eighth president of the American College of Trial Lawyers. In his practice at Poppenheusen, Johnston and Cole, Jenner would develop relationships with several prominent clients. By the 1940s, Jenner had become the top earner at the firm. In 1955, he was rewarded by becoming a name partner at the firm; as a lawyer, Jenner was dedicated to pro bono work and, in the 1960s, he supported partner Prentice Marshall's efforts to found Jenner & Block's pro bono program, one of the first in the country. Jenner had a history of representing figures from Jack Rubenstein's criminal milieu, such as Allen Dorfman, an insurance agency owner, a consultant to the International Brotherhood of Teamsters Central States Pension Fund, a close associate of longtime IBT President Jimmy Hoffa, associated with organized crime via the Chicago Outfit. Dorfman was convicted on several felony counts, was murdered in 1983. Jenner was counsel for General Dynamics in 1963 when it was involved in a series of scandals in Texas that were exposed by the U.

S. Department of Justice. In the early 1950s, President Harry S. Truman appointed Jenner to the Civil Service Commission Loyalty Review Board, established by Executive Order 9835 in 1947. In 1960, the Supreme Court of the United States appointed Jenner to the Advisory Committee for the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, a post he would hold until 1970. Following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Jenner was named as assistant counsel to the Warren Commission. Along with Wesley J. Liebeler, Jenner was appointed and performed the "Area III" assignment, "Lee Harvey Oswald's Background."In 1964, the U. S. Supreme Court named Jenner chairman of the Advisory Committee for the Federal Rules of Evidence—he would continue in this post until 1975. In 1968, Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Jenner to the U. S. National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, which Johnson established in the wake of the assassinations of Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy to study the causes of violence in the U.

S. 1968 saw Jenner argue his first major case at the U. S. Supreme Court, Witherspoon v. Illinois. In the following years, he would argue Electric Auto-Lite. Jenner himself was mentioned as a preferred candidate for the Supreme Court by Johnson's Secretary of Defense, Clark Clifford, over Johnson's choice, Homer Thornberry. With the impending retirement of Chief Justice Earl Warren, Johnson hoped to elevate Associate Justice Abe Fortas to that post and Thornberry to Fortas' seat. Clifford thought Jenner would be a more acceptable candidate for Senate Republicans than Thornberry and help make them more amenable to Fortas as Chief Justice. Fortas' nomination was derailed by various scandals and withdrawn, which ended Thornberry's nomination. Jenner participated in the investigation into the 1969 bribery scandal at the Supreme Court of Illinois involving Chief Justice Roy Solfisburg and former Chief Justice Ray Klingbiel. Jenner served on the board of General Dynamics, he was a friend of an attorney for the family of Henry Crown.

Jenner represented Lester Crown, president of Material Service Corporation, in a 1972 bribery scandal and obtained for his client immunity from prosecution in exchange for cooperating with the grand jury. He was named in January 1974 as senior minority counsel on the impeachment inquiry staff for the Republicans on the House Judiciary Committee during the impeachment process against Richard Nixon. However, he was replaced in July 1974 after advocating for the impeachment of Nixon; the Committee recommended impeachment. During this time, Jenner fought against Senator Ted Kennedy's attempt to appoint a Boston Municipal Court judge, whom Jenner thought was unqualified, as a federal judge. A longtime opponent of the House Un-American Activities Committee, Jenner played a role in its 1975 abolition after he filed a First Amendment challenge to HUAC in response to its investigation of Dr. Jeremiah Stamler, a prominent Chicago heart researcher. Jenner represented convicted labor racketeer Allen Dorfman.

In the course of his career, Jenner served as: a director of General Dynamics.

Volkswagen Bora (China)

The Chinese Market Volkswagen Bora is a compact car manufactured and marketed by FAW-Volkswagen since 2001. Started as the fourth generation Volkswagen Jetta in North America and the Volkswagen Bora in other parts of the world, it went through a few heavy facelifts, production carried on with new updates long after the international Volkswagen Bora was out of production; the original Volkswagen Bora started out as a rebadged MK4 Jetta. The Bora in China received a facelift in the summer of 2006, with a Passat Mk5.5 lookalike face, a rebadged City Jetta. The model available in Mexico, Canada and Argentina from 2008 was facelifted with the same design found in China. There is a modified Jetta called the Volkswagen Lavida for the Chinese market, developed by Shanghai Volkswagen on the same platform. A hatchback version is available after the facelift, is badged as the Bora HS. Production began in 2006 and ended in 2008; the Bora received a complete makeover in 2007, being marketed as the New Bora, from 2010, only as the Bora.

This new model was developed by FAW-Volkswagen and is still being based on same platform as Golf IV, but using some components from the newer PQ35 platform. The Bora had a major facelift in December 2012, a sportier and more premium trim level was created called the Volkswagen Bora Sportline. In March 2016 the model received another complete makeover featuring a redesigned exterior while continuing the platform, the engines, the interior of the previous generation. Price for the Bora starts from 104,800 yuan to 149,800 yuan; this generation is still available as of May 2019 as the Bora Classic with three trim levels and pricing is between 106,800 and 116,800 yuan. The FAW-Volkswagen launched a lifted wagon version of the updated Bora called the Volkswagen C-Trek. In April 2018, FAW-Volkswagen revealed a new Volkswagen Bora sedan based on the MQB platform; the new model is sized compared with the just revealed Volkswagen Lavida Plus which stands on the MQB platform. The new Volkswagen Bora is available in the Chinese car market in September 2018 with prices starting from around 115,000 yuan.

Volkswagen Jetta- The original productline that spawned the Volkswagen Bora Volkswagen Lavida- Based on the Volkswagen Bora VW Bora III VW Bora IV

Non-reporting issuer

Securities regulation in Canada is conducted by the various provincial securities commissions and self-regulating organizations such as the MFDA and IIROC. Securities are issued under the authority and oversight of these bodies with the result that a broad range of rules apply to companies seeking to raise capital and to the parties acting as their agents in such transactions. However, there is a useful simplification that can be applied in Canada to provide some clarity for issuers - based on the criteria below securities issuers fall into two broad categories: prospectus offerings exchange listed highest level of mandatory regulatory compliance higher G&A most expensive to raise capital exempt offerings non-listed lower level of mandatory regulatory compliance lower G&A less expensive to raise capital tends to be smaller issuers with unique ideas or niche strategies A common question is what are the differences between RIs and NRIs and does either type of security have clear benefits over the other?

To answer the question investors must consider Reporting requirements. When securities are being sold by an issuer, there are two main factors that come into play to assist with investor protection: 1) Disclosure requirements prospectus or an offering memorandum ongoing financial statements reporting of material events2) Regulation of those that sell the securities Recent change in rules with adoption of NI 31-103 Exempt Issuers used to be able to raise capital without using registered securities dealers or Registrants but CSA has introduced new rules surrounding registration requirements for exempt offerings - now have to use Exempt Market Dealers Exempt issuers still limited ability in West to sell without using registrants however the lack of a registrant should be considered a red flag to investors. Alberta, British Columbia, the Northwest Territories and the Yukon Territory will each pass a blanket order exempting individuals and firms from the EMD registration requirement created in NI 31-1-3.

As presently cast, the Blanket Order would provide an exemption where a firm or person trades in securities under one of the following capital-raising exemptions in National Instrument 45-106 – Prospectus and Registration Exemptions: accredited investor. Some examples of Canadian non-reporting issuers: Mineral Fields Enervue Agcapita Farmland Investment Partnership Petrocapita Income Trust Trust Accredited investor Canada Revenue Agency Mutual fund Income fund Exchange fund Exempt Market Dealer