A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force. In general, they can be defined as the simplest mechanisms that use mechanical advantage to multiply force; the term refers to the six classical simple machines that were defined by Renaissance scientists: Lever Wheel and axle Pulley Inclined plane Wedge ScrewA simple machine uses a single applied force to do work against a single load force. Ignoring friction losses, the work done on the load is equal to the work done by the applied force; the machine can increase the amount of the output force, at the cost of a proportional decrease in the distance moved by the load. The ratio of the output to the applied force is called the mechanical advantage. Simple machines can be regarded as the elementary "building blocks" of which all more complicated machines are composed. For example, wheels and pulleys are all used in the mechanism of a bicycle; the mechanical advantage of a compound machine is just the product of the mechanical advantages of the simple machines of which it is composed.
Although they continue to be of great importance in mechanics and applied science, modern mechanics has moved beyond the view of the simple machines as the ultimate building blocks of which all machines are composed, which arose in the Renaissance as a neoclassical amplification of ancient Greek texts. The great variety and sophistication of modern machine linkages, which arose during the Industrial Revolution, is inadequately described by these six simple categories. Various post-Renaissance authors have compiled expanded lists of "simple machines" using terms like basic machines, compound machines, or machine elements to distinguish them from the classical simple machines above. By the late 1800s, Franz Reuleaux had identified hundreds of machine elements, calling them simple machines. Modern machine theory analyzes machines as kinematic chains composed of elementary linkages called kinematic pairs; the idea of a simple machine originated with the Greek philosopher Archimedes around the 3rd century BC, who studied the Archimedean simple machines: lever and screw.
He discovered the principle of mechanical advantage in the lever. Archimedes' famous remark with regard to the lever: "Give me a place to stand on, I will move the Earth," expresses his realization that there was no limit to the amount of force amplification that could be achieved by using mechanical advantage. Greek philosophers defined the classic five simple machines and were able to calculate their mechanical advantage. For example, Heron of Alexandria in his work Mechanics lists five mechanisms that can "set a load in motion"; however the Greeks' understanding was limited to the statics of simple machines, did not include dynamics, the tradeoff between force and distance, or the concept of work. During the Renaissance the dynamics of the Mechanical Powers, as the simple machines were called, began to be studied from the standpoint of how far they could lift a load, in addition to the force they could apply, leading to the new concept of mechanical work. In 1586 Flemish engineer Simon Stevin derived the mechanical advantage of the inclined plane, it was included with the other simple machines.
The complete dynamic theory of simple machines was worked out by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in 1600 in Le Meccaniche, in which he showed the underlying mathematical similarity of the machines as force amplifiers. He was the first to explain; the classic rules of sliding friction in machines were discovered by Leonardo da Vinci, but were unpublished and documented in his notebooks, were based on pre-Newtonian science such as believing friction was an ethereal fluid. They were rediscovered by Guillaume Amontons and were further developed by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. If a simple machine does not dissipate energy through friction, wear or deformation energy is conserved and it is called an ideal simple machine. In this case, the power into the machine equals the power out, the mechanical advantage can be calculated from its geometric dimensions. Although each machine works differently mechanically, the way they function is similar mathematically. In each machine, a force F in is applied to the device at one point, it does work moving a load, F out at another point.
Although some machines only change the direction of the force, such as a stationary pulley, most machines multiply the magnitude of the force by a factor, the mechanical advantage M A = F out / F in that can be calculated from the machine's geometry and friction. Simple machines do not contain a source of energy, so they cannot do more work than they receive from the input force. A simple machine with no friction or elasticity is called an ideal machine. Due to conservation of energy, in an ideal simple machine, the power output at any time P out is equal to the power input P in P out = P in The power outp
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia is a public university in Batu Pahat, Malaysia. It was known as Institut Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn and Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn. Along with other public university colleges, KUiTTHO was promoted to full university status since year 2007; the name UTHM was launched by the education minister, Dato' Seri Hishammuddin Bin Tun Hussein. UTHM is a member of Malaysian Technical University Network; the establishment history of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia started off on 16 September 1993. The university was known as Pusat Latihan Staf Politeknik; the core business of PLSP was to train and produce polytechnics academic staff to become knowledgeable and skilful in various engineering fields. The training institute was jointly administered by Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and the Ministry of Education Malaysia. Three years PLSP was upgraded to Institut Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn. Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak, the Minister of Education made the official announcement of the new status on 12 April 1996.
This promotion is an acknowledgment to the institution that has excelled in producing human resources for technical education. On 27 September 2000, the institute achieved another milestone when the Malaysian government agreed to award a university-college status to the institute; this was to recognise its contributions in science and technology-based development as well as in helping the nation to achieve its aspiration. With the new status, the institution was known as Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn and the official announcement was made by Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Musa bin Mohamed, the Minister of Education. KUiTTHO continued to grow and progress, producing graduates who were skilful and competitive; the Malaysian government, on 20 September 2006, agreed to award the university-college a full university status and changed its name to Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. On 1 February 2007, Datuk Mustapha Mohamed, the Minister of Higher Education announced the change of status. Subsequently, Dato’ Seri Hishamuddin Tun Hussein Onn made the official declaration of the change of name on 2 March 2007.
Pusat Latihan Staf Politeknik - 1993 Institut Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn - 1996 Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn - 2000 Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia - 2007 There are eight faculties and three academic centres as follows. Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education Faculty of Technology Management and Business Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology Faculty of Applied Science and Technology Faculty of Technical Engineering Centre for Graduate Studies Centre for Diploma Studies Continuing Education Centre Centre for Language Studies Centre for General Studies of Co-curricular List of programmes offered in UTHM: Diploma level of studies are offered to applicants with SPM/SPMV or equivalent certification. Degree level of studies are offered to applicants with STPM/STAM / Matriculation / diploma / equivalent certification.
UTHM offers Master's degree programs on a full-time and part-time basis. UTHM offshore programs are offered at UTHM campuses in Kota Bharu, Jitra, Kuching, Kota Kinabalu and Dungun. For the time being, programs offered are only at master's degree level; these programs are designed for working people at mid-career professionals from the public sector, international organisations and civil society organisations. The Executive Programs are organised on a flexible, credit-accumulation basis that can be completed within 6 months or more. Programs are offered in full-time as well as part-time modes. Short courses programs are designed to enhance applicants knowledge and skill from introductory to advanced levels. In UTHM, hostels for students are called "Kolej Kediaman", or "KK"; this term was first used. The former term was "desasiswa"; the residential college can be divided into two categories, residential colleges inside the campus and outside the campus. Inside campus: KK Tun Dr. Ismail KK Tun Fatimah KK Tun Syed NasirOutside campus: KK Bestari KK Perwira KK Pagoh 1 KK Pagoh 2 KK Pagoh 3 The Tunku Tun Aminah Library is one of the largest academic libraries in Malaysia.
The building has four floors, with 16,000 square meters of total floor area. It can accommodate 3,000 users, it provides a conducive learning environment. The library has 100 carrel rooms, 40 discussion rooms, 2 seminar rooms, a postgraduate research room, an auditorium, a closed reference room, a journal room and a 24-hour reading room, it provides a variety reference sources including printed and electronic material in the areas of civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, information technology, science, social sciences and languages. The library has more than 200,000 books, 10,000 titles of these, 40 titles of printed journals, 380 titles of e-journals, 50 titles of magazines, 22,000 items of audio-visual material; the library subscribes to 26 online databases services with access to more than 120,000 journal titles and 4 e-books services giving access to 80,000 titles of books. The library initiated an automation project in 1997; the library is using the SirsiDynix Symphony integrated library system to manage its operati
So This is Paris is a 1926 American silent comedy film produced and distributed by Warner Bros. and directed by Ernst Lubitsch. It is based on the 1872 stage play Le Reveillon by Ludovic Halevy, it stars Patsy Ruth Miller. The film is preserved in many archival holdings including the Library of Congress and the Turner Entertainment Company. Paul Giraud is married to Suzanna, together they live in a quiet neighborhood; as Suzanna notices that their new neighbors are expressive dancers with revealing outfits, she demands Paul to complain to them about their lack of morality. As Paul knocks on his neighbors' door, he finds out that the woman is Georgette Lalle, they reunite and Georgette attempts to kiss Paul, despite being married to her jealous husband Maurice. Paul does not answer Georgette's displays of affection, instead introduces himself to Maurice. Back at home, Paul lies about his meeting with the Lalle's, which confuses Suzanna as Maurice comes over moments trying to win her affection and expressing Paul's kindness.
Paul pretends to be asleep. Somewhat Paul is on his way for a secret meeting with Georgette, when he is stopped by a police officer for speeding. After insulting the officer, Paul is charged with three days in prison. Suzanna, under the impression that Paul was speeding due to a patient crisis, does not understand why Paul does not gather witnesses to prove that he was speeding because of an emergency, she decides to call up the patient on the phone herself. Paul goes out to celebrate his death at the Artists Ball with Georgette; as he dresses up for a night out, he convinces Suzanna that he is heading to jail to serve his three-day sentence. While Paul and Georgette are enjoying themselves at a wild party, where they are dancing the Charleston, Maurice visits Suzanna and they grow intimate, they are caught by a detective, at the mansion to arrest Paul. Fearing a scandal, Suzanna convinces Maurice to pose as her husband, he unhappily allows himself to be escorted by the detective. Meanwhile, she overhears through the radio that Paul and Georgette are the winners of a Charleston contest at the Artists Ball.
She dresses up and comes over to confront her drunken husband, tells him that he should be grateful to her for not having to go to jail anymore. They reunite. Monte Blue as Doctor Paul Giraud Patsy Ruth Miller as Suzanna Giraud Lilyan Tashman as Georgette Lalle Andre Beranger as Maurice Lalle Dot Farley as Madame Moreau Myrna Loy as The Maid Sidney D'Albrook as The Policeman Max Barwyn as The Detective The film received positive reviews, was voted by The New York Times as one of the ten best films of 1926; the critic for the newspaper wrote that "in So This Is Paris, tour de force is an extraordinarily brilliant conception of an eye full of a Charleston contest, with vibrant kaleidoscopic changes from feet and figures to the omnipotent saxophones. The comedy in this film had, up to that time, kept the audience in constant explosions of laughter, but the startling dissolving scenic effects and varied "shots" elicited a hearty round of applause." According to Warner Bros. records, the film earned $258,000 domestically and $52,000 foreign.
The Integrated Electronic Litigation System or eLitigation is an initiative by the Singapore Judiciary to replace the existing Electronic Filing System, in use since 2000. EFS was conceived and developed in the mid- to late-1990s, iELS represents the second phase in implementing technology to enhance the litigation process in Singapore. Launched in January 2013 in Supreme Court of Singapore. Two other launches expected before the end of 2013 to bring the Subordinate Courts and Family Court into the eLitigation family. Paradigm shift from a document-centric electronic filing system to a case-centric electronic litigation system. Two sides of the same coin: Front-End case management for law firms, a near mirror image of the Back-End case management for the Courts. Transparent to the public but the new Back-End in the Courts consolidated disparate systems for a more holistic case management and oversight throughout its lifecycle; the simplification of Courts processes coupled with use of electronic forms and enabling of online collaboration between law firms and clients through the online case file is another key evolution in the electronic litigation framework.
Use of open standards with functionality delivered through used browsers like Microsoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome to law firms, service bureaus, others who need to do court filings. Use of SingPass, a national Internet authentication system for eGovernment services, for authentication instead of requiring smartcards and readers in EFS. Enables true mobility as no physical device is required; every document is digitally signed and qualifies as an secure electronic record under the Electronic Transactions Act. Streamlined filing process consisting of 4 steps:a. Step One gathers all information relevant to case and document required for filing. Step Two presents the system-generated document for the user to complete and allows the upload any other document required during the filing. Step Three concerns making of administrative requests like selection of hearing dates, requests for urgent handling, requests for electronic service of documents and waiver of filing fees. Step Four allows the user to check that all are in order before submitting the documents to the Courts.
User interface borrows from E-mail metaphor for organisation of tasks and correspondences - jigsaw pieces that are part of the litigation workflow puzzle. A powerful document search built on top of an intelligent index that takes advantage of meta-information captured in the shift to case-centric approach. Online case file that presents a unified view of pertinent information. Case summary, party information, hearings, billing data, notifications are accessible in a tabular view. Access to case file is allowed as long. Law firms can save the whole case file as a PDF using the Pack-N-Go functionality. Future ability to interface with Legal Practice Management Systems to enable bulk filing of documents, e.g. bankruptcy applications, in the works. Users in the Courts - Justices and Registry Staff, all have access to case files that are nearly mirror images of those seen by the law firms. Court internal documents like minute sheets and other sealed documents will not be accessible to the law firms.
The streamlined 4-step process in the Front-End allows for auto-acceptance of certain documents and automatic scheduling of hearings which cuts down on manual work. Auto-routing of documents based on legislation or nature of case, amongst other criteria, enables the intelligent distribution of work to the various departments which increases efficiency in the processes of the Courts; the use of checklists for filings e.g. probate, winding up and judicial management, allow for a finer-grained approach to document verification and rejection if required. The presence of alerts and notifications assist the users in the timely completion of various tasks throughout the lifecycle of a case. Hearing fixture management is built into eLitigation. Automated publication of hearing lists to queue management and electronic signage systems within the court house and hearing lists on the web site. Electronic hearing can be done from within eLitigation and it interfaces with an electronic queue management and display system.
During a hearing, the relevant documents and minute sheet are automatically opened for ease of use. Where relevant, customised minute sheets will auto-generate Court documents which are automatically synchronised to the law firms involved. Simplification of procedures through removal of requests, changes to Rules of Court, Practice Directions. Use of electronic form technology allows for pre-populated draft summonses and subsequently draft orders after a hearing. Law firms are able to choose hearing dates before Registrars. Pre-population of prescribed prayers for certain applications where prayers are prescribed by statute and ex-parte applications dealt with by registrars. Standardisation of prayers for common applications. Use of checklists for some applications. Ability for law firms to create Teams for assignment of Lawyers and Filing Clerks. Team and User Profiles can be fine tuned for case file access in order to enable collaboration within the law firm, in some instances, with opposing law firms.
Relevant work items and notifications will be sent to the relevant people working on the cases. Documents can be served electronically to another law firm, an eLitigation user. Cause Book Searches based on new fee model. Disruption to the local legal profession is a foregone conclusion: The
Vittorio Mezzogiorno was an Italian actor. Mezzogiorno was born in the youngest of seven children, his older brother Vincenzo, who wanted to become a director, introduced him to the theatre. At 18, Mezzogiorno began medical studies before choosing law, he had his first experience as an actor at the Teatro S. theatre where he recited texts by Samuel Beckett and Eugène Ionesco. Desiring to improve his diction he spent long nights exercising his voice with extracts of the Penal Code. In 1962, at age 21, he played Estragon in Waiting for Godot at the "Piccolo Teatro" of Naples. In 1966 -- 1967, he obtained his university diploma. In 1969, he met actress Cecilia Sacchi, their collaboration turned to a romantic relationship and they were married on 14 October 1972. On 9 November 1974, their only child Giovanna Mezzogiorno, who became an actress, was born; the family settled in Rome where Mezzogiorno dedicated himself to the theatre. In 1983, Jean-Jacques Beineix opened the doors of French cinema with Moon in the Gutter where he acted alongside Gérard Depardieu and Nastassja Kinski, but the real recognition came the same year in L'Homme blessé, a film by Patrice Chéreau, where he played Jean, a homosexual.
Meanwhile, Mezzogiorno moved to Paris. More than ten hours of entertainment, a year of rehearsals, six months of training in martial arts: the challenge of Peter Brooks Mahabharata, transcription of the long epic of Hindu mythology. Mezzogiorno was the son of Indra, it was first lasted all night. After a show at the Bouffes du Nord, it went on tour until the end of 1986; the Mahabharata in English was back on the road in 1988: Zurich, Los Angeles, New York, Adelaide, Copenhagen and Tokyo. In 1989, the movie adaptation was produced. In all, Mezzogiorno has played Arjuna for 6 years on 4 continents. In 1990, Vittorio Mezzogiorno settled in Milan, he became a star of the small screen by interpreting the Commissioner Davide Licata in the series La piovra which deals with the Mafia. In 1992, he played with his wife at the Teatro Stabile di Parma; this was to be his last appearances. He died of cancer in Milan at the age of 52. 1979: Nastro d'Argento for Il Giocattolo 1981: Nastro d'Argento for Tre Fratelli 1990: Ciak d'Oro for Scream of Stone Vittorio Mezzogiorno on IMDb
The Center for a Free Cuba is a Washington, DC-based Cuban democracy movement organization. It states that it is "an independent, non-partisan institution dedicated to promoting human rights and a transition to democracy and the rule of law on the island. Established in November 1997, the center gathers and disseminates information about Cuba and Cubans to the media, non-governmental organizations, the international community; the center assists the people of Cuba through its information outreach and humanitarian programs on the island."Among the organization's activities it supports the France-based non-governmental group Reporters Without Borders. Reporters Without Borders receives funding from George Soros and numerous other non-governmental organizations. Felipe Sixto was working as Chief of Staff in the Center for a Free Cuba. In July 2007, Sixto joined the White House Office of Intergovernmental Affairs; the Center's Executive Director reported an alleged misuse of United States Agency for International Development grant money meant for the Center which suspended financing of its Cuba programs while it investigated being overcharged $570,000 meant for use by the Center to buy radios and flashlights.
On March 1st, 2008, Sixto was selected from the Office of Intergovernmental Affairs and appointed by Republican President George W. Bush as a Special Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental Affairs, as well as becoming the Deputy Director of the Office of Public Liaison; when he heard of the investigation Sixto resigned from his new position as Presidential Aide a few weeks on March 20, 2008. On December 19, 2008, Sixto pled guilty to embezzlement of government funds for his own use, both while he was at the Center and while he was in service to the President. On March 18, 2009, was fined $10,000 and sentenced to 30 months in prison. In 2014, National Endowment for Democracy claims to support the Center for a Free Cuba