Neal Paul Hefti was an American jazz trumpeter and arranger. He wrote music for the Batman TV series, he began arranging professionally in his teens. He became a prominent arranger while playing trumpet for Woody Herman. After leaving Herman's band in 1946, Hefti concentrated on arranging and composing, although he led his own bands, he is known for his charts for Count Basie such as "Li'l Darlin'" and "Cute". Neal Paul Hefti was born October 1922, to an impoverished family in Hastings, Nebraska; as a young child, he remembered his family relying on charity during the holidays. He started playing the trumpet in school at the age of eleven, by high school was spending his summer vacations playing in local territory bands to help his family make ends meet. Growing up in, near, a big city like Omaha, Hefti was exposed to some of the great bands and trumpeters of the Southwest territory bands, he was able to see some of the virtuoso jazz musicians from New York that came through Omaha on tour. His early influences all came from the North Omaha scene.
He said, We'd see Basie in town, I was impressed by Harry Edison and Buck Clayton, being a trumpet player. And I would say. I was impressed by those three trumpet players of the people I saw in person... I thought Harry Edison and Dizzy Gillespie were the most unique of the trumpet players I heard; these experiences seeing Gillespie and Basie play in Omaha foreshadowed his period in New York watching Gillespie play and develop the music of bebop on 52nd Street and his involvement with Count Basie's band. In 1939, while still a junior at North High in Omaha, he got his start in the music industry by writing arrangements of vocal ballads for local Mickey Mouse bands, like the Nat Towles band. Harold Johnson recalled that Hefti's first scores for that band were "Swingin' On Lennox Avenue" and "More Than You Know," as well as a popular arrangement of "Anchors Aweigh"; some material that he penned in high school was used by the Earl Hines band. Two days before his high school graduation ceremony in 1941, he got an offer to go on tour with the Dick Barry band, so he traveled with them to New Jersey.
He was fired from the band after two gigs because he couldn't sight-read music well enough. Stranded in New Jersey because he didn't have enough money to get home to Nebraska, he joined Bob Astor's band. Shelly Manne, drummer with Bob Astor at the time, recalled that then Hefti's writing skills were quite impressive: We roomed together, and at night we didn't have nothing to do, we were up at this place — Budd Lake. He said, "What are we going to do tonight?" I said, "Why don't you write a chart for tomorrow?" Neal was so great that he'd just take out the music paper, no score, — trumpet part, — trumpet part, — trombone part, you'd play it the next day. It was the end. Cooking charts. I never forget, I couldn't believe it. I kept watching him, it was fantastic. Hefti wouldn't focus on arranging for a few more years; as a member of Astor's band, he concentrated on playing trumpet. After an injury forced him to leave Bob Astor, he stayed a while in New York, he played with Bobby Byrne in late 1942 with Charlie Barnet for whom he wrote the classic arrangement of Skyliner.
During his time in New York, he hung around the clubs on 52nd Street, listening to bebop trumpet master Dizzy Gillespie and other musicians, immersing himself in the new music. Since he didn't have the money to go into the clubs, he would sneak into the kitchen and hang out with the bands, he got to know many of the great beboppers, he left New York for a while to play with the Les Lieber rhumba band in Cuba. When he returned from Cuba in 1943, he joined the Charlie Spivak band, which led him out to California for the first time, to make a band picture. Hefti fell in love with California. After making the picture in Los Angeles, he dropped out of the Spivak band to stay in California. After playing with Horace Heidt in Los Angeles for a few months in 1944, Hefti met up with Woody Herman, out in California making a band picture. Hefti joined Herman's progressive First Herd band as a trumpeter; the Herman band was different from any band. He referred to it as his first experience with a real jazz band.
He said: I would say that I got into jazz when I got into Woody Herman's band because that band was sorta jazz-oriented. They had records, it was the first band I joined where the musicians carried records on the road... Duke Ellington records... Woody Herman discs Charlie Barnet V-Discs... That's the first time; the first time I sort of felt. Though he had been playing with swing bands and other popular music bands for five years, this was the first time he had been immersed in the music of Duke Ellington, this was the first music that felt like jazz to him. First Herd was one of the first big bands to embrace bebop, they incorporated the use of many bebop ideas in their music. As part of the ensemble, Hefti was instrumental in this development, drawing from his experiences in New York and his respect for Gillespie, who had his own bebop big band. Chubby Jackson, First Herd's bassist, said Neal started to write some of his ensembles with some of the figures that come from that early bebop thing.
We were one of the first bands outsi
Alexander Dubin was an American lyricist. He is best known for his collaborations with the composer Harry Warren. Al Dubin came from a Russian Jewish family that emigrated to the United States from Switzerland when he was two years old, he grew up in Philadelphia. Between ages of thirteen and sixteen, Dubin played hookey from school in order to travel into New York City to see Broadway musical shows. At age 14 he began writing special material for a vaudeville entertainer on 28th Street between 5th and Broadway in New York City, otherwise known as Tin Pan Alley. Dubin was accepted and enrolled at Perkiomen Seminary in September 1909, but was expelled in 1911, after writing their Alma Mater. After leaving Perkiomen, Dubin got himself a job as a singing waiter at a Philadelphia restaurant, he tried selling them to area publishing firms. During this time, Dubin met composer Joe Burke. Together they wrote the song "Oh, Mister Moon", published by M. Witmark & Sons. In 1917, Dubin was drafted at Camp Upton in Yaphank, Long Island, served as a private in the 305th Field Artillery of the 77th Division, known as New York's own.
During his service, he wrote the song "They Didn’t Think We'd Do it, But We Did" with composer Fred Rath and published by the 77th Division. On his first weekend pass, Dubin went to see a show at the Majestic Theater in New York City. There he met Broadway singer Helen McClay, they were married on March 19, 1921, at the Church of St. Elizabeth in New York City, after Dubin converted to the Catholic faith and McClay was granted an annulment of her first marriage; the year they married, Dubin was accepted in ASCAP in 1921. Known for his larger-than-life persona, Dubin struggled with alcohol and drugs, fell on hard times in the 1940s. Estranged from his wife, Dubin struggled to find work both in New York; the last show Dubin was contracted to work on was Laffing Room Only, with composer Burton Lane. Dubin provided only a title for this production, "Feudin' and a Fightin'", for which he received 25 percent credit. Dubin spent the remainder of the last few years of his life at the Empire Hotel, alone and in ill-health.
On February 8, 1945, he collapsed on the street after having taken a large quantity of doctor-prescribed barbiturates. He was admitted to the Roosevelt Hospital for barbiturate poisoning and pneumonia, died on February 11, 1945. Famed newspaper personality Walter Winchell made the announcement of his death on the radio. On his passing, Dubin was interred in the Holy Cross Cemetery in California. Dubin sold his first set of lyrics for two songs "Prairie Rose" and "Sunray", in 1909 to the Whitmark Music Publishing Firm. In 1925, Dubin met the composer Harry Warren, to become his future collaborator at Warner Bros. studio in Hollywood. The first song they collaborated on was titled, "Too Many Kisses in the Summer Bring Too Many Tears in the Fall", but it was another song written with Joseph Meyer that same year that became Dubin's first big hit, "A Cup of Coffee, a Sandwich and You". Warner Bros. purchased the publishing firms of Witmark and Harms, since Dubin was under contract to Harms, Warner Bros. inherited his services.
In 1929 Dubin wrote "Tiptoe through the Tulips" with composer Joe Burke for the film Gold Diggers of Broadway. In 1932, Dubin teamed with composer Harry Warren on the movie musical 42nd Street, starring Ruby Keeler, Dick Powell, Warner Baxter and Bebe Daniels, with dance routines sequenced by legendary choreographer Busby Berkeley; the songwriting team of Warren and Dubin contributed four songs: "42nd Street", "You're Getting to Be a Habit with Me", "Young and Healthy" and "Shuffle Off to Buffalo". Between 1932 and 1939, Dubin and Warren wrote 60 hit songs for several Warner Bros. movie musicals, including Gold Diggers of 1933, Footlight Parade starring James Cagney, Roman Scandals starring Eddie Cantor, Dames, Go Into Your Dance and Wonder Bar, both starring Al Jolson. The song "Lullaby of Broadway", written by Warren and Dubin for the musical film, Gold Diggers of 1935, won the 1936 Academy Award for Best Original Song. In 1980, producer David Merrick and director Gower Champion adapted the 1933 film 42nd Street into a Broadway musical that won The Tony Award for Best Musical in 1981.
The book for the show was written by Michael Stewart and Mark Bramble and featured a score that incorporated Warren and Dubin songs from various movie musicals including 42nd Street, Dames, Go Into Your Dance, Gold Diggers of 1933 and Gold Diggers of 1935. Dubin was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970. Charlot Revue – revue – featured co-lyricist for "A Cup of Coffee, a Sandwich and You" White Lights – musical – co-lyricist Streets of Paris – revue – lyricist Keep Off the Grass – revue – co-lyricist Star and Garter – revue – featured lyricist for "Robert the Roue" Sugar Babies – revue – co-lyricist 42nd Street – musical – lyricist The Show of Shows Gold Diggers of Broadway Sally Oh Sailor Beware Hold Everything She Couldn't Say No 42nd Street Footlight Parade Roman Scandals Gold Diggers of 1933 Moulin Rouge Wonder Bar Dames Twenty Million Sweethearts Go Into Your Dance Gold Diggers of 1935 Broadway Gondolier Stars Over Broadway Shipmates Forever Gold Diggers of 1937 Mr. Dodd Takes the Air Gold Diggers in Paris Garden of the Moon Streets of Paris Stage Door Canteen "A Cup of Coffee, a Sandwich, You" – lyrics by Al Dubin and Billy Rose, music by Joseph Meyer.
"Tiptoe through the Tulips" – Joe Burke. "Forty-Second Street" – 42nd Stre
George Gershwin was an American composer and pianist whose compositions spanned both popular and classical genres. Among his best-known works are the orchestral compositions Rhapsody in Blue and An American in Paris, the songs Swanee and Fascinating Rhythm, the jazz standard I Got Rhythm, the opera Porgy and Bess which spawned the hit Summertime. Gershwin studied piano under Charles Hambitzer and composition with Rubin Goldmark, Henry Cowell, Joseph Brody, he began his career as a song plugger but soon started composing Broadway theater works with his brother Ira Gershwin and Buddy DeSylva. He moved to Paris intending to study with Nadia Boulanger, he returned to New York City and wrote Porgy and Bess with Ira and DuBose Heyward. It was a commercial failure but came to be considered one of the most important American operas of the twentieth century and an American cultural classic. Gershwin moved to Hollywood and composed numerous film scores until his death in 1937 from a malignant brain tumor.
His compositions have been adapted for use in films and television, several became jazz standards recorded and covered in many variations. Gershwin was of Russian Lithuanian Jewish ancestry, his grandfather, Jakov Gershowitz, had served for 25 years as a mechanic for the Imperial Russian Army to earn the right of free travel and residence as a Jew. His teenage son, Moishe Gershowitz, worked as a leather cutter for women's shoes. Moishe Gershowitz met and fell in love with Roza Bruskina, the teenage daughter of a furrier in Vilnius, she and her family moved to New York due to increasing anti-Jewish sentiment in Russia, changing her first name to Rose. Moishe, faced with compulsory military service if he remained in Russia, moved to America as soon as he could afford to. Once in New York, he changed his first name to Morris. Gershowitz lived with a maternal uncle in Brooklyn, he married Rose on July 21, 1895, Gershowitz soon Americanized his name to Gershwine. Their first child, Ira Gershwin, was born on December 6, 1896, after which the family moved into a second-floor apartment on Brooklyn's Snediker Avenue.
On September 26, 1898, George was born as second son to Morris and Rose Bruskin Gershwine in their second-floor apartment on Brooklyn's Snediker Avenue. His birth certificate identifies him as Jacob Gershwine, with the surname pronounced'Gersh-vin' in the Russian and Yiddish immigrant community, he had just one given name, contrary to the American practice of giving children both a first and middle name. He was named after a one time Russian army mechanic, he soon became known as George, changed the spelling of his surname to'Gershwin' about the time he became a professional musician. After Ira and George, another boy Arthur Gershwin, a girl Frances Gershwin were born into the family; the family lived in many different residences, as their father changed dwellings with each new enterprise in which he became involved. They grew up around the Yiddish Theater District. George and Ira frequented the local Yiddish theaters, with George appearing onstage as an extra. George lived a usual childhood existence for children of New York tenements: running around with his boyhood friends, roller skating and misbehaving in the streets.
Until 1908, he cared nothing for music, when as a ten-year-old he was intrigued upon hearing his friend Maxie Rosenzweig's violin recital. The sound, the way his friend played, captured him. At around the same time, George's parents had bought a piano for lessons for his older brother Ira, but to his parents' surprise, Ira's relief, it was George who spent more time playing it. Although his younger sister Frances was the first in the family to make a living through her musical talents, she married young and devoted herself to being a mother and housewife, thus surrendering any serious time to musical endeavors. Having given up her performing career, she settled upon painting as a creative outlet, a hobby George pursued. Arthur Gershwin followed in the paths of George and Ira becoming a composer of songs and short piano works. With a degree of frustration, George tried various piano teachers for some two years before being introduced to Charles Hambitzer by Jack Miller, the pianist in the Beethoven Symphony Orchestra.
Until his death in 1918, Hambitzer remained Gershwin's musical mentor and taught him conventional piano technique, introduced him to music of the European classical tradition, encouraged him to attend orchestral concerts. Following such concerts, young Gershwin would try to play, on the piano at home, the music he had heard from recall, without sheet music; as a matter of course, Gershwin studied with the classical composer Rubin Goldmark and avant-garde composer-theorist Henry Cowell, thus formalizing his classical music training. In 1913, Gershwin left school at the age of 15 and found his first job as a "song plugger", his employer was Jerome H. Remick and Company, a Detroit-based publishing firm with a branch office on New York City's Tin Pan Alley, he earned $15 a week, his first published song was "When You Want'Em, You Can't Get'Em, When You've Got'Em, You Don't Want'Em" in 1916 when Gershwin was only 17 years old. It earned him 50 cents. In 1916, Gershwin started working for Aeolian Company and Standard Music Rolls in New York and arranging.
He produced dozens, if not hundreds, of rolls under his own and assumed names
I Only Have Eyes for You
"I Only Have Eyes for You" is a romantic love song by composer Harry Warren and lyricist Al Dubin, written for the film Dames where it was introduced by Dick Powell and Ruby Keeler. The song is a jazz standard, has been covered by numerous musicians. Successful recordings of the song have been made by Ben Selvin, Peggy Lee, The Lettermen, Art Garfunkel, The Three Degrees, Rod Stewart, among others; the best known and most acclaimed version is the "otherworldly" 1959 recording by doo-wop artists The Flamingos, inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2003, listed as #157 in Rolling Stone magazine's "500 Greatest Songs of All Time." The song was a #2 hit for Ben Selvin in 1934. The orchestras of Eddie Duchin and Anson Weeks figured in the song's 1934 popularity; the vocal group The Lettermen released a version in 1966 that charted in the United States and Canada, reached #4 on the US Billboard Easy Listening chart. This song was included on The Flamingos' debut album Flamingo Serenade; the version by the Flamingos features a prominent reverb effect.
This version peaked at number 11 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart and number 3 on the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart. It ranked as the 73rd biggest hit of 1959 by Billboard. Rolling Stone magazine ranked the Flamingos' version as number 157 on their list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. A recording of the song by Art Garfunkel was a number one hit on the UK Singles Chart in October 1975 for two weeks; the song was his first hit as a solo artist in the UK. In the US, the song reached number 18 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 and #1 on the Billboard Adult Contemporary chart; the B-side of the single release was "Looking for the Right One," a song written and recorded by Stephen Bishop. Garfunkel performed "I Only Have Eyes for You" on the second episode of Saturday Night Live. Art Garfunkel – vocals Stephen Bishop – backing vocals Andrew Gold – drums, electric guitar Del Newman – conductor Joe Osborn – bass Lester Bowie – I Only Have Eyes for You Jamie Cullum – Catching Tales Eddy Duchin Billy Eckstine Coleman Hawkins with Roy Eldridge, Teddy Wilson Bobby Hutcherson with Kenny Garrett – Skyline Peggy Lee The Lettermen Glenn Miller Boyd Raeburn Ben Selvin Artie Shaw George Shearing Freddy Gardner Jim Doherty Trio Dean Martin, in the movie Money From Home Notes Sources The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits, 6th Edition, 1996 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II was an American librettist, theatrical producer, e director of musicals for 40 years. He won 4 Tony Awards and two Academy Awards for Best Original Song. Many of his songs are standard repertoire for vocalists and jazz musicians, he co-wrote 851 songs. Hammerstein was the playwright in his partnerships. Hammerstein collaborated with numerous composers, such as Jerome Kern, with whom he wrote Show Boat, Vincent Youmans, Rudolf Friml, Richard A. Whiting, Sigmund Romberg, but he is best known for his collaborations with Richard Rodgers, as the duo Rodgers and Hammerstein, whose collaborations include Oklahoma!, South Pacific, The King and I, The Sound of Music. Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II was born in New York City, the son of Alice Hammerstein and theatrical manager William Hammerstein, his grandfather was the German theatre impresario Oscar Hammerstein I. His father was from a Jewish family, his mother was the daughter of Scottish and English parents.
He attended the Church of the Divine Paternity, now the Fourth Universalist Society in the City of New York. Although Hammerstein's father managed the jorgeotto Theatre for his father and was a producer of vaudeville shows, he was opposed to his son's desire to participate in the arts. Hammerstein attended Columbia University and studied at Columbia Law School until 1917; as a student, he engaged in numerous extracurricular activities. These included playing first base on the baseball team, performing in the Varsity Show and becoming an active member of Pi Lambda Phi, a Jewish fraternity; when he was 19, still a student at Columbia, his father died of Bright's disease, June 10, 1914, symptoms of which doctors attributed to scarlet fever. On the train trip to the funeral with his brother, he read the headlines in the New York Herald: "Hammerstein's Death a Shock to the Theater Circle." The New York Times wrote, "Hammerstein, the Barnum of Vaudeville, Dead at Forty." When he and his brother arrived home, they attended their father's funeral with their grandfather, more than a thousand others, at Temple Israel in Harlem, took part in the ceremonies held in the Jewish tradition.
Two hours "taps was sounded over Broadway," writes biographer Hugh Fordin. After his father's death, he participated in his first play with the Varsity Show, entitled On Your Way. Throughout the rest of his college career, Hammerstein performed in several Varsity Shows. After quitting law school to pursue theatre, Hammerstein began his first professional collaboration, with Herbert Stothart, Otto Harbach and Frank Mandel, he went on to form a 20-year collaboration with Harbach. Out of this collaboration came his first musical, Always You, for which he wrote the book and lyrics, it opened on Broadway in 1920. In 1921 Hammerstein joined The Lambs club. Throughout the next forty years, Hammerstein teamed with many other composers, including Jerome Kern, with whom Hammerstein enjoyed a successful collaboration. In 1927, Kern and Hammerstein had their biggest hit, Show Boat, revived and is still considered one of the masterpieces of the American musical theatre. "Here we come to a new genre — the musical play as distinguished from musical comedy.
Now... the play was the thing, everything else was subservient to that play. Now... came complete integration of song and production numbers into a single and inextricable artistic entity." Many years Hammerstein's wife Dorothy bristled when she heard a remark that Jerome Kern had written "Ol' Man River." "Indeed not," she retorted. "Jerome Kern wrote'dum, dum-dum.' My husband wrote'Ol' Man River'."Other Kern-Hammerstein musicals include Sweet Adeline, Music in the Air, Three Sisters, Very Warm for May. Hammerstein collaborated with Vincent Youmans, Rudolf Friml, Sigmund Romberg. Hammerstein's most successful and sustained collaboration began when he teamed up with Richard Rodgers to write a musical adaptation of the play Green Grow the Lilacs. Rodgers' first partner, Lorenz Hart planned to collaborate with Rodgers on this piece, but his alcoholism had become out of control, he was unable to write. Hart was not certain that the idea had much merit, the two therefore separated; the adaptation became the first Rodgers and Hammerstein collaboration, entitled Oklahoma!, which opened on Broadway in 1943.
It furthered the revolution begun by Show Boat, by integrating all the aspects of musical theatre, with the songs and dances arising out of and further developing the plot and characters. William A. Everett and Paul R. Laird wrote that this was a "show, like'Show Boat', became a milestone, so that historians writing about important moments in twentieth-century theatre would begin to identify eras according to their relationship to'Oklahoma.'" After Oklahoma!, Rodgers and Hammerstein were the most important contributors to the musical-play form – with such masterworks as Carousel, The King and I and South Pacific. The examples they set in creating vital plays rich with social thought, provided the necessary encouragement for other gifted writers to create musical plays of their own"; the partnership went on to produce these and other Broadway musicals such as Allegro, Me and Juliet, Pipe Dream, Flower Drum Song, The Sound of Music, as well as the musical film State Fair, the television musical Cinderella, all featured in the revue A Grand Night for Singing.
Hammerstein wrote the book and
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Basie in Sweden
Basie in Sweden is a live album by pianist and bandleader Count Basie featuring tracks recorded at an amusement park in Sweden in 1962 and released on the Roulette label. AllMusic awarded the album 4½ stars. "Little Pony" - 2:25 "Plymouth Rock" - 7:00 "Backwater Blues" - 5:06 "Who Me" - 3:23 "April in Paris" - 3:30 "Backstage Blues" - 5:00 "Good Time Blues" - 5:00 "Peace Pipe" - 4:35Recorded at the Dans In at Gröna Lund in Stockholm, Sweden on August 10, August 11 & August 12, 1962 Count Basie - piano Benny Bailey, Al Aarons, Sonny Cohn, Thad Jones, Fip Ricard - trumpet Henry Coker, Quentin Jackson, Åke Persson, Benny Powell - trombone Marshal Royal, Frank Wess - alto saxophone Eric Dixon, Frank Foster - tenor saxophone Charlie Fowlkes - baritone saxophone Freddie Green - guitar Ike Isaacs - bass Louis Bellson - drums Irene Reid - vocals