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Sing Sing

Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a maximum-security prison operated by the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision in the village of Ossining, New York. It is located about 30 miles north of New York City on the east bank of the Hudson River. Sing Sing contains about 1,700 prisoners; the name "Sing Sing" was derived from the Sintsink native American tribe from whom the land was purchased in 1685. In 1970, the name was changed to the "Ossining Correctional Facility," but it reverted to its original name in 1985. There are plans to convert the original 1825 cell block into a period museum; the prison property is bisected by the Metro-North Railroad's four-track Hudson Line. Sing Sing was the fifth prison built by New York state; the first prison, Newgate Prison, was built in 1797 in Greenwich Village and the second in 1816 was named Auburn Prison. In 1824, the New York Legislature gave Elam Lynds, warden of Auburn Prison and a former Army captain, the task of constructing a new, more modern prison.

Lynds spent months researching possible locations for the prison, considering Staten Island, The Bronx, Silver Mine Farm, an area in the town of Mount Pleasant, located on the banks of the Hudson River. By May, Lynds had decided to build a prison on Mount Pleasant, near a small village in Westchester County named Sing Sing, whose name came from the Native American words "Sinck Sinck" which translates to "stone upon stone." The legislature appropriated $20,100 to purchase the 130-acre site, the project received the official stamp of approval. Lynds hand-selected 100 inmates from the Auburn prison for transfer and had them transported by barge via the Erie Canal and down the Hudson River to freighters. On their arrival on May 14, the site was "without a place to receive them or a wall to enclose them"; when it was opened in 1826, Sing Sing was considered a model prison because it turned a profit for the state, by October 1828 it was completed. Lynds employed the Auburn system, it was John Luckey, the Prison Chaplain around 1843, who held the Principal Keeper of Sing Sing, Elam Lynds, accountable to New York Governor William H. Seward and to President of the Board of Inspectors, John Edmonds, to have Lynds removed.

Chaplain Luckey proceeded to create a great religious library. His purpose was to teach correct moral principles, his religious library was challenged in 1844 when John Edmonds placed Eliza Farnham in charge of the women's ward at Sing Sing. 1844 was the year the New York Prison Association was inaugurated to monitor state prison administration. The NY Prison Association was made up of reformists interested in the rehabilitation and humane treatment of prisoners. Eliza Farnham was able to obtain the job on the recommendation of these reformists. Eliza Farnham overturned the silent practice in prison and introduced social engagement to shift concern more toward the future instead of dwelling on the criminal past, she included novels by Charles Dickens in Chaplain Luckey's religious library, novels the chaplain did not approve. This was the first documented expansion of the prison library to include emotional lessons from secular literature. Thomas Mott Osborne's tenure as warden of Sing Sing prison was dramatic.

Osborne arrived in 1914 with a reputation as a radical prison reformer. His report of a week-long incognito stay inside New York's Auburn Prison indicted traditional prison administration in merciless detail. Prisoners who had bribed officers and intimidated other inmates lost their privileges under Osborne's regime. One of them conspired with powerful political allies to destroy Osborne's reputation succeeding in getting him indicted for a variety of crimes and maladministration. After Osborne triumphed in court, his return to Sing Sing was a cause for wild celebration by the inmates. Another notable warden was Lewis Lawes, he was offered the position of warden in 1919, accepted in January 1920, remained for 21 years as Sing Sing's warden. While warden, Lawes brought about reforms and turned what was described as an "old hellhole" into a modern prison with sports teams, educational programs, new methods of discipline and more. Several new buildings were constructed during the years Lawes was warden.

Lawes died six years later. In 1943, the old cellblock was closed and the metal bars and doors were donated to the war effort. In 1989, the institution was accredited for the first time by the American Correctional Association, which established a set of national standards by which it judged every correctional facility. Today, Sing Sing houses more than 2,000 inmates, with about 1,000 people working there and 5,000 visitors per month; the original 1825 cellblock is no longer used and in 2002 plans were announced to turn this into a museum. In April 2011 there were talks of closing the prison in favor of real estate. In total, 614 men and women—including four inmates under federal death sentences—were executed by electric chair in the death row house at Sing Sing with "Old Sparky", until the abolition of the death penalty in 1972. High-profile executions include Julius and Ethel Rosenberg on June 19, 1953, for espionage for the Soviet Union on nuclear weapon research; the last person executed in New York state was Eddie Lee Mays, for murder, on August 15, 1963.

In 1972, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Furman v. Georgia that the death penalty was unconstitutional if application was inconsistent and arbitrary; this led to a tem

Meenakshi Dixit

Meenakshi Dixit is an Indian film actress who has worked in Telugu, Hindi and Kannada films. Meenakshi Dixit was born in Uttar Pradesh, she is the daughter of Ishwar Chandra Dixit, a senior lawyer in Civil Court in Raebareli, Geeta Dixit. She graduated with a degree in Bachelor of Science in Botany and Chemistry, she has trained in western dance. In 2008 Meenakshi Dixit appeared as a contestant in NDTV Imagine's dance reality show Nachle Ve with Saroj Khan hosted by Saroj Khan, which led to her entry into the Indian film industry, she first appeared in Lifestyle. On, she got into modelling, endorsing local and international brands such as Joyalukkas Jewelry, Microsoft Windows and Handsome cream, Chennai Silks, Shankaram diamond jewellery, Brook Bond Taza tea, Paaneri Sarees, Lee Cooper, Red Square Energy Drink, Radio Mirchi, ESSAR, Anytime Fitness gym and Aquagaurd, she has been a regular model for the fashion industry, as well as in prominent Indian magazines. In 2011, she made a special appearance in a dance number in Dookudu, the year's highest grossing Telugu film.

Following Dookudu, she was chosen by the producers of the Bodyguard remake to do a dance number, hoping that it would repeat the success of her number in Dookudu. She performed an item number in the Tamil film Billa II, considered to be one of her biggest project to be done yet. 2014 she was seen in lead roles in two films. She played the role of a princess in the Tamil period-comedy Tenaliraman while the thriller-drama Adavi Kachina Vennela saw her playing an aspiring sharp shooter, with the actress performing stunts in the film, she was introduced in Bollywood by National Award Winner director Kundan shah's P Se PM Tak in 2015. She played a feisty prostitute who finds herself in the Chief Minister's chair and in the run to become the Prime Minister of the country. Filmmaker Kundan Shah said "She is photogenic and a talented actress", she was next seen in Laal Rang in 2016 as Randeep Hooda's onscreen love interest where she plays the role of a medical student. Her last Tamil film was Bayam Oru Payanam.

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1968–69 Rangers F.C. season

The 1968–69 season was the 89th season of competitive football by Rangers. Rangers played a total of 55 competitive matches during the 1968–69 season. Forward Willie Johnston finished as Rangers Top Goalscorer with 28 goals. Seven of his goals were scored at Ibrox Stadium, eight were scored at Parkhead. A brace in a 4-2 league win v Celtic 14 September was followed on 21 March with a hat-trick against Aberdeen in a 6-1 Scottish Cup tie. Three weeks he returned to Parkhead on 11 April for a Glasgow Cup tie against Celtic and netted 3 more in a 4-3 victory, his eight goals there during the season resulted in him scoring more at Parkhead than Celtic's 2nd all time top scorer Bobby Lennox. Colin Stein was signed in a £100,000 Scottish record transfer deal from Hibernian on 31 October, his first three games for the club saw him score 2 in just eleven days. All results are written with Rangers' score first. * Colin Stein Rangers debut match **Alex Ferguson final match 1968–69 in Scottish football 1968–69 Scottish Cup 1968–69 Scottish League Cup 1968–69 Inter-Cities Fairs Cup

Alfons von Rosthorn

Alfons Edler von Rosthorn was an Austrian gynecologist, native of Oed, a village, located in the district of Wiener Neustadt-Land. In 1885 he earned his doctorate from the University of Vienna, where he studied zoology and medicine, was a student of surgeon Theodor Billroth. Afterwards, he became an assistant to Rudolf Chrobak at the second university Frauenklinik in Vienna. In 1891 he was habilitated for gynecology and obstetrics, in 1894 became a full professor of OB/GYN at the University of Prague, he was a professor at the Universities of Graz and Vienna. Rosthorn was the author of numerous works involving gynecological disorders, his better known publications were a treatise on pelvic tissue diseases called Die Krankheiten des Beckenbindegewebes, an 1896 work on diseases of the female sex organs titled Die Erkrankungen der weiblichen Geschlechtsorgane, the latter being co-authored with Rudolf Chrobak. Rosthorn is credited with the design of a specialized mask for application of chloroform anesthesia.

Rostorn's wife was the opera singer Helene Wiet whom he married in 1899. Pagel: Biographical Dictionary Antiquariat für Medizin

Integrated National Police

The Integrated National Police was the municipal police force for the cities and large towns of the Republic of the Philippines. One of two national police forces in the country along with the Philippine Constabulary, it merged with the latter in 1991 to form the present Philippine National Police; until the mid-1970s, the independent city and municipal police forces took charge of maintaining peace and order on a local level, when necessary was reinforced by the Philippine Constabulary, the national gendarmerie, a major branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The National Police Commission was established in 1966 to improve the professionalism and training of local police and exercised some supervisory authority over the police. However, this system was seen to have several serious defects such jurisdictional limitations, lack of uniformity, poor inter-agency coordination, disputes between police forces. Lastly, partisan politics infiltrated police employment, appointments and promotions.

Politicians abused the police as private armies to protect their personal interests, since most civic police forces were under the control of the mayors. In order to correct such deficiencies, during Martial law in the Philippines under President Ferdinand Marcos the 1973 Constitution provided for amalgamation of the public safety forces. Several Presidential Decrees were subsequently issued, integrating the police and jail services of the 1,500 cities and municipalities into a unified national police and civil defense formation, the Integrated National Police, beginning in 1974. On 8 August 1975, Presidential Decree 765 established the joint command structure of the Philippine Constabulary and Integrated National Police; the arrangement became known as the Philippine Constabulary-Integrated National Police, INP became an element of the Armed Forces since it was under supervision of the Constabulary. The commanding general of the Constabulary became in effect the Director General of the INP in a concurrent capacity, responsible to the Minister of National Defense and to the President.

10 percent of INP personnel were fire protection and prison officials. The Philippine National Police Academy provided training for INP officer cadets and was established in 1978 under the INP's Training Command, first at Fort Bonifacio in Makati and at Camp Vicente Lim in Laguna province. At first the Academy offered a bachelor of science degree in public safety following a two-year course of study, admission to the school was competitive. By 1982 this evolved to a 3-year course for future officers of the service, by this time with a specialized option for those studying to be either police officers, fire service officers, or jail service officers; the Integrated National Police was the subject of criticism, officers were accused of involvement in illegal activities, violent acts and abuse, with corruption being a frequent charge. To save their public image, the government sponsored publicised programs to identify and punish police offenders, training designed to raise their standard of appearance and performance.

The Integrated National Police was assigned responsibility for public safety, protection of lives and property, enforcement of laws, maintenance of peace and order throughout the nation. To carry out these responsibilities, it was given powers "to prevent crimes, effect the arrest of criminal offenders and provide for their detention and rehabilitation and control fires, investigate the commission of all crimes and offenses, bring the offenders to justice, take all necessary steps to ensure public safety." The Philippine Constabulary retained responsibility for dealing with serious crimes or cases involving jurisdictions far apart from one another, the INP took charge of less serious crimes and local traffic, crime prevention, public safety. The INP's organisation paralleled that of the PC in that the thirteen PC regional command headquarters were the nuclei for the Integrated National Police's regional commands; the constabulary's seventy-three provincial commanders, in their capacity as provincial police superintendents, had operational control of Integrated National Police forces in their respective provinces.

Provinces were further subdivided into 147 police districts and substations in towns and cities. The constabulary was responsible for patrolling remote rural areas. In addition the provincial commanders were operationally responsible for their respective area fire departments and prison services. In Metro Manila's four cities and thirteen municipalities, the Integrated National Police's Metropolitan Police Force shared the headquarters of the constabulary's Metropolitan Command; the commanding general of the Metropolitan Command was the director of the INP's Metropolitan Police Force and directed the operations of the capital's four police and fire districts. The INP, as a paramilitary national police force and due to its joint command with the PC, used the rank system of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in force at that timein keeping with the provisions of Presidential Decree No. 1184. Its uniforms were similar to those of the PC but with differences, while many of the top ranks were filed by PC personnel.

Integrated National Police The defunct Integrated National Police adopted a paramilitary-styled ranking classification based on Presidential Decree No. 1184 issued by then-President Ferdinand Marcosas part of the joint command it shared with the PC

Wildflowers (Tom Petty song)

"Wildflowers" is a song by Tom Petty, the opening track from the eponymous album. The song became quite popular in concerts, though it wasn't released as a single, it charted on the Billboard Hot Rock Songs list; the song reached #3 on the Billboard Lyric Find. AllMusic describes it as having a simple but effective folk-based chord progression, with a sprightly country-oriented rhythm; the song has gone on to become one of the most beloved in Petty’s catalog. Petty stated "Wildflowers" was easy to write and compose, it was one of the non-singles. Petty described writing "Wildflowers": I just took a deep breath and it came out; the whole song. Stream of consciousness: words, chords. Finished it. I mean, I just played it into a tape recorder and I played the whole song and I never played it again. I only spent three and a half minutes on that whole song. So I’d come back for days playing that tape, thinking there must be something wrong here because this just came too easy, and I realized that there’s nothing wrong at all