Sultanate of Sulu
The Sultanate of Sulu was a Muslim state that ruled the islands in the Sulu Archipelago, parts of Mindanao, certain portions of Palawan and north-eastern Borneo. The sultanate was founded on 17 November 1405. By a Johore-born explorer and religious scholar Sharif ul-Hashim. Paduka Mahasari Maulana al Sultan Sharif ul-Hashim became his full regnal name, Sharif-ul Hashim is his abbreviated name, he settled in Sulu. After the marriage of Abu Bakr and a local dayang-dayang Paramisuli, he founded the sultanate; the Sultanate gained its independence from the Bruneian Empire in 1578. At its peak, it stretched over the islands that bordered the western peninsula of Mindanao in the east to Palawan in the north, it covers the area in northeastern side of Borneo, stretching from Marudu Bay, to Tepian Durian. While another source stated the area stretching from Kimanis Bay which overlaps with the boundaries of the Bruneian Sultanate. Due to the arrival of western powers such as the Spanish, Dutch, French and American, the Sultan thalassocracy and sovereign political powers were relinquished by 1915 through an agreement, signed with the last colonialist, the United States.
In 1962, Philippine Government under the leadership of President Diosdado Macapagal recognised the continued existence of the Sultanate of Sulu. On 24 May 1974, Sultan Mohammed Mahakuttah Kiram, was the last recognized Sulu Sultan in the Philippines, having been recognized by President Ferdinand Marcos. On 15 August 1974 Sultan Moh. Mahakuttah A. Kiram submitted the organisational structure of the Sultanate of Sulu to the President of Philippines; the above named structure confirmed. Under Rodrigo Duterte's administration, calls to settle the dispute of, the recognized Sultan of Sulu via government recognition through an Executive Order was voiced out by various parties involved with the issue; the calls have yet to be dealt with by the government since 2017, along with a 2016 electoral promise to retake Eastern Sabah. In 2016, for the first time in history, the five contesting sultans of Sulu, Sultan Ibrahim Bahjin, Sultan Muizuddin Jainal Bahjin, Sultan Muedzul-Lail Tan Kiram, Sultan Mohammad Venizar Julkarnain Jainal Abirin, Sultan Phugdalun Kiram signed a covenant in an unprecedented move aimed at consolidating and strengthening the sultanate's unity.
The ceremony was held in Zamboanga City and was attended by hundreds of supporters and members of the different Royal Houses of the Sultanate of Sulu, religious leaders and representatives of various sectors, including those from mainland Mindanao. In May 9, 2018, all five sultans of the sultanate and their supporters converged again in Zamboanga City in support of the establishment of the Zambasulta Federal State through a federal form of Philippine government; the event was declared as the Bangsa Sug Consensus. The present area of the Sultanate of Sulu was once under the influence of the Bruneian Empire before it gained its own independence in 1578; the earliest known settlement in this areas soon to be occupied by the sultanate, in Maimbung, Jolo. During these times, Sulu was called Lupah Sug; the Principality of Maimbung, populated by Buranun people, was first ruled by a certain rajah who assumed the title Rajah Sipad the Older. According to Majul, the origins of the title rajah sipad originated from the Hindu sri pada, which symbolises authority.
The Principality was governed using the system of rajahs. Sipad the Older was succeeded by Sipad the Younger; some Chams who migrated to Sulu were called Orang Dampuan. The Champa Civilization and the port-kingdom of Sulu enaged in commerce with each other which resulted in merchant Chams settling in Sulu where they were known as Orang Dampuan from the 10th-13th centuries; the Orang Dampuan were slaughtered by envious native Sulu Buranuns due to the wealth of the Orang Dampuan. The Buranun were subjected to retaliatory slaughter by the Orang Dampuan. Harmonious commerce between Sulu and the Orang Dampuan was restored; the Yakans were descendants of the Taguima-based Orang Dampuan. Sulu received civilization in its Indic form from the Orang Dampuan. During the reign of Sipad the Younger, a mystic named Tuan Mashā′ikha arrived in Jolo in 1280 AD. Little is known to the origins and early biography of Tuan Mashā′ikha, except that he is a Muslim "who came from foreign lands" at the head of a fleet of Muslim traders, or he was issued from a stalk of bamboo and was considered a prophet, thus well respected by the people.
Other reports, insisted that Tuan Mashā′ikha together with his parents, Jamiyun Kulisa and Indra Suga, were sent to Sulu by Alexander the Great. However, Saleeby dismisses this claim by concluding that Jamiyun Kulisa and Indra Suga were mythical names. According to tarsila, during the coming of Tuan Mashā′ikha, the people of Maimbung worshipped tombs and stones of any kind. After he preached Islam in the area, he married Sipad the Younger's daughter, Idda Indira Suga and bore three children: Tuan Hakim, Tuan Pam and'Aisha. Tuan Hakim, in turn, begot five children. From the genealogy of Tuan Mashā′ikha, another titular system of aristocracy called "tuanship" started in Sulu. Apart from the Idda Indira Suga, Tuan Mashā′ikha married into another "unidentified woman" and begot Moumin. Tuan Mashā′ikha died in 710 A. H. and wa
Prehistoric Indonesia is a prehistoric period in the Indonesian archipelago that spanned from the Pleistocene period to about the 4th century CE when the Kutai people produced the earliest known stone inscriptions in Indonesia. Unlike the clear distinction between prehistoric and historical periods in Europe and the Middle East, the division is muddled in Indonesia; this is because Indonesia's geographical conditions as a vast archipelago caused some parts — the interiors of distant islands — to be isolated from the rest of the world. West Java and coastal Eastern Borneo, for example, began their historical periods in the early 4th century, but megalithic culture still flourished and script was unknown in the rest of Indonesia, including in Nias and Toraja; the Papuans on the Indonesian part of New Guinea island lived in the stone age until their first contacts with modern world in the early 20th century. Today living megalithic traditions still can be found on the island of Sumba and Nias.
Geologically, the area of modern Indonesia appeared from under the Southeast Asian seas as the result of the Indian and Australian plates colliding and slipping under the Sunda Plate, sometime in the early Cenozoic era around 63 million years ago. This tectonic collision created Sunda volcanic Arc that has produced chains of islands of Sumatra and the Lesser Sunda Islands; the active volcanic arc creating supervolcano that today become Lake Toba in Sumatra. The massive eruption of Toba supervolcano that occurred some time between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago instigated the Toba catastrophe theory, a global volcanic winter that caused a bottleneck in human evolution. Other notable volcanoes in Sunda Arc are Mount Krakatau; the region is known for its instability due to volcano formations and other volcanic and tectonic activities as well as climate changes. The Indonesian archipelago nearly reached its present form in the Pleistocene period. For some periods, the Sundaland was still linked with Asian mainland, creating the landmass extension of Southeast Asia that enabled the migrations of some Asian animals and hominid species.
Geologically the New Guinea island and the shallow seas of Arafura is the northern part of Australia tectonic plate and once connected as a land bridge identified as Sahulland. During the end of the last ice age, earth experienced global climate change. Sundaland was submerged under shallow sea, creating Malacca Strait, South China Sea, Karimata Strait and Java Sea. During that period, Malay peninsula, Java and the islands around them were formed. On the east, New Guinea and Aru Islands were separated from the Australia mainland; the rise of sea surface created isolated areas that separated plants and hominid species, causing further evolution and specification. In 2007 analysis of cut marks on two bovid bones found in Sangiran, showed them to have been made 1.5 to 1.6 million years ago by clamshell tools, is the oldest evidence for the presence of early man in Indonesia. Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man" were first discovered by the Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois at Trinil in 1891, are at least 700,000 years old, at that time the oldest human ancestor found.
Further Homo erectus fossils of a similar age were found at Sangiran in the 1930s by the anthropologist Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald, who in the same time period uncovered fossils at Ngandong alongside more advanced tools, re-dated in 2011 to between 550,000 and 143,000 years old. In 1977 another Homo erectus skull was discovered at Sambungmacan. In 2003, on the island of Flores, fossils of a new small hominid dated between 74,000 and 13,000 years old and named "Flores Man" were discovered much to the surprise of the scientific community; this 3 foot tall hominid is thought to be a species descended from Homo Erectus and reduced in size over thousands of years by a well known process called island dwarfism. Homo floresiensis was first dated to recent time periods - as recent as 14,000 years ago, however re-examination of the sediments has revised these dates and these hominins have been shown to have been present in Indonesia since at least 700,000 years ago, until about 60-50,000 years ago.
In 2010 stone tools were discovered on Flores dating from 1 million years ago, the oldest evidence anywhere in the world that early man had the technology to make sea crossings at this early time. The archipelago was formed during the thaw after the latest ice age. Early humans travelled by spread from mainland Asia eastward to New Guinea and Australia. Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago. In 2011 evidence was uncovered in neighbouring East Timor, showing that 42,000 years ago these early settlers had high-level maritime skills, by implication the technology needed to make ocean crossings to reach Australia and other islands, as they were catching and consuming large numbers of big deep-sea fish such as tuna. Early Homo sapiens reached the archipelago between 60,000 to 45,000 years ago. Many but not all Southeast Asian Homo sapiens fossils prior to about 8,000 BCE have been identified as the members of the Australoid group of peoples, they survive in isolated pockets in Malaya and the Philippines today as the black-skinned, wiry-haired negritos, related to Papuan and Australian Aborigines.
Australoid still formed as the significant inhabitant of East
The Banten Sultanate was founded in the 16th century and centred in Banten, a port city on the northwest coast of Java. It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati, who had founded Cirebon. Once a great trading centre in Southeast Asia of pepper, its importance was overshadowed by Batavia, annexed to Dutch East Indies in 1813, its core territory now forms the Indonesian province of Banten. Today, in Old Banten, the Grand Mosque of Banten is an important destination for tourists and for pilgrims from across Indonesia and from overseas. Before 1526 CE, a settlement called Banten was situated about ten kilometres inland from the coast on the Cibanten River, in the area, today occupied by the southern suburbs of the town of Serang, it was known as Banten Girang. Sunan Gunungjati was an educated class of Muslim legal scholars, he was educated in Middle East, can trace his ancestry to the Kingdom of Sunda. Sharif Hidayatullah become the Sultan of Cirebon in 1479. In 1482 Sharif Hidayatullah sent a letter to King of Sunda, proclaiming Cirebon independent from Sunda Pajajaran.
Cirebon settlement was founded in 1445 by his uncle Prince Cakrabuana. In the early 16th century, Gunungjati arrived in the town with the intention of spreading the word of Islam in this still-Hindu area. According to Suma Oriental, written in 1512–1515, Tomé Pires, a Portuguese explorer reported that the port of Banten still belonged to the Kingdom of Sunda, while Cirebon had been established as an Islamic state. Although at first well received by Sunda authorities, after news of the Portuguese-Sunda alliance in 1522 became known, Gunungjati asked Demak sultanate to send troops to Banten, it was his son, who commanded this military operation in 1527, just as the Portuguese fleet was arriving of the coast at Sunda Kelapa, to capture these towns. Sunan Gunungjati crowned Hasanudin king of Banten by the Sultan of Demak who, in turn, offered Hasanudin his sister's hand in marriage. Thus, a new dynasty was born at the same time. Banten was the capital of this kingdom, held as a province under Sultanate of Cirebon.
From the beginning it was Hasanuddin's intention to revive the fortunes of the ancient kingdom of Sunda for his own benefit. One of his earliest decision was to travel to southern Sumatra, which had traditionally belonged to the kingdom of Sunda, from which the bulk of the pepper sold in the Sundanese region came, he was keen to assure himself of the loyalty of these wealthy areas as soon as possible and to guarantee supplies of pepper for his ports, since it was on this spice that all international trade was based and, hence, in which the wealth of his kingdom lay. Having established control over the ports and the pepper trade, Hasanuddin decided to build a new capital, to symbolise the new era, beginning. On the advice of his father, Sunan Gunungjati, he choose to construct it on the coast at the mouth of the Cibanten River; that a settlement existed at this place is evidence by its harbour activities, but at this time the seat of political power was in Banten Girang. The royal city was founded on the delta, formed by the two arms of the river.
Two main streets running north-south and east-west divided the city into quarters. The royal palace surrounded by residences of the principal minister of state, was built on the south side of the royal square and the great mosque on the west side. Foreigners, for the most part merchants, had to live outside the royal city, on either side of the delta. After some twenty years the new dynasty was so established that Hasanuddin had no hesitation in leaving the kingdom in 1546 to take part in a military expedition against Pasuruan in eastern Java, at the request of Sultan Trenggana, third sultan of Demak; the Sultan lost his life in this venture, it is that Hasanuddin took advantage of his suzerain's death and the troubles which ensued to free his kingdom from any further obligations to this royal house. From the 1550s onwards the kingdom enjoyed a period of great prosperity. According to tradition, the development of this kingdom was managed by Hasanuddin's son, Maulana Yusuf, who had become co-sovereign with his father, following a custom long practised in the archipelago..
During this period, Hasanuddin decided to launch the final blow to what remained of the kingdom of Sunda. Maulana Yusuf led the attack on its capital city located in modern Bogor. After losing its most important port Sunda Kelapa, the kingdom deprived of its trading revenues, was of symbolic importance only; the kingdom put up little resistance and henceforth Banten ruled over the entire territory of the former kingdom of Sunda, which corresponds to most of current Indonesian province of West Java. The sacred stone, serving as the sovereign's throne of Sunda kingdom was taken away and put at the street intersection in the royal square of Banten, thus marking the end of the Sundanese dynasty. Henceforth, this stone was to serve as the Banten sovereign's throne; when Hasanuddin died in 1570, the royal kingdom of Banten comprised all of Sunda, except for Cirebon, all of southern Sumatra, as far as Tulangbawang in the northeast and Bengkulu in the northwest. Trade was expanding to become one of the largest in Southeast Asia.
Traders coming from China, Turkey, England and the Netherlands were frequent visitors to the Banten harbour. Spices, Chinese ceramics, gold and other Asian goods attracted European merchants. Banten was a pioneer in international trade. Banten was known as
Riau-Lingga Sultanate known as the Lingga-Riau Sultanate, Riau Sultanate or Lingga Sultanate was a Malay sultanate that existed from 1824 to 1911, before being dissolved following Dutch intervention. The sultanate came into existence as a result of the partition of the Johor-Riau Sultanate that separated Peninsular Johor, together with the island of Singapore, from the Riau archipelago; this partition followed the succession dispute following the death of Mahmud III of Johor, when Abdul Rahman was crowned as the first Sultan of Riau-Lingga. The maritime kingdom was recognised by both the British and the Dutch following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824; the Riau Archipelago became a part of the Malaccan Empire after the expansion by Tun Perak in the 15th century, following the decline of the Srivijaya Empire. After the fall of Malacca at the hands of the Portuguese, the axis of regional power was inherited by the Johor Sultanate. During the golden age of Johor, the kingdom stretched across half of the Malay Peninsular, eastern Sumatra, Bangka and the Riau Islands.
According to the 1849 Johor Annals, on 27 September 1673 the Laksamana of Johor, Tun Abdul Jamil, was ordered by Abdul Jalil Shah III to found a settlement in Sungai Carang, Ulu Riau, on Bintan Island. The settlement in Sungai Carang was known as Riau Lama. A fortress to protect the Johor Empire, Riau Lama prospered and became an prominent entrepôt for regional trade in the Strait of Malacca. Ulu Riau became the capital of Johor during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim when he relocated the capital from Batu Sawar, Kota Tinggi in Peninsular Johor after the old capital was sacked by Jambi forces on 4 October 1722. Riau Lama became the capital of the empire for 65 years, from 1722 to 1787; the importance of Lingga began during the reign of Mahmud Shah III. In 1788, he relocated the capital from Ulu Riau, Bintan to Daik, Lingga; the Sultan did this. He requested aid from his distant relative, Raja Ismail, a local ruler of Tempasuk to organise a successful campaign against the Dutch. Out of fear of retaliation by the Dutch, he organised a mass transfer of the populace: the Sultan left for Lingga with 2000 people, the Bendahara went to Pahang with 1000 people while others headed to Terengganu.
When the Dutch arrived in Riau, there were only a few Chinese planters left, who persuaded the Dutch not to chase the Orang-orang Melayu. The Sultan developed Lingga and welcomed new settlers to the island. Dato Kaya Megat was appointed as the new Bendahara of Lingga. New dwellings were constructed, roads were built and buildings were improved, he found unprecedented new wealth. Both the British and Dutch restored his claim on the Riau island, he began to revive maritime trade discreetly with the British as a major source of commodities valuable tin and spices. In 1812, the Johor-Riau Sultanate experienced a succession crisis; the death of the Mahmud Shah III in Lingga left no heir apparent. Royal custom required; however at the time Mahmud Shah III died, the eldest prince, Tengku Hussein, was in Pahang to celebrate his marriage to the daughter of the Bendahara. The other candidate was Tengku Abdul Rahman. To complicate matters, neither of the candidates was of full royal blood; the mother of Tengku Hussein, Cik Mariam, owed her origin to a Balinese slave lady and a Bugis commoner.
Tengku Abdul Rahman had a lowborn mother, Cik Halimah. The only unquestionably royal wife and consort of Mahmud Shah was Engku Puteri Hamidah, whose only child had died an hour after birth. In the following chaos, Engku Puteri was expected to install Tengku Hussein as the next sultan, because he had been preferred by the late Mahmud Shah. Based on the royal adat, the consent of Engku Puteri was crucial as she was the holder of the Cogan of Johor-Riau, the installation of a new sultan was only valid if it took place with the regalia; the regalia was fundamental to the installation of the sultan. Nonetheless, Yang Dipertuan Muda Jaafar supported the reluctant Tengku Abdul Rahman, adhering to the rules of royal protocol, as he had been present at the late Sultan's deathbed. Unwilling and furious, the outspoken Queen is reported to have said, "Who elected Abdul Rahman as sovereign of Johor? Was it my brother Raja Jaafar or by what law of succession has it happened? It is owing to this act of injustice that the ancient empire of Johor is fast falling to decay".
Rivalry between the British and the Dutch now came into play. The British had earlier gained Malacca from the Dutch under the Treaty of The Hague in 1795 and saw an opportunity to increase their regional influence, they crowned Tengku Hussein in Singapore, he took the title Hussein Shah of Johor. The British were involved in the Johor-Riau administration between 1812–1818, their intervention further strengthened their dominance in the Strait of Malacca; the British recognised Johor-Riau as a sovereign state and offered to pay Engku Puteri 50,000 Ringgits for the royal regalia, which she refused. Seeing the diplomatic advantage gained in the region by the British, the Dutch responded by crowning Tengku Abdul Rahman as sultan instead, they obtained, at the Congress of Vienna, a withdrawal of British recognition of Johor-Riau sovereignty. To further curtail the British domination over the re
Java Man is an early human fossil discovered on the island of Java in 1891 and 1892. Led by Eugène Dubois, the excavation team uncovered a tooth, a skullcap, a thighbone at Trinil on the banks of the Solo River in East Java. Arguing that the fossils represented the "missing link" between apes and humans, Dubois gave the species the scientific name Anthropopithecus erectus later renamed it Pithecanthropus erectus; the fossil aroused much controversy. Less than ten years after 1891 eighty books or articles had been published on Dubois's finds. Despite Dubois's argument, few accepted that Java Man was a transitional form between apes and humans; some dismissed the fossils as apes and others as modern humans, whereas many scientists considered Java Man as a primitive side branch of evolution not related to modern humans at all. In the 1930s Dubois made the claim that Pithecanthropus was built like a "giant gibbon", a much misinterpreted attempt by Dubois to prove that it was the "missing link". Similarities between Pithecanthropus erectus and Sinanthropus pekinensis led Ernst Mayr to rename both Homo erectus in 1950, placing them directly in the human evolutionary tree.
To distinguish Java Man from other Homo erectus populations, some scientists began to regard it as a subspecies, Homo erectus erectus, in the 1970s. Other fossils found in the first half of the twentieth century in Java at Sangiran and Mojokerto, all older than those found by Dubois, are considered part of the species Homo erectus. Estimated to be between 700,000 and 1,000,000 years old, at the time of their discovery the fossils of Java Man were the oldest hominin fossils found; the fossils of Java Man have been housed at the Naturalis in the Netherlands since 1900. Charles Darwin had argued that humanity evolved in Africa, because this is where great apes like gorillas and chimpanzees lived. Though Darwin's claims have since been vindicated by the fossil record, they were proposed without any fossil evidence. Other scientific authorities disagreed with him, like Charles Lyell, a geologist, Alfred Russel Wallace, who thought of a similar theory of evolution around the same time as Darwin; because both Lyell and Wallace believed that humans were more related to gibbons and orangutans, they identified Southeast Asia as the cradle of humanity because this is where these apes lived.
Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois favored the latter theory, sought to confirm it. In October 1887, Dubois abandoned his academic career and left for the Dutch East Indies to look for the fossilized ancestor of modern man. Having received no funding from the Dutch government for his eccentric endeavor – since no one at the time had found an early human fossil while looking for it – he joined the Dutch East Indies Army as a military surgeon; because of his work duties, it was only in July 1888. Having found abundant fossils of large mammals, Dubois was relieved of his military duties, the colonial government assigned two engineers and fifty convicts to help him with his excavations. After he failed to find the fossils he was looking for on Sumatra, he moved on to Java in 1890. Again assisted by convict laborers and two army sergeants, Dubois began searching along the Solo River near Trinil in August 1891, his team soon excavated a skullcap. Its characteristics were a long cranium with heavy browridge.
Dubois first gave them the name Anthropopithecus. He chose this name because a similar tooth found in the Siwalik Hills in India in 1878 had been named Anthropopithecus, because Dubois first assessed the cranium to have been about 700 cubic centimetres, closer to apes than to humans. In August 1892, a year Dubois's team found a long femur shaped like a human one, suggesting that its owner had stood upright; the femur bone was found 50 feet from the original find one year earlier. Believing that the three fossils belonged to a single individual, "probably a aged female", Dubois renamed the specimen Anthropopithecus erectus. Only in late 1892, when he determined that the cranium measured about 900 cubic centimetres, did Dubois consider that his specimen was a transitional form between apes and humans. In 1894, he thus renamed it Pithecanthropus erectus, borrowing the genus name Pithecanthropus from Ernst Haeckel, who had coined it a few years earlier to refer to a supposed "missing link" between apes and humans.
This specimen has been known as Pithecanthropus 1. There were three human skulls found at the site, which led Dubois to determine the skull of the ”Java man” to belong to a gibbon, or gibbon-like ape. In 1927, Canadian Davidson Black identified two fossilized teeth he had found in Zhoukoudian near Beijing as belonging to an ancient human, named his specimen Sinanthropus pekinensis, now better known as Peking Man. In December 1929, the first of several skullcaps was found on the same site, it appeared similar but larger than Java Man. Franz Weidenreich, who replaced Black in China after the latter's death in 1933, argued that Sinanthropus was a transitional fossil between apes and humans, was in fact so similar to Java's Pithecanthropus that they should both belong to the family Hominidae. Eugène Dubois categorically refused to entertain this possibility, dismissing Peking Man as a kind of Neanderthal, closer to humans than the Pithecanthropus, insisting that Pithecanthropus belonged to its own family, the Pithecanthropoidae.
After the discovery of Java M
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
Kejawèn or Javanism called Kebatinan, Agama Jawa, Kepercayaan, is a Javanese religious tradition, consisting of an amalgam of animistic, Buddhist and Islamic Sufi and practices. It is rooted in syncretizing aspects of different religions; the term kebatinan is being used interchangeably with kejawèn, Agama Jawa and Kepercayaan, although they are not the same: Kebatinan: "the science of the inner", "inwardness", derived from the Arabic word batin, meaning "inner" or "hidden". Kejawèn: "Javanism", the culture and religious beliefs and practices of the Javanese people of Central Java and East Java, it is "not a religious category, but refers to an ethic and a style of life, inspired by Javanist thinking". Agama Jawa: "the Javanese religion" Kepercayaan: "belief", "faith", full term: Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, "Believer in One Mighty God". "Kepercayaan" is an official cover term for various forms of mysticism in Indonesia. According to Caldarola, it "is not an apt characterization of what the mystical groups have in common".
It includes kebatinan and kerohanian. Kebatinan is the inner-directed cultivation of inner peace, rooted in pre-Islamic traditions, whereas kejawèn is outer-directed and community-oriented, manifesting in rituals and practices. Java has been a melting pot of religions and cultures, which has created a broad range of religious belief, including animism, spirit cults, cosmology. Indian influences came firstly in the form of Hinduism, which reached the Indonesian Archipelago as early as the first century. By the fourth century, the kingdom of Kutai in East Kalimantan, Tarumanagara in West Java, Holing in Central Java, were among the early Hindu states established in the region. Several notable ancient Indonesian Hindu kingdoms are Mataram, famous for the construction of the majestic Prambanan temple, followed by Kediri and Singhasari. Since Hinduism, along with Buddhism, spread across the archipelago and reached the peak of its influence in the fourteenth century; the last and largest of the Hindu-Buddhist Javanese empires, that of the Majapahit, influenced the entire Indonesian archipelago.
Hinduism and Buddhism penetrated into all aspects of society, blending with the indigenous tradition and culture. One conduit for this were the ascetics, called "resi,". A resi lived surrounded by students. Resi's authorities were ceremonial. At the courts, Brahmin clerics and pudjangga legitimized rulers and linked Hindu cosmology to their political needs. Presently, small Hindu enclaves are scattered throughout Java, but there is a large Hindu population along the eastern coast nearest Bali around the town of Banyuwangi. Java adopted Islam around 1500 CE. Islam was first accepted by the elites and upper echelons of society, which contributed to the further spread and acceptance. Sufism and other versions of Folk Islam were most integrated into the existing folk religion of Java; the learned versions of Sufi Islam and Shari`a-oriented Islam were integrated at the courts, blending with the rituals and myths of the existing Hindu-Buddhist culture. Clifford Geertz described this as priyayi; the Kyai, the Muslim scholar of the writ became the new religious elite.
Islam recognises no hierarchy of religious leaders nor a formal priesthood, but the Dutch colonial government established an elaborate rank order for mosque and other Islamic preaching schools. In Javanese pesantren, The Kyai perpetuated the tradition of the resi. Students around him provided his needs peasants around the school. Christianity was brought to Java by Portuguese traders and missionaries, from the Dutch Reformed Church, in the 20th century by Roman Catholics, such as the Jesuits and the Divine Word Missionaries. Nowadays there are Christian communities Reformed in the larger cities, though some rural areas of south-central Java are Roman Catholic. Roman Catholics and other Christian groups have been persecuted for their beliefs such as a ban on Christmas services or decorations. Nowadays more than 90 percent of the people of Java are Muslims, on a broad continuum between abangan and santri. Although Java is nominally Islamitic, the syncretic Javanese culture, is a strong undercurrent.
Pre-Islamic Javan traditions have encouraged Islam in a mystical direction. Some Javanese texts relate stories about Syekh Siti Jenar who had conflicts with Wali Sanga, the nine Islamic scholars in Java, the Sultanate of Demak. Although Syekh Siti Jenar was a sufi whose teaching were similar with Al-Hallaj, most of his followers come from Kebatinan; some historians have doubted the existence of Syekh Siti Jenar, suggesting the stories represent conflicts between Kebatinan and Islam in the past. With the Islamisation of Java there emerged a loosely structured society of religious leadership, revolving around kyais, Islamic experts possessing various degrees of proficiency in pre-Islamic and Islamic lore and practice; the kyais are the principal intermediaries between the villages masses and the realm of the supernatural. However, this looseneess of kyai leadership structure has promoted schism. There were sharp divisions between orthodox kyais, who instructed in Islamic law, with those who taught mysticism and those who sought reformed Islam with modern scientific concepts.
As a result, the Javanese recognize two broad streams of religious commitment: Santri or putihan, those who pray, performing the five o