A garden is a planned space outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, or enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both man-made materials; the most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one. Zoos, which display wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were called zoological gardens. Western gardens are universally based on plants, with garden signifying a shortened form of botanical garden; some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants not at all. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, sometimes called follies, including water features such as fountains, waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, arbors and more; some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some gardens produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas, or sometimes intermixed with the ornamental plants. Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their smaller scale, more labor-intensive methods, their purpose.
Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, colors and fragrances to create interest and delight the senses. Gardening is the activity of maintaining the garden; this work is done by an professional gardener. A gardener might work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space. Landscape architecture is a related professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public and corporate clients; the etymology of the word gardening refers to enclosure: it is from Middle English gardin, from Anglo-French gardin, jardin, of Germanic origin. See Grad for more complete etymology; the words yard and Latin hortus, are cognates—all referring to an enclosed space. The term "garden" in British English refers to a small enclosed area of land adjoining a building; this would be referred to as a yard in American English. Garden design is the process of creating plans for the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Gardens may be designed by professionals.
Professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, have a knowledge and experience of using plants. Some professional garden designers are landscape architects, a more formal level of training that requires an advanced degree and a state license. Elements of garden design include the layout of hard landscape, such as paths, walls, water features, sitting areas and decking, as well as the plants themselves, with consideration for their horticultural requirements, their season-to-season appearance, growth habit, speed of growth, combinations with other plants and landscape features. Consideration is given to the maintenance needs of the garden, including the time or funds available for regular maintenance, which can affect the choices of plants regarding speed of growth, spreading or self-seeding of the plants, whether annual or perennial, bloom-time, many other characteristics. Garden design can be divided into two groups and naturalistic gardens; the most important consideration in any garden design is, how the garden will be used, followed by the desired stylistic genres, the way the garden space will connect to the home or other structures in the surrounding areas.
All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget. Budget limitations can be addressed by a simpler garden style with fewer plants and less costly hardscape materials, seeds rather than sod for lawns, plants that grow quickly. Most gardens consist of a mix of natural and constructed elements, although very'natural' gardens are always an inherently artificial creation. Natural elements present in a garden principally comprise flora, soil, water and light. Constructed elements include paths, decking, drainage systems and buildings, but living constructions such as flower beds and lawns. A garden can have aesthetic and recreational uses: Cooperation with nature Plant cultivation Garden-based learning Observation of nature Bird- and insect-watching Reflection on the changing seasons Relaxation Family dinners on the terrace Children playing in the garden Reading and relaxing in the hammock Maintaining the flowerbeds Pottering in the shed Cottaging in the bushes Basking in warm sunshine Escaping oppressive sunlight and heat Growing useful produce Flowers to cut and bring inside for indoor beauty Fresh herbs and vegetables for cooking Back garden Cactus garden Gardens may feature a particular plant or plant type.
Prefabricated homes referred to as prefab homes or prefabs, are specialist dwelling types of prefabricated building, which are manufactured off-site in advance in standard sections that can be shipped and assembled. Some current prefab home designs include architectural details inspired by postmodernism or futurist architecture; the word ‘prefab’ is not an industry term like modular home, manufactured home, panelized home or site-built home. The term is an amalgamation of panelized and modular building systems, can mean either one. In today's usage the term ‘prefab’ is more related to the style of home modernist, rather than to a particular method of home construction. ‘Prefabricated’ may refer to buildings built in components, modules or transportable sections, may be used to refer to mobile homes, i.e. houses on wheels. Although similar, the methods and design of the three vary widely. There are two-level home plans, as well as custom home plans. There are considerable differences in the construction types.
In the U. S. mobile and manufactured houses are constructed in accordance with HUD building codes, while modular houses are constructed in accordance with the IRC. Modular homes are created in sections, transported to the home site for construction and installation; these are installed and treated like a regular house, for financing and construction purposes, are the most expensive of the three. Although the sections of the house are prefabricated, the sections, or modules, are put together at the construction much like a typical home. Manufactured homes, once placed on a permanent foundation, are considered the same as modular or site build homes for appraisal purposes. Manufactured homes are built onto steel beams, are transported in complete sections to the home site, where they are assembled. Wheels and axles are removed on site when the home is placed on a permanent foundation. Mobile homes, or trailers, are built on wheels, they are considered to be personal property, are licensed by the Dept. of Motor Vehicles.
"Tiny homes", which are gaining in popularity, are within this category. They must be built to the DMV code, pass inspection for licensing. Mobile homes and manufactured homes can be placed in mobile home parks, manufactured homes can be placed on private land, unless the land is within a subdivision whose CC&Rs prohibit manufactured housing. Constructing manufactured homes involves connecting plumbing and electrical lines across the sections, sealing the sections together. Manufactured homes can be double or triple-wide, describing how many sections wide it is. Many manufactured home companies manufacture a variety of different designs, many of the floorplans are available online. Manufactured homes can be built onto a permanent foundation, if designed can be difficult to distinguish from a stick-built home to the untrained eye. Manufactured homes are purchased from a retail sales company assembled by a local contracting company, follow-up repairs performed by the manufactured home company under warranty.
A manufactured home, once assembled, goes through a ‘settling-in’ period, where the home will settle into its location. During this period, some drywall cracking may appear, any incorrectly installed appliances, wiring or plumbing should be repaired under warranty. If not covered under warranty, the costs will be borne by the consumer. For this reason, it is important that the consumer ensure that a reputable and honest contractor is used for the initial set-up. If any repairs are not completed by the initial set-up crew, the manufacturer will send repair crews to repair anything covered by the warranty; the secondary repair team must be scheduled, may not be available for most repairs. Just because a manufactured home has been assembled does not mean it is habitable; the first prefabricated homes and movable structures were invented in 16th century in India by Akbar. These structures were reported by Arif Qandahari in 1579, it can be proved that the first mention of a prefabricated building was in 1160 to 1170 by Wace as confirmed by Pierre Bouet.
In the special May/June 2015 edition of the French magazine Historia, he spoke of a castle transported by Normans in'kit' form. According to Bouet, Wace's epic poem Roman de Rou, verses 6,516–6,526, states: "They took out of the ship beams of wood and dragged them to the ground; the Count who brought them pierced and planed and trimmed, the pegs trimmed and transported in barrels, erected a castle, had a moat dug around it and thus had constructed a big fortress during the night." Wooden homes have always been popular in North America, due to the large quantity of timber available in North America. In the United States, several companies including Sears Catalog Homes began offering mail-order kit homes between 1902 and 1910. In the United Kingdom, more than 156,000 prefabricated homes were built between 1945 and 1948. After the World War II until 1948, Sell-Fertighaus GmbH built over 5,000 prefabricated houses in Germany for the occupying force of the United States; the prefab house requires much less labor compared to conventional houses.
Most of the companies sell pre-manufactured modular homes called ‘mobile homes’ or ‘manufactured homes’. Local governments in North America have specialized regulations such as
A bungalow is a type of building developed in the Bengal region of the subcontinent. The meaning of the word bungalow varies internationally. Common features of many bungalows include verandas and being low-rise. In Australia, the California bungalow associated with the United States was popular after the First World War. In North America and the United Kingdom, a bungalow today is a house detached, that may contain a small loft, it is either single-story or has a second story built into a sloping roof with dormer windows. The term originated in the Indian subcontinent, deriving from the Hindi word "बंगला", meaning "Bengali" and used elliptically for a "house in the Bengal style"; this Asian architectural form and design originated in the countryside of Bengal region in the Indian subcontinent. Such houses were traditionally small, of one story and detached, had a wide veranda; the term was first found in English from 1696, where it was used to describe "bungales or hovells" in India for English sailors of the East India Company.
It became used for the spacious homes or official lodgings of officials of the British India, was so known in Britain and America, where it had high status and exotic connotations. The style began to be used in the late 19th century for large country or suburban residential buildings built in an Arts and Crafts or other Western vernacular style—essentially as large cottages, a term sometimes used. Developers began to use the term for smaller buildings. Bungalows are convenient for the homeowner in that all living areas are on a single-story and there are no stairs between living areas. A bungalow is well suited to persons with impaired mobility, such as the elderly or those in wheelchairs. Neighborhoods of only bungalows offer more privacy than similar neighborhoods with two-story houses; as bungalows are one or one and a half stories, strategically planted trees and shrubs are sufficient to block the view of neighbors. With two-story houses, the extra height requires much taller trees to accomplish the same, it may not be practical to place such tall trees close to the building to obscure the view from the second floor of the next door neighbor.
Bungalows provide cost-effective residences. On the other hand closely spaced bungalows make for quite low-density neighborhoods, contributing to urban sprawl. In Australia, bungalows have broad verandas to shade the interior from intense sun, but as a result they are excessively dark inside, requiring artificial light in daytime. On a per unit area basis, bungalows are more expensive to construct than two-story houses, because a larger foundation and roof area is required for the same living area; the larger foundation will translate into larger lot size requirements, as well. Due to this, bungalows are fully detached from other buildings and do not share a common foundation or party wall: if the homeowner can afford the extra expense of a bungalow relative to a two-story house, they can afford a detached property as well. Although the'footprint' of a bungalow is a simple rectangle, any foundation is theoretically possible. For bungalows with brick walls, the windows are positioned high, are close to the roof.
This architectural technique avoids the need for special arches or lintels to support the brick wall above the windows. However, in two-story houses, there is no choice but to continue the brick wall above the window In rural Bangladesh, the concept is called Bangla ghar and remain popular. Today's main construction material is corrugated steel sheets or red clay tiles, while past generations used wood and khar straw; this straw was used keeping the house cooler during hot summer days. From 1891 the Federation Bungalow style swept across Australia, first in Camberwell and through Sydney's northern suburbs after 1895; the developer Richard Stanton built in Federation Bungalow style first in Haberfield, New South Wales, the first Garden Suburb, in Rosebery, New South Wales. Beecroft and Lindfield contain many examples of Federation Bungalows built between 1895 and 1920. From about 1910 until 1930, the California Bungalow style was popular in Australia and New Zealand; the style seems to have first been imported in Sydney and spread throughout the Australian states and New Zealand.
In South Australia, the suburb of Colonel Light Gardens contains many well-preserved bungalow developments. The first two bungalows in England were built in Westgate-on-Sea in 1869 or 1870. A bungalow was a prefabricated single-story building used as a seaside holiday home. Manufacturers included Boulton & Paul Ltd, who made corrugated iron bungalows as advertised in their 1889 catalogue, which were erected by their men on the purchaser's light brickwork foundation. Examples include Woodhall Spa Cottage Museum, Castle Bungalow at Peppercombe, North Devon, owned by the Landmark Trust. Construction of this type of bungalow peaked towards the end of the decade, to be replaced by brick construction. Bungalows became popular in the United Kingdom between the two World Wars and large numbers were built in coastal resorts, giving rise to the pejorative adjective, "bungaloid", first found in the Daily Express from 1927: "Hideous allotments and bungaloid growth make the approaches to any city repulsive".
Many villages and seaside resorts have large estates of 1960s bungalows occupied by retired people. The typical 1930s bungalow is square
A boarding house is a house in which lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, sometimes for extended periods of weeks and years. The common parts of the house are maintained, some services, such as laundry and cleaning, may be supplied, they provide "room and board," that is, at least some meals as well as accommodation. Lodgers only obtain a licence to use their rooms, not exclusive possession, so the landlord retains the right of access. Boarders would share washing and dining facilities; such boarding houses were found in English seaside towns and college towns. It was common for there to be two elderly long-term residents. "The phrase "boardinghouse reach" comes from an important variant of hotel life. In boardinghouses, tenants rent rooms and the proprietor provides family-style breakfasts and evening dinners in a common dining room. Traditionally, the food was put on the table, everyone scrambled for the best dishes; those with a long, fast reach ate best." Boarders can arrange to stay bed-and-breakfast, half-board or full-board.
For families on holiday with children, boarding was an inexpensive alternative and much cheaper than staying in all but the cheapest hotels. In the United Kingdom, boarding houses were run by landladies, some of whom maintained draconian authority in their houses: the residents might not be allowed to remain on the premises during the daytime and could be subject to rigorous rules and regulations, stridently enforced. Boarding houses were common in growing cities until the 1930s. In Boston in the 1830s, when the landlords and their boarders were added up, between one-third and one-half of the city's entire population lived in a boarding house. Boarding houses ran from large, purpose-built buildings down to "genteel ladies" who rented a room or two as a way of earning a little extra money. Large houses were converted to boarding houses as wealthy families moved to more fashionable neighborhoods; the boarders in the 19th century ran the gamut as well, from well-off businessmen to poor laborers, from single people to families.
In the 19th century, between 1/3 to 1/2 of urban dwellers rented a room to boarders or were boarders themselves. In New York in 1869, the cost of living in a boarding house ranged from $2.50 to $40 a week. Some boarding houses attracted people with particular occupations or preferences, such as vegetarian meals; the boarding house reinforced some social changes: it made it feasible for people to move to a large city, away from their families. This distance from relatives brought social anxieties and complaints that the residents of boarding houses were not respectable. Boarding out gave people the opportunity to meet other residents, so they promoted some social mixing; this had advantages, such as learning new ideas and new people's stories, disadvantages, such as meeting disreputable or dangerous people. Most boarders were men, but women found that they had limited options: a co-ed boarding house might mean meeting objectionable men, but an all-female boarding house might be – or at least be suspected of being – a brothel.
Boarding houses attracted criticism: in "1916, Walter Krumwilde, a Protestant minister, saw the rooming house or boardinghouse system "spreading its web like a spider, stretching out its arms like an octopus to catch the unwary soul." Attempts to reduce boarding house availability had a gendered impact, as boarding houses were operated or managed by women "matrons". Groups such as the Young Women's Christian Association provided supervised boarding houses for young women. Boarding houses were viewed as "brick-and-mortar chastity belts" for young unmarried women, which protected them from the vices in the city; the Jeanne d'Arc Residence in Chelsea, operated by an order of nuns, aimed to provide a dwelling space for young French seamstresses and nannies. Married women who boarded with their families in boarding houses were accused of being too lazy to do all of the washing and cleaning necessary to keep house or to raise children properly. While there is an association between boarding houses and women renters, men rented, notably the poet-authors Walt Whitman and Edgar Allan Poe.
In the decades after the 1880s, urban reformers began working on modernizing cities. By the early 1930s, urban reformers were using codes and zoning to enforce "uniform and protected single-use residential district of private houses", the reformers' preferred housing type. In 1936, the FHA Property Standards defined a dwelling as "any structure used principally for residential purposes", noting that "commercial rooming houses and tourist homes, tourist cabins, clubs, or fraternities would not be considered dwellings" as they did not have the "private kitchen and a private bath" that reformers viewed as essential in a "proper home"; as a result, boarding houses became less common in the early 20th century. Another factor that red
Jyväskylä is a city and municipality in Finland in the western part of the Finnish Lakeland, some 130 km north-east from Tampere. It is the largest city on the Finnish Lakeland. Elias Lönnrot, the compiler of the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala, gave the city the nickname "Athens of Finland"; this nickname refers to the major role of Jyväskylä as an educational centre. The works of the most famous Finnish architect Alvar Aalto can be seen throughout the city; the city hosts the Neste Oil Rally Finland, part of the World Rally Championship. It is home of the annual Jyväskylä Arts Festival; as of 31 January 2019, Jyväskylä had a population of 141,374. The city has been one of the fastest growing cities in Finland during the 20th century. In 1940, there were only 8,000 inhabitants in Jyväskylä; the Jyväskylä sub-region includes Jyväskylä, Laukaa, Petäjävesi and Uurainen. The second part of the city's name, kylä, means village; the first part of the city's name, jyväs-, looks like the stem of an adjective *jyvänen, derived from jyvä, "grain".
Alternatively, it has been associated with Taxus, a genus of yews, the Old Prussian word juwis. It has been speculated that the word jyväs refers to the sun's reflection of the surface of the water. In the Jyväskylä region, there are archeological findings from the Stone Age. According to the oldest available taxation documents, there were seven estates on the Jyväskylä region in 1539. One of them, the estate of Mattila, alone possessed the areas stretching from the village of Keljo to the villages of Vesanka and Palokka; the oldest estate in Jyväskylä continuously held by the same family is the estate of Lahti, which emerged when the estate of Mattila was split between two brothers in 1600. The history of the estate of Lahti and the family of Lahti have had a significant impact on the development of Jyväskylä region. Lahdenrinne, in the south-west corner of Jyväsjärvi lake, belongs to the old heartland of the estate of Lahti; the City of Jyväskylä was founded on 22 March 1837, when Emperor of Russia and Grand Duke of Finland, Nicholas I of Russia, signed the charter of the city and the infrastructure was built from scratch.
At the times Finnish military battalion Suomen kaarti participated under his rule in military operations against the Polish November Uprising and in Hungary and Bessarabia. While Nicholas I of Russia abolished many autonomous areas, it has been argued, that the loyalty of Finnish military influenced his approach towards Finnish autonomy; the original town was built between Lake Jyväsjärvi and the Jyväskylä ridge, consisted of most of the current grid-style city centre. The establishment of schools in the 1850s and 1860s proved to be the most significant step in regards to the development of Jyväskylä; the first three Finnish-speaking schools in the world were founded in Jyväskylä, the lycée in 1858, the teachers’ college in 1863, the girls’ school in 1864. Well-trained teaching staff and pupils from different parts of the country changed the atmosphere of Jyväskylä irrevocably. In the early 20th century, the town expanded several times. Most of today's Jyväskylä was built after the Continuation War, when refugees from Karelia and other parts of the country moved to the city, housing was badly needed.
During the 21st century Jyväskylä has grown fast – by over 1,000 inhabitants every year. Säynätsalo was consolidated with Jyväskylä in 1993, Jyväskylän maalaiskunta and Korpilahti, for their part, on January 1, 2009. Jyväskylä is located on the northern coast of Lake Päijänne, 147 kilometres north-east of Tampere and 270 kilometres north of Helsinki; the hilly and forested terrain in Jyväskylä is surrounded by hundreds of lakes. To reach Jyväskylä from East, one needs to go through or pass the hill Kanavuori, which used to host a military depot full of ammunition and armaments. Jyväskylä is located in the Finnish Lakeland. There are 328 lakes in the city, lakes and rivers constitute 20,1% of the total area of the city; the city's largest lakes are Päijänne, Leppävesi, Tuomiojärvi, Palokkajärvi, Luonetjärvi, Alvajärvi-Korttajärvi. The city center is located on the shores of a small Jyväsjärvi; the landscape in Jyväskylä is hilly and full of waters. The architect Alvar Aalto compared the hilly landscape of Jyväskylä to Toscana in Italy: "The slope of Jyväskylä ridge is like the mountain vineyards of Fiesole".
The defined climate is a subarctic continental. Because of its northern location, winters are long, snowy and dark. During midwinter, the city receives daylight for only around five hours. Summers are mild, with the average daily maximum temperature being 22 °C in July. During the summer, Jyväskylä experiences long daylight and white nights i.e. midnight twilight. Jyväskylä was the fastest growing Finnish city in the 20th century; the population has continued to grow in the 21st century. 96.7% of the population spoke Finnish as their first language in 2010. The share of Swedish speakers was 0.2%. Other languages made up the remaining 3% of the population. In year 2014, there were about 3,700 foreigners in Jyväskylä; the largest immigrant groups in Jyväskylä are Russians and Afghans. Jyväskylä hosts the headquarters of Finnish Air Force, in Tikkakoski; as a central location, it has traditionally been important base for military operations. Jyväskylä got known as major firearms manufacturer during the world wars, producing machine guns and ammunition.
According to reporting in Helsingin Sanomat, since the 1990s Jyväskylä has served as a signals intell
An apartment, flat or unit is a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building on a single storey. There are many names for these overall buildings; the housing tenure of apartments varies from large-scale public housing, to owner occupancy within what is a condominium, to tenants renting from a private landlord. Both words refer to a self-contained residential unit with its own front door, kitchen and bathroom. In some parts of the world, the word apartment refers to a purpose-built unit in a building, whereas the word flat means a converted unit in an older building a big house. In other places the terms are interchangeable; the term apartment is favored in North America. In the UK, the term apartment is more usual in professional real estate and architectural circles where otherwise the term flat is used but not for an apartment on a single level. In some countries the word "unit" is a more general term referring to both apartments and rental business suites; the word'unit' is used only in the context of a specific building.
"This building has three units" or "I'm going to rent a unit in this building", but not "I'm going to rent a unit somewhere". Some buildings can be characterized as'mixed use buildings', meaning part of the building is for commercial, business, or office use on the first floor or first couple of floors, one or more apartments are found in the rest of the building on the upper floors. Tenement law rents, it may be found combined as in "Messuage or Tenement" to encompass all the land and other assets of a property. In the United States, some apartment-dwellers own their units, either as co-ops, in which the residents own shares of a corporation that owns the building or development. Most apartments are in buildings designed for the purpose, but large older houses are sometimes divided into apartments; the word apartment denotes a residential section in a building. In some locations the United States, the word connotes a rental unit owned by the building owner, is not used for a condominium. In England and Wales, some flat owners own shares in the company that owns the freehold of the building as well as holding the flat under a lease.
This arrangement is known as a "share of freehold" flat. The freehold company has the right to collect annual ground rents from each of the flat owners in the building; the freeholder can develop or sell the building, subject to the usual planning and restrictions that might apply. This situation does not happen in Scotland, where long leasehold of residential property was unusual, is now impossible. Bachelor apartment, one-bedroom, etc.. Apartment buildings are multi-story buildings where three or more residences are contained within one structure; such a building may be called an apartment building, apartment complex, flat complex, block of flats, tower block, high-rise or mansion block if it consists of many apartments for rent. A high-rise apartment building is referred to as a residential tower, apartment tower, or block of flats in Australia. A high-rise building is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions, it may be only residential, in which case it might be called a tower block, or it might include other functions such as hotel, offices, or shops.
There is no clear difference between a tower block and a skyscraper, although a building with fifty or more stories is considered a skyscraper. High-rise buildings became possible with the invention of the elevator and cheaper, more abundant building materials, their structural system is made of reinforced concrete and steel. A low-rise building and mid-rise buildings have fewer storeys. Emporis defines a low-rise as "an enclosed structure below 35 metres, divided into regular floor levels." The city of Toronto defines a mid-rise as a building between 12 stories. In American English, the distinction between rental apartments and condominiums is that while rental buildings are owned by a single entity and rented out to many, condominiums are owned individually, while their owners still pay a monthly or yearly fee for building upkeep. Condominiums are leased by their owner as rental apartments. A third alternative, the cooperative apartment building, acts as a corporation with all of the tenants as shareholders of the building.
Tenants in cooperative buildings do not own their apartment, but instead own a proportional number of shares of the entire cooperative. As in condominiums, cooperators pay a monthly fee for building upkeep. Co-ops are common in cities such as New York, have gained some popularity in other larger urban areas in the U. S. In British English the usual word is "flat", but apartment is used by property developers to denote expensive'flats' in exclusive and expensive residential areas in, for example, parts of London such as Belgravia and Hampstead. In Scotland, it is called a block of flats or, if it is a traditional sandstone building, a tenement, a term which has a negative connotation elsewhere. Australian English and New Zealand Engli
English country house
An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were owned by individuals who owned a town house; this allowed them to spend time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people, the term distinguished between town and country. However, the term encompasses houses that were, still are, the full-time residence for the landed gentry that ruled rural Britain until the Reform Act 1832; the formal business of the counties was transacted in these country houses. With large numbers of indoor and outdoor staff, country houses were important as places of employment for many rural communities. In turn, until the agricultural depressions of the 1870s, the estates, of which country houses were the hub, provided their owners with incomes. However, the late 19th and early 20th centuries were the swansong of the traditional English country house lifestyle. Increased taxation and the effects of World War I led to the demolition of hundreds of houses. While a château or a Schloss can be a fortified or unfortified building, a country house, similar to an Ansitz, is unfortified.
If fortified, it is called a castle. The term stately home is subject to debate, avoided by historians and other academics; as a description of a country house, the term was first used in a poem by Felicia Hemans, The Homes of England published in Blackwood's Magazine in 1827. In the 20th century, the term was popularised in a song by Noël Coward, in modern usage it implies a country house, open to visitors at least some of the time. In England, the terms "country house" and "stately home" are sometimes used vaguely and interchangeably. In his book Historic Houses: Conversations in Stately Homes, the author and journalist Robert Harling documents nineteen "stately homes"; the book's collection of stately homes includes George IV's Brighton town palace, the Royal Pavilion. The country houses of England have evolved over the last five hundred years. Before this time, larger houses were fortified, reflecting the position of their owners as feudal lords, de facto overlords of their manors; the Tudor period of stability in the country saw the building of the first of the unfortified great houses.
Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries saw many former ecclesiastical properties granted to the King's favourites, who converted them into private country houses. Woburn Abbey, Forde Abbey and many other mansions with abbey or priory in their name became private houses during this period. Other terms used in the names of houses to describe their origin or importance include palace, court, mansion, house and place, it was during the second half of the reign of Elizabeth I, under her successor, James I, that the first architect-designed mansions, thought of today as epitomising the English country house, began to make their appearance. Burghley House, Longleat House, Hatfield House are among the best known examples of the showy prodigy house built with the intention of attracting the monarch to visit. By the reign of Charles I, Inigo Jones and his form of Palladianism had changed the face of English domestic architecture with the use of turrets and towers as an architectural reference to the earlier castles and fortified houses disappearing.
The Palladian style, in various forms, interrupted by baroque, was to predominate until the second half of the 18th century when, influenced by ancient Greek styles, it evolved into the neoclassicism championed by such architects as Robert Adam. Some of the best known of England's country houses were built by one architect at one particular time: Montacute House, Chatsworth House, Blenheim Palace are examples. While the latter two are ducal palaces, although built by a Master of the Rolls to Queen Elizabeth I, was occupied for the next 400 years by his descendants, who were gentry without a London townhouse, rather than aristocracy, they ran out of funds in the early 20th century. However, the vast majority of the lesser-known English country houses owned at different times by gentlemen and peers, are an evolution of one or more styles with facades and wings in different styles in a mixture of high architecture as interpreted by a local architect or surveyor, determined by practicality as much as by the whims of architectural taste.
An example of this is Brympton d'Evercy in Somerset, a house of many periods, unified architecturally by the continuing use of the same mellow, local Ham Hill stone. The fashionable William Kent redesigned Rousham House only to have it and drastically altered to provide space for the owner's twelve children. Canons Ashby, home to poet John Dryden's family, is another example of architectural evolution: a medieval farmhouse enlarged in the Tudor era around a courtyard, given grandiose plaster ceilings in the Stuart period, having Georgian façades added in the 18th century; the whole is a glorious mismatch of fashions that seamlessly blend together. These could be called the true English country house. Wilton House, one