A single-player video game is a video game where input from only one player is expected throughout the course of the gaming session. A single-player game is a game that can only be played by one person, while "single-player mode" is a game mode designed to be played by a single-player, though the game contains multi-player modes. Most modern console games and arcade games are designed so that they can be played by a single player; the Unreal Tournament series is one example of such. The earliest video games, such as Tennis for Two, Spacewar!, Pong, were symmetrical games designed to be played by two players. Single-player games gained popularity only after this, with early titles such as Speed Race and Space Invaders; the reason for this, according to Raph Koster, is down to a combination of several factors: sophisticated computers and interfaces that enabled asymmetric gameplay, cooperative gameplay and story delivery within a gaming framework, coupled with the fact that the majority of early games players had introverted personality types.
Although most modern games incorporate a single-player element either as the core or as one of several game modes, single-player gaming is viewed by the video game industry as peripheral to the future of gaming, with Electronic Arts vice president Frank Gibeau stating in 2012 that he had not approved one game to be developed as a single-player experience. The question of the financial viability of single-player AAA games was raised following the closure of Visceral Games by Electronic Arts in October 2017. Visceral had been a studio that established itself on a strong narrative single-player focus with Dead Space, had been working on a single-player, linear narrative Star Wars game at the time of the closure. Many commentators felt that EA made the change as they did not have confidence that a studio with an AAA-scale budget could produce a viable single-player game based on the popular Star Wars franchise. Alongside this, as well as poor sales of games in the year prior that were principally AAA single-player games against financially successful multiplayer games and those offer a games-as-a-service model, were indicators to many that the single-player model for AAA was waning.
Manveer Heir, who had left EA after finishing his gameplay design work for Mass Effect Andromeda, acknowledged that the culture within EA was against the development of single-player games, with Visceral's closure, "that the linear single-player triple-A game at EA is dead for the time being". Bethesda in December 7, 2017, decided to collaborate with Lynda Carter to launch a Public Safety Announcement to save single-player gaming; as the narrative and conflict in single-player gameplay is created by a computer rather than a human opponent, single-player games are able to deliver certain gaming experiences that are absent - or de-emphasised - in multiplayer games. Single-player games rely more on compelling stories to draw the player into the experience and to create a sense of investment. Humans are unpredictable, so human players - allies or enemies - cannot be relied upon to carry a narrative in a particular direction, so multiplayer games tend not to focus on a linear narrative. By contrast, many single-player games are built around a compelling story.
While a multi-player game relies upon human-human interaction for its conflict, for its sense of camaraderie, a single-player game must build these things artificially. As such, single-player games require deeper characterisation of their non-player characters in order to create connections between the player and the sympathetic characters and to develop deeper antipathy towards the game's antagonist; this is true of role-playing games, such as Dragon Quest and the Final Fantasy series, which are character-driven. These game elements are not firm, fixed rules. Massively multiplayer online game Fullerton, Tracy. Game Design Workshop: A Playcentric Approach to Creating Innovative Games. CRC Press. ISBN 1498785875. Retrieved 30 January 2018. Mitra, Ananda. Digital Games: Computers at Play. Infobase Publishing. Pp. 24–39. ISBN 0816067864. Retrieved 30 January 2018. Perron, Bernard. P.. The Routledge Companion to Video Game Studies. Routledge. Pp. 253–256. ISBN 1136290508. Retrieved 30 January 2018
Too Much Too Young - The Special A. K. A. Live! is a live EP by The Specials with Rico Rodriguez, released on 11 January 1980. On the original release, the front cover credited the performers as The Special A. K. A. Featuring Rico, while the back cover mentions and the labels credited only The Specials. Renowned for their live shows, The Specials released a five-track live EP in January 1980 as the third single by the band; the EP featured. Lead track "Too Much Too Young" was based on the 1969 song "Birth Control" by Lloyd Charmers, it is sometimes wrongly stated that the song was banned by the BBC due to mentions of contraception in the lyrics, not true. However, when the song's promotional video was featured on Top of the Pops, it was cut off just before reaching the final line, "try wearing a cap"; the song topped the UK Singles Chart for two weeks in February 1980. It became only the second EP to top the chart after "The Roussos Phenomenon EP" in 1976, was the first live recording to top the chart since Chuck Berry's "My Ding-a-Ling" in 1972.
At 2:04, it was the shortest song. Rodriguez played trombone on "Guns of Navarone" and "Long Shot Kick De Bucket", Dick Cuthell played flugelhorn on "Guns of Navarone". Side A"Too Much Too Young" - 2:04 "Guns of Navarone" - 2:25Side B - Skinhead Symphony"Long Shot Kick De Bucket" - 3:10 "The Liquidator" - 1:15 "Skinhead Moonstomp" - 2:11 List of number-one singles from the 1980s Too Much Too Young at Discogs
Devin Williams is an American professional basketball player for Tofaş of the Turkish Basketball Super League. He played college basketball at West Virginia. Williams first attended Withrow High School in his hometown of Ohio; as a sophomore in 2010–11, he averaged 13.0 points and 10.6 rebounds per game for the school's basketball team. As a junior at Withrow in 2011–12, he averaged 15.2 points and 10.5 rebounds per game and earned All-Cincinnati Metro Athletic Conference First Team honors. In 2012, Williams transferred to Montverde Academy in Florida for his senior year. In April 2013, he helped Montverde rally from a 16-point deficit to beat Saint Benedict's Preparatory School 67–65 in the final of the High School National Tournament. On a roster full of Division I recruits, Williams was first-team all-state for independent players; as a freshman at West Virginia in 2013–14, Williams started 31 of 33 games, averaging 23.3 minutes per game. He shot 41.1 percent from the field and averaged 8.4 points per game while leading the team in rebounds with 7.2 per game.
He was subsequently named to the Academic All-Big 12 Rookie Team. He posted eight double-doubles and had nine double-figure rebounding performances throughout the season, his eight double-doubles are the third most all-time by a WVU freshman, he tied for the most double-doubles by a Big 12 Conference freshman with Kansas' Joel Embiid. Williams' 238 rebounds were the fourth most all-time by a WVU freshman, as he finished seventh in the Big 12 Conference in rebounds per game. On March 8, 2014, he scored a season-high 22 points and tied his season high for rebounds with 13 in a 92–86 win over Kansas; as a sophomore in 2014–15, Williams played in 34 games for the Mountaineers, starting all 34 of those contests, averaged 24.9 minutes per game. He led WVU in rebounding with 8.1 boards per game. He was 15th in the Big 12 Conference in scoring and third in rebounding, had the second-most double-doubles in the Big 12 with nine, he subsequently earned All-Big 12 Honorable Mention honors. On March 7, 2015, he tied his career-best performance with 22 points and 13 rebounds in an 81–72 win over Oklahoma State.
As a junior in 2015–16, Williams started 34 of 35 games for the Mountaineers, averaging 25.4 minutes per game. He averaged career highs in points and assists, subsequently earned second-team All-Big 12, USBWA All-District II Team and NABC All-District 8 second team honors. Williams earned Big 12 All-Tournament Team honors after recording 31 points and 10 rebounds in the Big 12 Tournament championship game, a game West Virginia lost 81–71 to Kansas; the point total was a career best and it marked his 15th double-double of the season, the most of any Big 12 player. He became just the 11th player in West Virginia program history to record 1,000 points and 800 rebounds. On March 29, 2016, Williams declared for the NBA draft, forgoing his final year of college eligibility, he subsequently was not invited to the NBA combine. He admitted he "received some bad advice" regarding the draft. After going undrafted in the 2016 NBA draft, Williams joined the Milwaukee Bucks for the 2016 NBA Summer League in Las Vegas.
In five games for the Bucks, he averaged 2.4 rebounds in 7.6 minutes per game. On August 9, 2016, Williams signed with Melbourne United for the 2016–17 NBL season. Williams struggled to make an impact for United off the bench over the first month of the season, which led to speculation of him being released by the club; that was not to be, on November 6, he had a season-best game with 13 points and seven rebounds in an 82–73 loss to the Illawarra Hawks. His next best game came on December 11, as he had a 6-point, 10-rebound effort in an 88–81 win over the Sydney Kings. In the following game however on December 17, Williams went down with a knee injury early in United's 100–90 loss to the Brisbane Bullets, was subsequently ruled out for four to six weeks with a Grade 2 medial ligament strain. On January 31, 2017, after recovering, Williams was granted a release from his contract to source opportunities to play in the US. On February 14, 2017, he was acquired by the Greensboro Swarm of the NBA Development League.
In June 2017, Williams joined the Charlotte Hornets for the 2017 NBA Summer League. On September 26, 2017, he signed with the Boston Celtics for training camp, he was waived by the Celtics on October 5, 2017. On April 25, 2018, Vaqueros de Bayamón of the Baloncesto Superior Nacional was reported to have signed Williams. On July 13, 2018, he has signed with Büyükçekmece of the Basketball Super League. On February 14, 2019, Devin signed with Budućnost of the Montenegrin League. Williams is the son of Angela Williams, had two older brothers. Donshae Williams, the youngest of Williams' two older brothers, was shot and killed in Cincinnati in August 2011, just before Williams started his junior year at Withrow High. In December 2015, Williams said of the incident, "Just a bad night. Wrong place, wrong time. It's sad. That's. I just use it for motivation to get my nephew out of there and make it better for him and the whole family." West Virginia Mountaineers bio Devin Williams at euroleague.net Devin Williams at nba.com Devin Williams at washingtonpost.com