Single-sex education known as single-gender education and gender-isolated education, is the practice of conducting education with male and female students attending separate classes in separate buildings or schools. The practice of single-sex schooling was common before the 20th century in secondary and higher education. Single-sex education in many cultures is advocated on the basis of tradition as well as religion, is practiced in many parts of the world. There has been a surge of interest and establishment of single-sex schools due to educational research. Single-sex education is practiced in many Muslim majority countries. In the Western world, single sex education is associated with the private sector, with the public sector being overwhelmingly mixed sex. Motivations for single sex education range from religious ideas of sex segregation to beliefs that the sexes learn and behave differently, and, as such, they thrive in a single sex environment. In the 19th century, in Western countries, single sex girls' finishing schools, women's colleges offered women a chance of education at a time when they were denied access to mainstream educational institutions.
The former were common in Switzerland, the latter in the US and the UK, which were pioneers in women's education. In 19th century Western Europe, the most common way for girls to access education was at home, through private tutoring, not at school, due to the strong resistance to women's involvement in schools. By contrast, in the US, early feminists were successful in establishing women's educational institutions; these were different from and considered inferior to men's institutions, but they created some of the first opportunities to formalized higher education for women in the Western world. The Seven Sisters colleges offered unprecedented emancipation for women; the pioneer Salem College of Winston-Salem, North Carolina was founded in 1772 as a primary school becoming an academy and a college. The New England Female Medical College and the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania were the first medical institutions in the world established to train women in medicine and offer them the M.
D. degree. During the 19th century, ideas about education started to change: modern ideas that defined education as a right, rather than as a privilege available only to a small elite, started to gain support in North America and Europe; as such, mass elementary education was introduced, more and more coeducational schools were set up. Together with mass education, the coeducation became standard in many places. Increased secularization in the 20th century contributed to the acceptance of mixed sex education. In 1917 coeducation was mandated in the Soviet Union. According to Cornelius Riordan, "By the end of the nineteenth century, coeducation was all but universal in American elementary and secondary public schools, and by the end of the 20th century, this was true across the world. In the UK, Ireland the tradition of single sex education remained quite strong until the 1960s; the 1960s and 1970s were a period of intense social changes, during that era many anti-discrimination laws were passed, such as the 1972 Title IX.
Wiseman shows that by 2003, only a few countries across the globe have greater than one or two percent single sex schools. But there are exceptions where the percent of single sex schools exceeds 10 percent: Belgium, Singapore, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, New Zealand, South Korea, most Muslim nations. However, there has been a resurgence of interest in single sex schools in modern societies across the globe, both in the public and private sector." The topic of single-sex education is controversial. Advocates argue that it aids student outcomes such as test scores, graduation rates, solutions to behavioral difficulties. Opponents, argue that evidence for such effects is inflated or non-existent, instead argue that such segregation can increase sexism and impairs the development of interpersonal skills. Advocates of single-sex education believe that there are persistent gender differences in how boys and girls learn and behave in educational settings, that such differences merit educating them separately.
One version of this argument holds that male-female brain differences favor the implementation of gender-specific teaching methods, but such claims have not held up to rigorous scrutiny. In addition, supporters of single-sex education argue that by segregating the genders, students do not become distracted by the other gender's actions in the classrooms. A systematic review published in 2005 covering 2221 studies was commissioned by the US Department of Education entitled Single-sex versus coeducational schooling: A systematic review; the review, which had statistical controls for socio-economic status of the students and resources of the schools, etc. found that in the study on the effects of single-sex schooling "the results are equivocal. There is some support for the premise that single-sex schooling can be helpful for certain outcomes related to academic achievement and more positive academic aspirations. For many outcomes, there is no evidence of either harm. There is limited support for the view that single-sex schooling may be ha
The Puerto Rico national under-17 football team represents Puerto Rico in tournaments at the under-17 level. It is controlled by the Puerto Rican Football Federation. Puerto Rico made its debut at the 1983 CONCACAF Championship were they faced México. Subsequently they played in the FIFA U-17 World Cup qualifiers in 1991, 2000 and 2002, it wasn't until 2006 where they got their first two victories against Saint Lucia. Since 2012 they have participated in every World Cup qualification. In 2012 the team was managed by Jeaustin Campos where they played in Cuba the first round of the qualification where they faced the hosts and Bahamas but failing to advance to the next round. In 2014 they went to Bahamas this time managed by Vítor Hugo Barros where they earned a win against Bahamas but failed to advance after losing 2-0 against Martinique and drawing scoreless to Bermudas. Steven Estrada managed the team in 2016 with a limited time to prepare, they lost all the matches against Cayman Islands and Aruba, scoring only one goal.
Appreciative inquiry is a model that seeks to engage stakeholders in self-determined change. According to Bushe "AI revolutionized the field of organization development and was a precursor to the rise of positive organization studies and the strengths based movement in American management." It was developed at Case Western Reserve University's department of organizational behavior, starting with a 1987 article by David Cooperrider and Suresh Srivastva. They felt that the overuse of "problem solving" hampered any kind of social improvement, what was needed were new methods of inquiry that would help generate new ideas and models for how to organize. Cooperrider and Srivastva took a social constructionist approach, arguing that organizations are created and changed by conversations, claiming that methods of organizing were only limited by people's imaginations and the agreements among them. In 2001, Cooperrider and Diana Whitney published an article outlining the five principles of AI. In 1996, Cooperrider and several of their colleagues became centrally involved using AI to mid-wife the creation of the United Religions Initiative, a global organization dedicated to promoting grassroots interfaith cooperation for peace and healing.
This early partnership between URI and AI is chronicled in Birth of a Global Community: Appreciative Inquiry in Action by Charles Gibbs and Sally Mahé. AI was used in the first and subsequent meetings of business leaders that created the UN's Global Compact. In another of the early applications and Whitney taught AI to employees of GTE resulting in improvements in employees' support for GTE's business direction and as a part of continuous process improvement generated both improvements in revenue collection and cost savings earning GTE an ASTD award for the best organisational change program in the US in 1997."On May 8, 2010, Suresh Srivastva died. Gervase Bushe, a researcher on the topic, published a 2011 review of the model, including its processes and evidence, he published a history of the model in 2012. According to Bushe, AI "advocates collective inquiry into the best of what is, in order to imagine what could be, followed by collective design of a desired future state, compelling and thus, does not require the use of incentives, coercion or persuasion for planned change to occur."The model is based on the assumption that the questions we ask will tend to focus our attention in a particular direction, that organizations evolve in the direction of the questions they most persistently and passionately ask.
In the mid 80's most methods of assessing and evaluating a situation and proposing solutions were based on a deficiency model, predominantly asking questions such as "What are the problems?", "What's wrong?" or "What needs to be fixed?". Instead of asking "What's the problem?", others couched the question in terms of "challenges", which still focused on deficiency, on what needs to be fixed or solved. Appreciative Inquiry was the first serious managerial method to refocus attention on what works, the positive core, on what people care about. Today, these ways of approaching organizational change are commonThe five principles of AI are: The constructionist principle proposes that what we believe to be true determines what we do, thought and action emerge from relationships. Through the language and discourse of day to day interactions, people co-construct the organizations they inhabit; the purpose of inquiry is to stimulate new ideas and images that generate new possibilities for action. The principle of simultaneity proposes that as we inquire into human systems we change them and the seeds of change, the things people think and talk about, what they discover and learn, are implicit in the first questions asked.
Questions are never neutral, they are fateful, social systems move in the direction of the questions they most persistently and passionately discuss. The poetic principle proposes that organizational life is expressed in the stories people tell each other every day, the story of the organization is being co-authored; the words and topics chosen for inquiry have an impact far beyond just the words themselves. They invoke sentiments and worlds of meaning. In all phases of the inquiry effort is put into using words that point to, enliven and inspire the best in people; the anticipatory principle posits. Human systems are forever projecting ahead of themselves a horizon of expectation that brings the future powerfully into the present as a mobilizing agent. Appreciative inquiry uses artful creation of positive imagery on a collective basis to refashion anticipatory reality; the positive principle proposes that momentum and sustainable change requires positive affect and social bonding. Sentiments like hope, inspiration and joy increase creativity, openness to new ideas and people, cognitive flexibility.
They promote the strong connections and relationships between people between groups in conflict, required for collective inquiry and change. Some researchers believe that excessive focus on dysfunctions can cause them to become worse or fail to become better. By contrast, AI argues, when all members of an organization are motivated to understand and value the most favourable features of its culture, it can make rapid improvements. Strength-based methods are used in the creation of organizational development strategy and implementation of organizational effectiveness tactics; the appreciative mode of inquiry relies on interviews to qualitatively understand the organization's potential strengths by looking at an organization's experience and its