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Single-shot firearms are firearms that hold only a single round of ammunition, must be reloaded after each shot. The history of firearms began with single-shot designs, many centuries passed before multi-shot repeater designs became commonplace. Single-shot designs are less complex than revolvers or magazine-fed firearms, many single-shot designs are still produced by many manufacturers, in both cartridge- and non-cartridge varieties, from zip guns to the highest-quality shooting-match weapons; the vast majority of firearms before the introduction of metallic cartridges in the 1860s were single-shot and muzzle loading. However, multi-barrel, breech loading and other multi-shot firearms had been experimented with for centuries. Notable pre-cartridge era single-shot firearms included matchlock, snaplock, miquelet lock and percussion cap firearms. Muzzle loaders included the Brown Bess and Springfield Model 1861 muskets, the Kentucky and Mississippi rifles, the duelling pistol. There were early breech-loading single-shot rifles such as the Hall and Sharps.

All of the early cartridge-fed rifles were single-shot designs, taking advantage of the strength and simplicity of single-shot actions. A good example is the "trapdoor" or Allin action used in early cartridge conversions of 1863 Springfield muzzleloading rifles; the conversion consisted of filing out the rear of the barrel, attaching a folding bolt, the "trapdoor", that flipped up and forwards to allow the cartridge to be loaded in the breech. Once loaded, the bolt was latched in place, holding the round securely in place; the bolt contained a firing pin that used the existing percussion hammer, so no changes were required to the lock. After firing, the act of opening the bolt would extract the fired case from the chamber, allowing it to be removed. In 1866, the United States standardized on the.50-70 cartridge, chambered in trapdoor conversions of rifled muskets, used in the American Civil War. The trapdoor mechanism continued with the adoption of the Springfield 1873 rifle, chambered in the new.45-70 cartridge.

The Springfield stayed in service until 1893, when it was replaced by the Krag–Jørgensen bolt-action rifle. Another muzzleloader conversion similar in concept to the Allin action was the British Snider–Enfield introduced in 1866, which hinged to the side rather than forward. Unlike the US Army, which kept its trapdoors for decades, the British soon moved beyond the Snider to the more sophisticated dropping-block Martini action derived from the Peabody action. Martini–Henrys were the standard British rifles of the late Victorian era, Martini–Enfield conversions continued in second-line service until the Second World War. Single-shot rifles were the preferred tools of big-game hunters in the 19th century; the buffalo hunters of the American West used Sharps and Springfield single-shots. These rifles were designed for large black-powder cartridges, from military-issue.45-70 on up to the enormous.50-140 Sharps and.500 Express. The single-shot big-game rifle would only be displaced by bolt action repeaters firing high-velocity smokeless-powder cartridges in the early 20th century.

After the advent of high-powered repeating rifles, single-shot rifles were used for target shooting matches, with the first official match shooting event, opening at Creedmoor, Long Island in 1872. From about 1872 until the U. S. entry into World War I, target shooting with single-shot rifles was nearly as popular in America as golf is today. During that golden age of match shooting, the most popular target rifles were made by Bullard, Remington, Ballard and Winchester. Calibers used by some of these rifles during matches ranged from the.25/20.32/, a host of.44's for over-600-yard shooting at Creedmoor. But two calibers maintained consistency throughout their tenure during the single-shot era: the.32-40 and the.38-55 calibers. The minimum standard in the beginning of the sport had been 200 yard firing from the standing position. No rifle scopes, no bench rests, no prone positions, but shooting, as famed rifle barrel maker, Harry Melville Pope, once stated, "standing on his hind legs and shooting like a man."

The.32-40 and.38-55 were able to buck the wind better at 200 yards, not wear the rifleman out by heavy recoil, all while sustaining great accuracy. In the end though, it was the.32-40 single-shot rifle that became the dean of match shooters, as the recoil from the.38-55 took its toll after hundreds of rounds had been fired during a match. In 1878, John Moses Browning patented arguably the greatest single-shot rifle produced: after Browning sold his design to the Winchester Repeating Arms Company it was brought out as the Winchester Model 1885 Rifle. Although fewer than 200,000 Model 1885 Single Shots were built, it remained in production from 1885 to 1920. Remington and Browning all made single-shot rifles using different actions, such as the rolling block and falling block; these rifles were chambered in large black-powder cartridges, such as.50-110, were used for hunting large game bison. Production rifles would be in popular smokeless powder cartridges, such as the.30-40 Krag. Single-shot rifles co-existed for some time with the lever action rifle, but they began to fade out of manufacture with the advent of reliable bolt action rif

Anastasia: Adventures with Pooka and Bartok

Anastasia: Adventures with Pooka and Bartok is a Fox Interactive puzzle video game based on the 1997 animated film Anastasia. Released on November 25, 1997, it was produced by David Wisehart. Wisehart served as voiceover director; the game had an estimated budget of US$800,000. Fox Interactive was founded in 1995 as an operating unit of Fox Filmed Entertainment. Aided by other News Corporation divisions, the company was able to "not only to select from a wide spectrum of hot properties, but to draw from significant marketing and merchandising resources." Fox properties, adapted into Fox Interactive games include The Simpsons and Die Hard. After Fox purchased the Don Bluth studios and during the development of Anastasia, an Anastasia video game was conceived to cash in on the success of the existing animated film property. Blitz Games - who would design Fox's Titan AW game - was "asked to put a concept together for a PlayStation game". Motion Works, an international digital technology company based in Vancouver, was chosen by Fox Interactive to develop the project.

Under contract to Motion Works, Intelliscape Interactive Corp. worked on this title alongside Cosmopolitan's Virtual Makeover. The developers were able to recruit some of the film's voice case, including Meg Ryan who performs the voiceover for Anya's diary entries". Anastasia would incorporates exploration, problem solving and skill testing, incorporated songs from the animated feature film. For Anastasia, Intelliscape Interactive completed production management, 3D artwork, game design work; the game was released on November 4, 1997. The Fox Interactive website allowed players to send virtual postcards using Anastasia music. Both this title and the video Anastasia Sing-along were involved in corporate tie-ins; the Fox Interactive game was part of a company-wide media blitz that included the units Fox Kids Network, Fox Family Channel, Fox Licensing and Merchandising, Fox Interactive as well as book publisher HarperCollins. The game marked a new direction for Fox Interactive, which had previous made first-person shooter games.

In 1997, Disney rereleased The Little Mermaid as "counter-programming" to Fox's animated film Anastasia, set for release around the same time. The two studios were "scrambling to mine every potential dollar from their investment and make sure neither outdoes the other", so they competed in the video gaming space. Taking a cue from the Disney "marketing mode", Fox Inteactive would release the computer entertainment spinoff with its film in the video gaming marketplace. Ariel's Story Studio would compete against Anastasia: Adventures with Bartok; the game capped off three consecutive successful quarters for Motion Works, helping the nine-year old company's finances improve in 1997. As a result of success such as Anastasia, the company had plans to grow throughout 1998. Anastasia and her puppy, travel the long route from St. Petersburg to Paris to find her grandmother in the hopes of proving her true identity. Anya keeps track of her adventure in her diary, while collecting clues along the way, runs into some game play with Bartok to defeat Rasputin's minions.

Anya's diary entries are used as a plot device to help move the story along. Mobygames explains the gameplay: It features five different scenes, depicting situations from the movie. Diary entries by Anya tell the happenings between those stages; the player takes the role of the puppy Pooka and needs to solve problems and puzzles to help Anya out. When searching through the screens, Pooka may meet the minions of the villain Rasputin, they take him to the underworld where he has to solve action or strategy mini games. The majority of the game is click adventure. Bartok, the bat, provides some advice here and there. If players are stuck, they can use the in-game hint system. AllGame explains an example of a quest that one will encounter in the game, the series of steps the player must take in order to reach that goal: During the first part of the game you must find Dmitri's location in St. Petersburg. You discover a fortuneteller who can provide the information enough but, in order to get it, you must get something from a clothier for the seer.

Meg Ryan - Anastasia John Cusack - Dmitri Hank Azaria - Bartok Jim Cummings - Rasputin Jamie Goferman - Cleaning Woman Summer Litwin - Fortune Teller, Ballerina Wade Major - Clothes Vendor Martin G. Metcalf - Artist Chris Miller - Man in Booth The gameplay was negatively received by critics. AllGame would describe it as "frustrating" due to the difficulty in locating locations and objects in the confusing interface, the unsatisfying minigames. Quandary felt it was held back by its "relative simplicity and brevity". PC Gamer described the experience of playing the adventure as "magical". Metzomagic wrote that "as for its performance as an adventure game for children it does a superbly entertaining job"; the Boston Herald said The Little Mermaid's strong point was in its soundtrack and karaoke activity, as opposed to Anastasia's adventure game mechanics. The audiovisuals were given positive reviews by critics. AllGame gave high praise to both the game's graphics and sounds, deeming them clean, clear and nice.

Quandary's felt that the title's "gorgeous graphics" made it "irresistible". Metzomagic praised the animations, sound effects and music. Meanwhile, MacAddict


WDNO is a radio station broadcasting a Spanish Variety format. Licensed to Quebradillas, Puerto Rico, the station is owned by Aurio A. Matos Barreto. WDNO broadcast its Cima FM simulcast on W250CF 97.9 FM in W256DX 99.1 FM in Aguadilla. WDNO affiliated with the Camarero Horse Racing Radio Network; the station was assigned the call letters WJYT on 1982-06-28. On 1988-07-07, the station changed its call sign to WORR, on 1992-09-28 to WKVN, on 2004-07-06 to WCHQ, on 2011-01-19 to the current WDNO. In July 2003, International Broadcasting Corp. reached an agreement to buy two radio stations, WRSJ and WKVN, from Concillio Mision Cristiano Fuente de Agua Viva Inc. for a reported sale price of $1.45 million. Since October 1, 2016 and after 29 years broadcasting in the frequency 103.7 FM, WDNO and the translator station with the approval of the Federal Communications Commission in the United States, has changed to 97.9 FM for best coverage. In March 2018, The station was announced that the FM translator in Arecibo will move the frecuency to 98.3 FM in the next few months and the callsign will change to W252EA, pending FCC approval.

Query the FCC's AM station database for WDNO Radio-Locator Information on WDNO Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WDNOQuery the FCC's FM station database for W250CF Query the FCC's FM station database for W256DX

Gae Polisner

Gae Polisner is an American author of young adult and crossover to adult novels. She is a practicing family law attorney/mediator, she lives in Long Island with two sons. 2013 The Pull of Gravity 2015 The Summer of Letting Go 2017 The Memory of Things 2018 In Sight of Stars 2020 Jack Kerouac Is Dead to Me 2020, Seven Clues to Home, with Nora Raleigh Baskin In Sight of Stars 2018, received a Booklist Starred Review, is the winner of a 2018 AudioFile Earphones Award. The Memory of Things won the 2019 Golden Archer Award, Senior Division, Wisconsin's Children's Choice book award, was a 2017 Wisconsin State Reading List final selection, a finalist for the New York Library Association's Three Apples Book Award, a finalist for the Pennsylvania Keystone to Reading Book Award, it was the recipient of a 2016 Nerdy Book Club Award for Best Young Adult fiction, was named one of the Most Anticipated YA's of Fall/Winter 2016 by Barnes & Noble Teen Blog, one of the Best New Books for Teens by the Children's Book Review, one of the 15 Must-Read YA Books of Fall by, one of the Buzzworthy Books of Summer by YABooks Central.

The Summer of Letting Go was the winner of the 2014 Nerdy Book Club Award Best Young Adult Fiction 2014, received the Teen Ink Editor’s Badge of Approval. The Pull of Gravity was the winner of the 2011 Nerdy Book Club Award for Best YA Fiction, her first manuscript, a 2008 piece of women's fiction titled The Jetty, was a Top Semifinalist in the first 2008 Amazon Breakthrough Novel Award contest. Official website


USA-80 known as GPS IIA-4, GPS II-13 and GPS SVN-28, was an American navigation satellite which formed part of the Global Positioning System. It was the fourth of nineteen Block IIA GPS satellites to be launched. USA-80 was launched at 03:20:00 UTC on 10 April 1992, atop a Delta II carrier rocket, flight number D208, flying in the 7925-9.5 configuration. The launch took place from Launch Complex 17B at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, placed USA-80 into a transfer orbit; the satellite raised itself into medium Earth orbit using a Star-37XFP apogee motor. On 12 May 1992, USA-80 was in an orbit with a perigee of 19,979 kilometres, an apogee of 20,384 kilometres, a period of 717.94 minutes, 55.1 degrees of inclination to the equator. It had PRN 28, operated in slot 2 of plane C of the GPS constellation; the satellite had a mass of 1,816 kilograms. It had a design life of 7.5 years. It was replaced by USA-117

Kvabiskhevi church

The Kvabiskhevi church of the Dormition known as Mariamtsminda is a medieval Georgian Orthodox church, situated 2 km northwest of the village of Kvabiskhevi, Borjomi Municipality, in Georgia's south-central region of Samtskhe-Javakheti. A three-nave basilica, the church was constructed in the 8th or 9th century on a high rocky mountain slope, overlooking the steep descent into the deep river canyon; the church is known for its 12th–13th-century fresco portrait of the young nobleman named Shota, popularly believed to be the contemporaneous epic poet Shota Rustaveli. The Kvabiskhevi church is inscribed on the list of the Immovable Cultural Monuments of National Significance of Georgia. Kvabiskhevi is a three-nave basilica built of stone on a small terrace of a high rocky mountain slope, its eastern façade leaning against the rock—the face of, purposefully chipped off—and the three other sides overlooking the steep abyss into the Kvabiskhevi canyon; the terrace can only be accessed via a trail from the northeast leading up to the church from the Kvabiskhevi guard station of the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park.

Difficult to access, the church served in the Middle Ages as a wartime shelter for the locals, whose ruined dwellings and rock-cut shelters are found below the church. The village, at that time known as Kvabi, was depopulated shortly after the Ottoman takeover of the area in 1578—a Turkish census of 1595 listing only six permanent residents—and the church was abandoned; the modern-day village of Kvabiskhevi, southeast of the church, is the result of resettlement from the mountainous northwestern Georgian province of Racha in the 1870s. The church measures 8 x 4 sq. m. The main nave is much larger than the lateral naves, ending in a semi-circular eastern apse with an arched window; the conch is spherical. The upper central portions of the northern and southern walls contain brackets; the lower central portion of the western wall has a doorway, internally architraved and externally arched. The main nave is separated from the other two by two arches on each side, supported by rectangular capitaled pillars.

The northern nave terminates with a semi-circular nave with windows. The southern nave is divided into two chambers by a septum pierced by a low rectangular entrance. Most of external decorations are found on the western façade, including three Bolnisi-type crosses carved in relief above the entrance door, a recurrent motif in early Christian art in Georgia; the basilica contains remnants of medieval wall painting. Of note is a 12th–13th-century fresco in the northern wall of the southern nave, depicting a young man and a woman, identified by the accompanying medieval Georgian asomtavruli text as Shota and Ia, respectively; the fresco is reproduced in a repoussé work on the iron gate handmade in 1987. Shota was not an uncommon name among the local aristocracy. One popular hypothesis identifies the man from the Kvabiskhevi fresco with the poet Shota Rustaveli, who penned the epic Knight in the Panther's Skin