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Single-sideband modulation

In radio communications, single-sideband modulation or single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation is a type of modulation used to transmit information, such as an audio signal, by radio waves. A refinement of amplitude modulation, it uses transmitter bandwidth more efficiently. Amplitude modulation produces an output signal the bandwidth of, twice the maximum frequency of the original baseband signal. Single-sideband modulation avoids this bandwidth increase, the power wasted on a carrier, at the cost of increased device complexity and more difficult tuning at the receiver. Radio transmitters work by mixing a radio frequency signal of a specific frequency, the carrier wave, with the audio signal to be broadcast. In AM transmitters this mixing takes place in the final RF amplifier, it is less common and much less efficient to do the mixing at low power and amplify it in a linear amplifier. Either method produces a set of frequencies with a strong signal at the carrier frequency and with weaker signals at frequencies extending above and below the carrier frequency by the maximum frequency of the input signal.

Thus the resulting signal has a spectrum whose bandwidth is twice the maximum frequency of the original input audio signal. SSB takes advantage of the fact that the entire original signal is encoded in each of these "sidebands", it is not necessary to transmit both sidebands plus the carrier, as a suitable receiver can extract the entire original signal from either the upper or lower sideband. There are several methods for eliminating the one sideband from the transmitted signal. Producing this single sideband signal is too complicated to be done in the final amplifier stage as with AM. SSB Modulation must be done at a low level and amplified in a linear amplifier where lower efficiency offsets the power advantage gained by eliminating the carrier and one sideband. SSB transmissions use the available amplifier energy more efficiently, providing longer-range transmission for the same power output. In addition, the occupied spectrum is less than half that of a full carrier AM signal. SSB reception requires frequency stability and selectivity well beyond that of inexpensive AM receivers, why broadcasters have used it.

In point to point communications where expensive receivers are in common use they can be adjusted to receive whichever sideband is being transmitted. The first U. S. patent application for SSB modulation was filed on December 1915 by John Renshaw Carson. The U. S. Navy experimented with SSB over its radio circuits before World War I. SSB first entered commercial service on January 7, 1927, on the longwave transatlantic public radiotelephone circuit between New York and London; the high power SSB transmitters were located at Rocky Point, New York, Rugby, England. The receivers were in quiet locations in Houlton and Cupar Scotland. SSB was used over long distance telephone lines, as part of a technique known as frequency-division multiplexing. FDM was pioneered by telephone companies in the 1930s. With this technology, many simultaneous voice channels could be transmitted on a single physical circuit, for example in L-carrier. With SSB, channels could to be spaced only 4,000 Hz apart, while offering a speech bandwidth of nominally 300 Hz to 3,400 Hz.

Amateur radio operators began serious experimentation with SSB after World War II. The Strategic Air Command established SSB as the radio standard for its aircraft in 1957, it has become a de facto standard for long-distance voice radio transmissions since then. Single-sideband has the mathematical form of quadrature amplitude modulation in the special case where one of the baseband waveforms is derived from the other, instead of being independent messages: where s is the message, s ^ is its Hilbert transform, f 0 is the radio carrier frequency. To understand this formula, we may express s as the real part of a complex-valued function, with no loss of information: s = Re ⁡ = Re ⁡, where j represents the imaginary unit. S a is the analytic representation of s, which means that it comprises only the positive-frequency components of s: 1 2 S a = { S, for f > 0, 0, for f < 0, {\displaystyle {\fr

2014–15 Boise State Broncos women's basketball team

The 2014–15 Boise State Broncos women's basketball team represented Boise State University during the 2014–15 NCAA Division I women's basketball season. The Broncos, led by tenth year head coach Gordy Presnell, played their home games at Taco Bell Arena and were a member of the Mountain West Conference, they finished the season 11 -- 7 in Mountain West play for a finish in fourth place. They were champions of the 2015 Mountain West Conference Women's Basketball Tournament and earn an automatic trip to the 2015 NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Tournament where they lost in the first round to Tennessee. 2014–15 Boise State Broncos men's basketball team

Prince of Wales Theatre, Cardiff

The Prince of Wales Theatre is a former theatre in central Cardiff. Built in 1878 seating 2,800, it became a sex cinema, it is now a pub. The building is located near Cardiff Central railway station, near the corner of St Mary Street and Wood Street, with entrances and façades on both streets; the theatre was built in 1878 to a Venetian Gothic design by the architects W. D. Bleasley and T. Waring, during a period of rapid expansion of Cardiff a prosperous coal-exporting port; the building was a prompt replacement of Cardiff's old Theatre Royal in Queen Street doubling the audience capacity to 2000, was opened on 7 October 1878. The main stage was 56 feet wide and 46 feet deep, framed by a 30 feet high proscenium arch topped with the royal coat of arms. Interior decoration was in gold and white and the building was illuminated after dark using 800 gas lamps; the theatre was rebuilt in the Greek Revival style to a design by Willmott & Smith. An additional entrance on St Mary Street was added with two large fluted Doric columns flanking a neoclassical statue of a young woman holding a cup.

The interior of the theatre was remodelled in 1920 in the same Greek style. The proscenium arch is flanked by massive Ionic columns carrying a large triangular pediment with an elaborate Grecian bas-relief frieze above. In 1988 the interior was divided into multiple spaces for a variety of uses, including an amusement arcade and a pub; this obscured the original interior. The interior was again altered in 1999, converting the entire space into a pub and restoring the 1920 interior; the building was designated a Grade II listed building in 1960. 1878–1914 "New Theatre Royal" 1914–1920 closed 1920–1924 "The Playhouse" 1924–1935 closed 1935–1957 "The Prince of Wales" 1958–1974 Films and limited live theatre. Live shows stopped by 1965, it became a sex cinema showing pornographic films. 1974 planning consent to demolish the building was refused. 1984–1987 "Caeser's Nightclub" 1988 Converted into an amusement arcade and a pub 1999 Re-converted into a pub restoring the interior. In 1970 the Welsh Theatre Company was planning to move to the theatre.

The opening production in 1878 was Galatea by W. S. Gilbert; the Welsh National Opera company's opening performance was at the theatre in 1946, when Cavalleria Rusticana was performed. The Welsh tenor Robert Tear a schoolboy, started his career in this performance. Several stars appeared in person at the theatre, including: Richard Burton Noël Coward John Gielgud Rex Harrison Kay Kendall Vivien Leigh Robert Montgomery Laurence Olivier Donald WolfitBinkie Beaumont was appointed assistant manager of the theatre at the age of 16; this led to his career as a producer in London's West End. Official website "Prince of Wales Theatre, Cardiff". Peoples Collection Wales. – Photograph of the 1920 interior "Theatres and Halls in Cardiff". Arthurlloyd.co.uk. – Blog on historic Cardiff theatres

Bible Adventures

Bible Adventures is a Christian video game by Wisdom Tree first released in 1991 for the Nintendo Entertainment System, ported to the Mega Drive/Genesis in 1995. The game was unusual in, it contains three different games: Noah's Ark, Baby Moses, David and Goliath, all of which are based rather loosely on stories from the Bible. The gameplay of these games is sidescroller style similar to that of Super Mario Bros. 2 for the NES. The game features Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring, by J. S. Bach, as the background music for the title screen; the game bypasses the 10NES lockout chip by emitting a voltage spike when the NES control deck is turned on. The game is a collection of three games based on stories contained in the Old Testament: In Noah's Ark, the player must round up animals and food — sometimes by knocking animals out with an object that resembles a barrel or catching fruit thrown by a monkey — and carry them onto the Ark. Noah's health is recharged when the player reads Bible verses that are scattered around the four levels.

Snakes seen on the trees are decoys. In Baby Moses, the player controls Miriam, Moses' sister, as she tries to save her brother from the Pharaoh's decree that all male Hebrew children be killed. In order to do this, the player carries Moses from one end of the level to the other, in a manner quite similar to the way in which characters in Super Mario Bros. 2 carry vegetables. Moses can be thrown around without harming him; the adversaries attempt to throw Moses into the Nile. If the player completes the level without Moses, the game says "Good work, but you forgot Baby Moses", the level must be restarted. In David and Goliath, the player starts out controlling David as he herds sheep and avoids predators such as lions and bears. Acorns can be used to stun the beasts; the player obtains a sling and goes on to dodge guards and stones before he fights Goliath's shield bearer and Goliath himself, whom the player must strike once in the head to defeat. The game has been criticized for being overly didactic, for being derivative of Super Mario Bros.

2, for bad gameplay. It has been criticized for its recycling of its other levels, it sold 350,000 copies in Christian bookstores. GamesRadar ranked it as the 68th worst game made; the staff criticized the developers for their choice of Bible stories to adapt and for the sloppy design. Electronic Gaming Monthly's Seanbaby placed it as number 19 in his "20 worst games of all time" feature. Durham, Gabe. Bible Adventures. 7. Los Angeles: Boss Fight Books. ISBN 978-1-940535-07-4. OCLC 907647163. Official Bible Adventures page at Wisdom Tree Classigaming—Game of the Week

Keystone Nano

Keystone Nano, founded in 2005, is an American-based company based in Pennsylvania, that creates nanoscale products to diagnose and treat human disease and improve the quality of life. Keystone Nano Inc. and team has been granted the follow patents: US Patent - Awarded to The Penn State Research Foundation and Keystone Nano's Chief Medical Officer Mark Kester, this patent describes the process of loading Ceramide nano-scale liposomes with anti-cancer compounds and create a combination of therapies that benefit from the therapeutic activity of both Ceramide and the anti-cancer compound. This process improves the delivery of both compounds by targeting tumors and extending the time of biological activity. In January 2017, the FDA approved the investigational new drug application, NanoLiposome, to assess the product as a form of treatment for solid tumors. Phase 1 trials will take place at the University of Maryland, University of Virginia, the Medical University of South Carolina. Keystone was approved in 2017 to begin clinical trials to assess ceramide nanoliposome for possible use in treating cancer

Lonsdaleite

Lonsdaleite called hexagonal diamond in reference to the crystal structure, is an allotrope of carbon with a hexagonal lattice. In nature, it forms; the great heat and stress of the impact transforms the graphite into diamond, but retains graphite's hexagonal crystal lattice. Lonsdaleite was first identified in 1967 from the Canyon Diablo meteorite, where it occurs as microscopic crystals associated with diamond. Hexagonal diamond has been synthesized in the laboratory by compressing and heating graphite either in a static press or using explosives, it has been produced by chemical vapor deposition, by the thermal decomposition of a polymer, poly, at atmospheric pressure, under argon atmosphere, at 1,000 °C. It is translucent, brownish-yellow, has an index of refraction of 2.40 to 2.41 and a specific gravity of 3.2 to 3.3. Its hardness is theoretically superior to that of cubic diamond, according to computational simulations, but natural specimens exhibited somewhat lower hardness through a large range of values.

The cause is speculated as being due to the samples having been riddled with lattice defects and impurities. The property of lonsdaleite as a discrete material has been questioned, since specimens under crystallographic inspection showed not a bulk hexagonal lattice, but instead cubic diamond dominated by structural defects that include hexagonal sequences. A quantitative analysis of the X-ray diffraction data of lonsdaleite has shown that about equal amounts of hexagonal and cubic stacking sequences are present, it has been suggested that "stacking disordered diamond" is the most accurate structural description of lonsdaleite. On the other hand, recent shock experiments with in situ X-ray diffraction show strong evidence for creation of pure lonsdaleite in dynamic high-pressure environments such as meteorite impacts. According to the traditional picture, Lonsdaleite has a hexagonal unit cell, related to the diamond unit cell in the same way that the hexagonal and cubic close packed crystal systems are related.

The diamond structure can be considered to be made up of interlocking rings of six carbon atoms, in the chair conformation. In lonsdaleite, some rings are in the boat conformation instead. At the nanoscale dimensions cubic diamond is represented by diamondoids while hexagonal diamond is represented by wurtzoids. In diamond, all the carbon-to-carbon bonds, both within a layer of rings and between them, are in the staggered conformation, thus causing all four cubic-diagonal directions to be equivalent. Lonsdaleite is simulated to be 58% harder than diamond on the <100> face and to resist indentation pressures of 152 GPa, whereas diamond would break at 97 GPa. This is yet exceeded by IIa diamond's <111> tip hardness of 162 GPa. Lonsdaleite occurs as microscopic crystals associated with diamond in several meteorites: Canyon Diablo and Allan Hills 77283, it is naturally occurring in non-bolide diamond placer deposits in the Sakha Republic. Material with d-spacings consistent with Lonsdaleite has been found in sediments with uncertain dates at Lake Cuitzeo, in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, by proponents of the controversial Younger Dryas impact hypothesis.

Its presence in local peat deposits is claimed as evidence for the Tunguska event being caused by a meteor rather than by a cometary fragment. Aggregated diamond nanorod Glossary of meteoritics List of minerals List of minerals named after people Anthony, J. W.. Mineralogy of Arizona. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1579-4.. Mindat.org accessed 13 March 2005. Webmineral accessed 13 March 2005. Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory website accessed 14 May 2006. Diamond no longer nature's hardest material lonsdaleite 3D animation