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Single (music)

In music, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, in the era of digital distribution, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided. That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side.

Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the origins of the single are in the late 19th century, when music was distributed on phonograph cylinders that held two to four minutes' worth of audio. These were superseded by phonograph records, which also had a short duration of playing time per side. In the first two to three decades of the 20th century all commercial music releases were, in effect, singles. Phonograph records were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78-rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.

78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically-powered synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3,600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the three-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone": Although Columbia Records tried to make the record more "radio-friendly" by cutting the performance into halves and separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.

The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.

Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. In the late 2010s, artists began a trend of releasing multiple singles before releasing a studio album. An unnamed A&R representative confirmed to Rolling Stone in 2018 that "an artist has to build a foundation to sustain" and added that "When artists have one big record and go run with that, it doesn’t work because they never had a foundation to begin with." The same article cited examples such as Cardi B, Camila Cabello a

Aux arbres citoyens

"Aux arbres citoyens" is a 2007 song recorded by French singer Yannick Noah. It was his second single from his successful album Charango, on which it features as third track, his 12th single overall. Released on February 2007, the song became a hit in France, where it was Noah's first number-one hit, in Belgium; the song was written and the music composed by Christophe Battaglia and Cyril Tarquiny. The title refers to the line Aux armes, citoyens! in the chorus of La Marseillaise but the words'aux armes' are replaced by'aux arbres', because the song deals with an ecological theme, explaining in the lyrics the need to mobilize to find solutions. The music video illustrates the lyrics; the song was included on many French compilations, such as Hit Connection – Best of 2007, NRJ Summer Hits Only 2007, Été 2007 and M6 Hits. On French TV show La Chanson de l'année, hosted by Flavie Flament on TF1 on 1 June 2007, "Aux arbres citoyens" was awarded "Song of the Year" thanks to an exclusive poll directed by the IFOP, among about 50 songs released in 2007.

In France, the single went straight to number-one on 17 February 2007, stayed there for three weeks. It totaled 12 weeks in the top ten and 20 weeks in the top 50, it fell off the chart after 26 weeks and is Noah's fourth biggest hit in France, behind "La Voix des Sages", "Saga Africa" and "Simon Papa Tara". The single entered the Belgian chart at No. 28 on 17 February 2007, climbed and peaked at No. 2 in its eighth and ninth week. It stayed for 12 weeks in the top ten and 26 weeks on the chart, becoming Noah's second longest chart trajectory for one of his singles in Belgium. CD single"Aux arbres citoyens" – 2:55 "Danser" – 3:00 "Aux arbres citoyens" Digital download"Aux arbres citoyens" – 3:18CD single – Promo"Aux arbres citoyens" – 2:55

Venecia, San Carlos

Venecia is the name of the district number 5 of the Canton of San Carlos, which in turn belongs to the province of Alajuela in Costa Rica. It is located in the northern region of borders with 2 districts. While at the border with the cantons of Rio Cuarto to the east and Valverde Vega to the south, its head, the town of Venecia, is located 26.8 Km to the NW of Ciudad Quesada and 80.4 Km to the NW of San José the capital of the nation. Venecia has an area of 145.19 km ². It is located at an elevation of 200 to 2100 meters above sea level, it is bathed by numerous rivers. The district has 9 638 inhabitants. Venecia has eight population centers: Venecia Marsella San Cayetano Pueblo Viejo Los Alpes Buenos Aires Las Brisas La Unión Farmers and ranchers use the waters of the surrounding rivers to produce. Tourist lodging and food services are offered for those. Venecia, the head, has health services, restaurants and supermarkets. Canton of San Carlos District of Quesada District of Florencia District of Buenavista District of Aguas Zarcas District of Pital District of La Fortuna District of La Tigra District of La Palmera District of Venado District of Cutris District of Monterrey District of Pocosol List of districts of Costa Rica National Institute of Statistics and Censuses Municipality of San Carlos