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Sinicization

Sinicization, sinofication, or sinification, or sinonization is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture Han Chinese culture, societal norms, ethnic identity. Areas of influence include diet, industry, language, lifestyle, philosophy, religion and technology, value systems. More broadly, "Sinicization" may refer to policies of acculturation, assimilation, or cultural imperialism imposed by China onto neighboring East Asian countries, minority ethnic groups inside China. Evidence of this can be seen in the value systems, architectural style, lexicons; this is reflected in the histories of Japan and Vietnam for example, in the adoption of the Chinese writing system as the script of the Han Chinese has long been a unifying feature in the Sinosphere as the vehicle for exporting Chinese culture to these Asian countries. The integration or assimilation policy is a type of nationalism aimed at strengthening of the Chinese identity among the population. Proponents believe integration will help to develop shared values, pride in being the country’s citizen and acceptance towards cultural differences among citizens of China.

Critics argue that integration destroys ethnic diversity, language diversity, cultural diversity. Analogous to North America with 300 Native American languages and distinct ethnic groups. There are a number of immigrant languages, such as Khmer, English, etc. Before sinicization, non-Chinese indigenous peoples of Southern China, collectively termed by the Chinese as Baiyue inhabited the coastline of China from as far north as the Yangtze River to as far south as the Gulf of Tonkin. Analysis of DNA recovered from human remains shows high frequencies of Haplogroup O1 in Liangzhu culture linking this culture to modern Austronesian populations, it is believed that Liangzhu culture was the ancestral homeland of Proto-Austronesian populations before they spread to Taiwan, Southeast Asia. Over time, the southward spread of Han Chinese led to the sinicization of most of the Baiyue populations that remained in Southern China, whether in the Yangtze Valley or in coastal areas from the mouth of the Yangtze to the Gulf of Tonkin.

The remnants of these peoples who were not sinicized are now recognized as the ethnic minorities of the PRC. Descendants of Uyghurs who migrated to Taoyuan County, Hunan have assimilated into the Han Chinese and Hui population and practice Chinese customs, speaking varieties of Chinese as their language. During the 8th and 9th centuries in the Tang dynasty, Chinese male soldiers moved into Guizhou and married native non-Chinese women, their descendants being known as Lao-han-jen, in contrast to new Chinese people who colonized Guizhou at times, they still spoke an archaic dialect as of 1929. Many immigrants to Guizhou were descended from these soldiers in garrisons who married non-Chinese women; the Mongol Yuan dynasty appointed a Muslim from Bukhara, Ajall Shams al-Din Omar, as governor of Yunnan after conquering the Bai Kingdom of Dali. Sayyid Ajjall promoted Sinicization and Confucianization of the non-Han Chinese peoples in Yunnan during his reign. Sayyid Ajall founded a "Chinese style" city where modern Kunming is today, called Zhongjing Cheng.

He ordered that a Buddhist temple, a Confucian temple, two mosques be built in the city. Advocating Confucianism was part of his policy; the Confucian temple that Sayyid Ajall built in 1274, which doubled as a school, was the first Confucian temple to be built in Yunnan. Both Confucianism and Islam were promoted by Sayyid Ajall in his "civilizing mission" during his time in Yunnan. Sayyid Ajall viewed Yunnan as "backward and barbarian" and utilized Confucianism and Buddhism for "civilizing" the area. In Yunnan, the widespread presence of Islam is credited to Sayyid Ajall's work. Sayyid Ajall was first to bring Islam to Yunnan, he promoted Islam by ordering construction of mosques and temples of Confucianism. Sayyid Ajall introduced Confucian education into Yunnan, he was described as making'the orangutans and butcherbirds become unicorns and phoenixes and their felts and furs were exchanged for gowns and caps', praised by the Regional Superintendent of Confucian studies, He Hongzuo. Shams al-Din constructed numerous Confucian temples in Yunnan, promoted Confucian education.

He is best known among Chinese for helping sinicize Yunnan province. He built multiple mosques in Yunnan. Sayyid Ajall introduced Confucian rituals and traditions to Yunnan, including Chinese social structures, Chinese funeral rituals and Chinese marriage customs; the aim of Sayyid Ajall's policy of promoting Confucianism and education in Yunnan was to "civilize" the native "barbarians". Confucian rituals were taught to students in newly founded schools by Sichuanese scholars, Confucian temples were built; the natives of Yunnan were instructed in Confucian ceremonies like weddings, funerals, ancestor worship, kowtow by Sayyid Ajall. The native leaders has their "barbarian" clothing replaced by clothing given to them by Sayyid Ajall. Both Marco Polo and Rashid al-Din Vatvat recorded that Yunnan was populated by Muslims during the Yuan Dynasty, with Rashid naming a city with all Muslim inhabitants as the'great city of Yachi', it has been suggested. Dali had many Hui Muslim people. Sayyid Ajall's son Nasir al-Din became Governor of Yunnan in 1279 after his death.

The historian Jacqueline Armijo-Hussein has written on Sayyid Ajall's Confucianiza

N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar

Diwan Bahadur Sir Narasimha Ayyangar Gopalaswami Ayyangar, CSI, CIE, Member of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution, was a leader of the Rajya Sabha and a cabinet minister in the Government of India, first as a minister without portfolio but looking after Kashmir Affairs, as the railway minister. In his Kashmir Affairs role, he represented India at the United Nations Security Council and drafted the Article 370 of the Indian Constitution that granted autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir. Gopalaswami Ayyangar was born on 31 March 1882 in Tanjore District Madras Presidency, he studied at the Wesley School, at the Presidency and Law Colleges in Madras, for a short period in 1904, he was an Assistant Professor in Pachaiyappa's College. In 1905, Ayyangar joined the Madras Civil Service, he served as a Deputy Collector till 1919, was promoted Collector and District Magistrate in 1920. He was Registrar-General of Panchayats and Inspector of Local Boards for seven years from 1921. During this time many village panchayats were organized in Ramnad and Guntur.

For three years he was Collector and District Magistrate in Anantapur. Following that he was Inspector of Municipal Councils and Local Boards till 1932. Mr. Ayyangar served as Secretary to Government in the Public Works Department from 1932 to 1934, he served as a member of the Board of Revenue till 1937. The second phase of his career was devoted to politics, he was Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir from 1937-1943 and was appointed Council of State from 1943-1947. During that time he was Chairman of the Committee for the Indianisation of Army. From 1947-1948 he served as Minister without Portfolio in the first cabinet under Jawaharlal Nehru; this was followed by his sojourn as Minister of Railways and Transport from 1948-1952, he served as Defence Minister from 1952-1953. Ayyangar's political career gained prominence during his tenure as Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir. In 1946, Ayyangar was elected to the Constituent Assembly of India, which convened in December 1946 with Jawaharlal Nehru as its president.

Ayyangar was appointed to the thirteen-member Drafting Committee that formulated the Indian Constitution. Soon after the accession of Jammu and Kashmir in October 1947, Nehru appointed Ayyangar as a cabinet minister without portfolio and asked him to look after Kashmir affairs, while Nehru himself held the overall charge for Kashmir; the move caused frictions with the home minister Vallabhbhai Patel, who should have been responsible for Kashmir along with all other princely states. Ayyangar led the delegation representing India in the United Nations over the Kashmir dispute in 1948. In 1952, Prime Minister Nehru appointed him as India's representative in the ongoing negotiations and discussions about Kashmir at the Geneva talks. Ayyangar was the chief drafter of Article 370 which granted local autonomy to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. During his tenure as Minister for Railways and Transport from 1948–52, the railways experienced considerable growth and expansion in services and equipment, he was the main architect in the regrouping of the Indian Railways into six zonal systems - Central, Northern, North-eastern and Western.

Under his leadership, the operation of the railways was productive. The railway budget reported surplus earnings at this time. In 1949, he presented his report on the "Reorganization of the Government Machinery" in an effort to streamline government services and maintain efficiency in the public sphere, he recommended the establishment of four standing committees, and, as a result of this report, the Defence Committee, the Economic Committee, the Parliamentary and Legal Affairs Committee, the AdHoc Administrative Organization Committee were formed by the Union government. Ayyangar died in Madras at the age of 71 on 10 February 1953, was survived by his wife, a son, G. Parthasarathy, Assistant Editor of The Hindu, a daughter. A distinguished administrator and a civil servant, Ayyangar held seven titles until 1947 including the title of Diwan Bahadur, the highest title awarded by a British viceroy. Other titles conferred on him by the British government were a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire in the 1935 Silver Jubilee and Birthday Honours list, a Companion of the Order of the Star of India in the 1937 Coronation Honours list and a knighthood in 1941 New Year Honours list.

Media related to Narasimha Gopalaswami Ayyangar at Wikimedia Commons

Königstein Railway

The Königstein Railway is a 1902 opened, single-track and non-electrified secondary railway line that connects the town of Königstein im Taunus with the city of Frankfurt am Main on the southern edge of the Taunus in the German state of Hesse. The Regionalbahn line, called the K-Bahn from 1989 to 1995, now runs from Koenigstein via Frankfurt-Höchst station as timetable route 646 to Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof; the line consists of a single track, but there are passing loops at the stations of Liederbach and Hornau as well as at the end stations. In Höchst, the railway leaves the railway embankment used by the S-Bahn and branches off to the northwest, soon reaching its last stop in the Frankfurt city area at Frankfurt-Unterliederbach, which used to be classified as a Bahnhof, but it has since been reduced to a Haltepunkt. After the railway passes under an autobahn bridge, it reaches the first station in the Main-Taunus-Kreis, Liederbach Süd; this new halt serves in particular the commercial area of the community.

This is followed by Liederbach station, located on the border of the two districts of Oberliederbach and Niederhofheim and provides the first crossing opportunity after Höchst. Prior to the incorporation of the two districts into Liederbach, the station was called Niederhofheim-Oberliederbach; the second track is used, such as during delays. After running through fields and meadows, the railway reaches the halt of Münster the centre of the town of Kelkheim, where train crossings takes place. Stopping times deviate from the usual symmetry minute, with the scheduled arrival times is both direction being at 11 and 41 minutes after each hour. Shortly the railway reaches Hornau station, where the signal box controlling the line is located; the Königstein Railway passes through the Kelkheim municipal forest and reaches the southern boundary of Königstein, the beginning of Hochtaunuskreis. After passing through the halt of Schneidhain and a turn to the east, the line reaches Königstein station and thus the end of the line.

The Hessische Landesbahn operates the Königstein Railway as part of the network of the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund, as RMV line 12 until 2019. To make the line more attractive, it now runs via the Taunus Railway between Frankfurt-Höchst and Frankfurter Hauptbahnhof, it now represents an important addition to the Rhine-Main S-Bahn. Its operating company, the Kleinbahn AG Höchst-Königstein gained a concession to build the Königstein Railway in 1901 as a Kleinbahn. Construction began at the Höchst am Main station on the Taunus Railway; the line was opened on 24 February 1902. On 17 November 1966, there was a heavy train crash on the line between Unterliederbach and Liederbach. While the train's driver had left to take a break, the three-car diesel multiple unit, waiting unattended in Kelkheim Hornau, started moving towards Frankfurt, because the parking brake had not been activated. Due to the gradient of the track, the train accelerated to well over 100 km/h. An attempt to derail the train in Kelkheim-Münster failed.

The railcar collided head-on with an oncoming passenger train at Oberliederbach. The driver and fireman of the steam locomotive saved themselves by jumping off. Seven passengers died and there were 80 injured in the accident; the dead included the only passenger on the driverless railcar. For unknown reasons, the twenty-two-year-old had not been able to pull the emergency brake to prevent the disaster, or at least alleviate its extent and save his life. Another train from Frankfurt was prevented from continuing towards Liederbach just in time. From 1989 to 1995, the line had the brand name of K-Bahn, despite its short lifespan, is still used today. In addition, the former light railway was highlighted on the line map of the former Frankfurter Verkehrsverbund with its own colour. In 1993, when the branch line operated by the FKE under the name of Taunus Railway was revived and it was given the brand name of T-Bahn. In 1995, the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund was founded, thus ending the short history of the K and T-Bahns.

Both were named using the uniform RMV numbering scheme. At the beginning of November 2014, it was announced that the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund and Alstom had agreed to use new railcars with fuel cell propulsion on the lines of the Taunus network from 2018 at the earliest. Schomann, Heinz. Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Hessen. Eisenbahnbauten und -strecken 1839–1939. Darmstadt: Konrad Theiss Verlag. ISBN 3-8062-1917-6. Fink, Jochen. Frankfurt-Königstein. Ein Jahrhundert Nahverkehr im Taunus. Munich: GeraMond. ISBN 3-7654-7196-8

Extrasensory Perception (book)

Extrasensory Perception is a 1934 book written by parapsychologist Joseph Banks Rhine, which discusses his research work at Duke University. Extrasensory perception is the ability to acquire information shielded from the senses, the book was "of such a scope and of such promise as to revolutionize psychical research and to make its title a household phrase"; the book received worldwide attention and became the focus of criticism and controversy when some objections were raised about the validity of Rhine's work. The parapsychology experiments described by Rhine received much criticism from academics and others who challenged the concepts and evidence of ESP. A number of psychological departments attempted to repeat Rhine's experiments with failure. W. S. Cox from Princeton University with 132 subjects produced 25,064 trials in a playing card ESP experiment. Cox concluded "There is no evidence of extrasensory perception either in the'average man' or of the group investigated or in any particular individual of that group.

The discrepancy between these results and those obtained by Rhine is due either to uncontrollable factors in experimental procedure or to the difference in the subjects."Four other psychological departments failed to replicate Rhine's results. Rhine's experiments were discredited due to the discovery that sensory leakage or cheating could account for all his results such as the subject being able to read the symbols from the back of the cards and being able to see and hear the experimenter to note subtle clues. In response, Rhine published Extrasensory Perception After Sixty Years in 1940 with a number of colleagues, to address the objections raised. However, critics have written the experiments described by Rhine and his colleagues contained methodological flaws. In the book Rhine and his colleagues described three experiments the Pearce-Pratt experiment, the Pratt-Woodruff experiment and the Ownbey-Zirkle series which they believed demonstrated ESP; the psychologist C. E. M. Hansel wrote "it is now known that each experiment contained serious flaws that escaped notice in the examination made by the authors of Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years".

Joseph Gaither Pratt was the co-experimenter in the Pearce-Pratt and Pratt-Woodruff experiments at the Duke campus. Hansel visited the campus where the experiments took place and discovered the results could have originated through the use of a trick so could not be regarded as supplying evidence for ESP; the Ownbey-Zirkle ESP experiment at Duke was criticized by skeptics. Ownbey would attempt to send ESP symbols to Zirkle; the pair were placed in adjacent rooms unable to see each other and an electric fan was used to prevent the pair communicating by sensory cues. Ownbey tapped a telegraph key to Zirkle to inform him; the door separating the two rooms was open during the experiment, after each guess Zirkle would call out his guess to Ownbey who recorded his choice. Critics pointed out the experiment was flawed as Ownbey acted as both the sender and the experimenter, nobody was controlling the experiment so Ownbey could have cheated by communicating with Zirkle or made recording mistakes. Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind, book by J. B.

Rhine and J. G. Pratt

Winterton-on-Sea

Winterton-on-Sea is a village and civil parish on the coast of Norfolk, England. It is 19 mi east of Norwich; the civil parish has an area of 2.2 sq mi and in the 2001 census had a population of 1,359 in 589 households. Winterton-on-Sea borders the villages of Hemsby and Somerton. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of Great Yarmouth. Between the village and the North Sea are the Winterton Dunes which include a 109 hectare National Nature Reserve and are inhabited by several notable species such as the natterjack toad. Winterton-on-Sea has received awards on several occasions in the Anglia in Bloom competition, it has been described as "a pleasant place to spend a holiday" and "one of the great natural beauty-spots of Norfolk". The coast near the village has a sandy beach; the village has a pub and a post office. There has been a church since Anglo-Saxon times; some historians believe it was the seasonal "tun", meaning settlement, of farmers from East Somerton who were fishermen during the winter.

By Norman times it had become a separate village. Winterton-on-Sea is recorded in the Domesday Book as Wintretuna. A glossy black erratic boulder the size of a large pig is located in The Lane close to the junction with Back Street; the stone was moved in 1931, this led to riots. In the following year it was moved to its present location; the church, Holy Trinity and All Saints dates back to the 16th century and is 132 feet tall. The lean-to chapel north of the chancel is from the 13th century and could have been an anchorite's cell but is more to have been an early example of a vestry or sacristry; the porch dates from about 1459. The hazardous nature of the coastline at Winterton-on-Sea is marked by its lighthouse whose history extends from James I to the First World War; the Fisherman's Return, a brick and flint public house, dates from the end of the 17th century. In the late 18th century marram grass was planted to stabilise the coastline against sea encroachments, by the early 19th century there was a barrier of dunes between high water mark and the ridge on which the lighthouse stood, leaving a valley between.

Edward Fawcett was a Winterton fisherman. He sailed with Captain James Clark Ross on HMS Erebus' exploration of the Antarctic as boatswain's mate, he was not on Erebus when it made its fatal Arctic voyage under Sir John Franklin, but took part in one of the attempted rescues in HMS Investigator as part of the McClure Arctic Expedition and was in the first group of people to travel through the North West Passage. The crew of Investigator were trapped for three years in the pack ice before making contact via sledging expeditions with HMS Resolute and abandoning their ship. Resolute was in turn trapped in the ice and abandoned, the survivors marched across the ice to Beechey Island from where other ships returned them home. Fawcett spent his retirement in Winterton. Timbers from Resolute were made into the Resolute desk used in the White House Oval Office by American presidents. Between 1851 and 1861 a number of Winterton families migrated south to Caister-on-Sea. Many of those families joined the Caister Beachmen and founded arguably the basis of the modern Lifeboat service.

The most notable of these men was James Haylett. During World War II, anti-invasion defences were constructed around Winterton-on-Sea, they included a number of pillboxes. The beaches were protected with unusually extensive barriers of scaffolding and large numbers of anti-tank cubes. Daniel Defoe mentions the village in Robinson Crusoe and A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, published in 1719 and from 1724 respectively. In 1864 the novelist Wilkie Collins visited the village while preparing his novel Armadale and met Martha Rudd, who became his common-law wife, he was an admirer of Daniel Defoe, in particular of Robinson Crusoe, referred to many times in his subsequent novel The Moonstone, wanted to explore the area where the character was shipwrecked. The author and communist Sylvia Townsend Warner, one of the Bright Young Things of the 1920s stayed with Valentine Ackland at Hill House and they both wrote poetry inspired by the Winterton beach and dunes. From the mid 1950s to the early 1970s Leslie Davenport, a member of the Norwich Twenty Group of painters, led up to 200 artists and musicians living on the beach and dunes for six weeks every summer.

In 1956, at 78 years old, the fisherman Sam Larner was discovered as a folk singer. His performances were broadcast, he performed at music venues in London, a record was published. There is a blue plaque on his cottage. Winterton Lighthouse Winterton Dunes Winterton Ness Blood Hill wind farm Information from Genuki Norfolk on Winterton-on-Sea. Winterton-on-Sea village website https://wintertononsea.co.uk/village/in-bloom.html http://wintertononsea.co.uk/village/church.html http://www.norfolkcoast.co.uk/location_norfolk/vp_wintertononsea.htm http://www.wintertononsea.co.uk/ WintertonOnSea.co.uk - About the village, accommodation & village news https://wintertononsea.co.uk/whats-on.html Literary connections of Winterton

They Look Like People

They Look Like People is a 2015 independent psychological horror film, shot, written and directed by Perry Blackshear and marks his feature film directorial debut. It had its world premiere on January 25, 2015 at the Slamdance Film Festival where it won a special jury award, it stars MacLeod Andrews as a man who believes that humanity is being secretly taken over by evil creatures. Close friends Wyatt and Christian reunite in New York City, where Christian invites Wyatt to stay at his apartment. Wyatt has withdrawn into himself, having broken up with his fiancee, while Christian, who lost his girlfriend, attempts to counter his insecurities with bodybuilding and aggressive machismo; as the two old friends bond, Christian invites Wyatt along on the date he has with his supervisor, calling ahead and asking Mara to invite her friend. Wyatt and Christian arrive to find that Mara's friend Sandy has injured herself. Wyatt recommends she go to the hospital. Wyatt and Mara spend the evening in the waiting room until Sandy's release, Mara gratefully thanks Christian for staying.

As Christian walks Mara to the subway, he fails to take the initiative to kiss her goodnight. Wyatt reassures Christian that Mara is still interested in him despite the ending. After Christian falls asleep, Wyatt receives an anonymous phone call, where a muddled voice tells him he only has time to save himself, he must leave the city and prepare for the demonic invasion. Wyatt confers with a psychiatrist about his fears of psychosis, but cuts the session short when he becomes convinced the psychiatrist himself is possessed by demons. Mara and Christian continue seeing each other. Wyatt receives subsequent phone calls, this time in Mara's voice, alerting him to ominous signs of the apocalypse and the nature of the demons how they infect humans. Wyatt stockpiles weapons in Christian's cellar and alternately contemplates both suicide and the murder of passersby he believes to be possessed. With his newfound assertiveness, Christian believes himself to be in line for a raise, only for Mara to reveal that he has been fired.

A note on his computer, signed by his coworkers, accuses him of being an asshole. Christian returns home to find Wyatt waiting for him. Before he can say anything, Mara visits. At first angry, Christian invites her in; the three chat amicably, Christian leaves to get a specific tea Mara wanted. Wyatt takes her downstairs to show his weapon stash. Wyatt asks her for further information on the demonic invasion; when Mara realizes Wyatt's seriousness, she flees the house. Christian returns, disappointed that she left, Wyatt becomes agitated and rants about the coming demonic invasion. Christian calms Wyatt down and sets him up with a psychiatrist, the same one Christian went to when he attempted suicide. Wyatt accosts Mara, trying to apologize, she lashes out in self-defense, injuring Wyatt. Out of remorse, Mara helps him clean up. Wyatt finds Christian preparing to join the army to conquer his insecurities. Wyatt instead convinces him to prepare for the coming apocalypse. Christian agrees, as long; as Wyatt sees omens of the apocalypse, he instead insists they barricade the basement.

To show his trust in Wyatt, Christian allows himself to be gagged in case he is possessed. On the hour of the apocalypse, Wyatt becomes convinced Christian is possessed and prepares to kill him as he watches Christian transform. At the last moment, Wyatt realizes he is hallucinating, recognizing Christian as human, frees him; the two embrace, Christian remarks that he has conquered his insecurities by facing death. MacLeod Andrews as Wyatt Evan Dumouchel as Christian Margaret Ying Drake as Mara Mick Casale as Psychiatrist Elena Greenlee as Sandy The film holds an approval rating of 92% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 11 reviews, with an average rating of 7.46/10. Horror websites Fangoria and Dread Central both wrote positive reviews for the film. Film School Rejects praised the film for its treatment of mental illness, commenting, "It's rare to find a genre film that takes the time to explore the human behind the madness while still providing thrills". Screen Anarchy and SciFiNow gave the film positive reviews, both felt the actors and the director were highlights.

Official website They Look Like People on IMDb