The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria as the Islamic State and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh, is a Salafi jihadist militant group and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi doctrine of Sunni Islam. ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre; the group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations and many individual countries. ISIL is known for its videos of beheadings and other types of executions of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, its destruction of cultural heritage sites; the United Nations holds ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes. ISIL committed ethnic cleansing on an historic scale in northern Iraq. ISIL originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda and participated in the Iraqi insurgency following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces at the behest of the United States.
In June 2014 the group proclaimed itself a worldwide caliphate and began referring to itself as the Islamic State. As a caliphate, it claimed religious and military authority over all Muslims worldwide, its adoption of the name Islamic State and its idea of a caliphate have been criticised, with the United Nations, various governments and mainstream Muslim groups rejecting its statehood. In Syria, the group conducted ground attacks on both government forces and opposition factions and by December 2015, it held a large area extending from western Iraq to eastern Syria, containing an estimated 8 to 12 million people, where it enforced its interpretation of sharia law. ISIL is believed to be operational in 18 countries across the world, including Afghanistan and Pakistan, with "aspiring branches" in Mali, Somalia, Bangladesh and the Philippines. In 2015, ISIL was estimated to have an annual budget of more than US$1 billion and a force of more than 30,000 fighters. In July 2017, the group lost control of Mosul, to the Iraqi army.
Following this major defeat, ISIL continued to lose territory to the various states and other military forces allied against it, until it controlled no meaningful territory by November 2017. U. S. military officials and simultaneous military analyses reported in December 2017 that the group retained a mere 2 percent of the territory they had held. On 10 December 2017, Iraq's Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi said that Iraqi forces had driven the last remnants of Islamic State from the country, three years after the militant group captured about a third of Iraq's territory. By 23 March 2019, ISIL lost one of their last significant territories in the Middle East, surrendering their "tent city" and pockets in Al-Baghuz Fawqani near the end of the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani. In April 2013, having expanded into Syria, the group adopted the name ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām; as al-Shām is a region compared with the Levant or Greater Syria, the group's name has been variously translated as "Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham", "Islamic State of Iraq and Syria", or "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant".
While the use of either one or the other acronym has been the subject of debate, the distinction between the two and its relevance has been considered not so great. Of greater relevance is the name Daesh, an acronym of ISIL's Arabic name al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī l-ʻIrāq wa-sh-Shām. Dāʿish, or Daesh; this name has been used by ISIL's Arabic-speaking detractors, although – and to a certain extent because – it is considered derogatory, as it resembles the Arabic words Daes and Dāhis. Within areas under its control, ISIL considers use of the name Daesh punishable by flogging or cutting out the tongue. In late June 2014, the group renamed itself ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah, declaring itself a worldwide caliphate; the name "Islamic State" and the group's claim to be a caliphate have been rejected, with the UN, various governments, mainstream Muslim groups refusing to use the new name. The group's declaration of a new caliphate in June 2014 and its adoption of the name "Islamic State" have been criticised and ridiculed by Muslim scholars and rival Islamists both inside and outside the territory it controls.
In a speech in September 2014, United States President Barack Obama said that ISIL was neither "Islamic" nor was it a "state", while many object to using the name "Islamic State" owing to the far-reaching religious and political claims to authority which that name implies. The United Nations Security Council, the United States, Turkey, Russia, the United Kingdom and other countries call the group "ISIL", while much of the Arab world uses the Arabic acronym "Dāʻish". France's Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said "This is a terrorist group and not a state. I do not recommend using the term Islamic State because it blurs the lines between Islam and Islamists; the Arabs call it'Daesh' and I will be calling them the'Daesh cutthroats.'" Retired general John Allen, the U. S. envoy appointed to co-ordinate the coalition. S. Army Lieutenant General James Terry, head of operations against the group.
Arabization or Arabisation is either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arabic and Islamic culture influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of the culture Islamic or Arab identity. Elements of Arabian origin were combined in various forms with elements from conquered regions and denominated "Arab". Arabization continued in modern times, most prominently being enforced by the Arab nationalist regimes of Iraq, Sudan, Mauritania and Libya and enforcement of Arab identity and culture upon non-Arab populations, in particular by means of not permitting autochthonous mother tongues other than Arabic in education. After the rise of Islam in the Hejaz, the Arabic culture and language were spread outside the Arabian peninsula through conquest and intermarriages between members of the non-Arab local population and the peninsular Arabs; the Arabic language began to serve as a lingua franca in these dialects were formed.
Although Yemen is traditionally held to be the homeland of the Arabs, most of the Yemeni population in fact did not speak Old Arabic prior to the spread of Islam, but instead South Semitic languages. The influence of Arabic has been profound in many other countries whose cultures have been influenced by Islam. Arabic was a major source of vocabulary for various languages; this process reached its zenith between the 10th and 14th centuries, the high point of Arab culture, although many Arabic words have since fallen out of use, many still remain. After Alexander the Great, the Nabataean kingdom emerged and ruled a region extending from north of Arabia to the south of Syria; the former originating from the Arabian peninsula, who came under the influence of the earlier Aramaic culture, the neighbouring Hebrew culture of the Hasmonean kingdom, as well as the Hellenistic cultures in the region. The pre-modern Arabic language was created by Nabateans, who developed the Nabataean alphabet which became the basis of modern Arabic script.
The Nabataean language, under heavy Arab influence, amalgamated into the Arabic language. The Arab Ghassanids were the last major non-Islamic Semitic migration northward out of Yemen in late classic era, they were Greek Orthodox Christian, clients of the Byzantine Empire. They arrived in Byzantine Syria which had a Aramean population, they settled in the Hauran region spreading to modern Lebanon and Jordan securing governorship of parts of Syria and Transjordan away from the Nabataeans. The Arab Lakhmid Kingdom was founded by the Lakhum tribe that emigrated from Yemen in the 2nd century and ruled by the Banu Lakhm, hence the name given it, they adopted the religion of the Church of the East, founded in Assyria/Asōristān, opposed to the Ghassanids Greek Orthodox Christianity, were clients of the Sasanian Empire. The Byzantines and Sasanians used the Ghassanids and Lakhmids to fight proxy wars in Arabia against each other; the earliest and most significant instance of "Arabization" was the first Muslim conquests of Muhammad and the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates.
They built a Muslim Empire that grew well beyond the Arabian Peninsula reaching as far as Spain in the West and Central Asia to the East. Old South Arabian was driven to extinction by the Islamic expansion, being replaced by Classical Arabic, written with the Arabic script; the South Arabian alphabet, used to write it fell out of use. A separate branch of south semitic, the Modern South Arabian languages still survive today as spoken languages. Although Yemen is traditionally held to be the homeland of Arabs, most of the sedentary Yemeni population did not speak Arabic prior to the spread of Islam; the sedentary people of pre-Islamic Eastern Arabia were Aramaic speakers and to some degree Persian speakers, while Syriac functioned as a liturgical language. According to Serjeant, the indigenous Bahrani people are the Arabized "descendants of converts from the original population of Christians and ancient Persians inhabiting the island and cultivated coastal provinces of Eastern Arabia at the time of the Arab conquest".
In pre-Islamic times, the population of eastern Arabia consisted of Christianized Arabs, Aramean agriculturalists and, Persian-speaking Zoroastrians. Zorastarianism was one of the major religions of pre-Islamic eastern Arabia. After the rise of Islam, the Arab tribes unified under the banner of Islam and conquered modern Jordan, Palestine and Syria; however before the emergence of Islam, the Levant was a home for several pre-Islamic Arabian kingdoms. The Nabateans kingdom of Petra, based in Jordan, the Ghassanids kingdom, based in the Syrian desert; some of these kingdoms were under the indirect influence of the Romans and the Persian Sassanids. The Nabateans transcript developed in Petra was the base for the current Arabic transcript while the Arab heritage is full of poetry recording the wars between the Ghassanids and Lakhmids Arabian tribes in Syria. In the 7th century, after the dominance of Arab Muslims within a few years, the major garrison towns developed into the major cities; the local Arabic and Aramaic speaking population, which shared a close Semitic linguistic/genetic ancestry with the Qahtani and Adnani Arabs, was somewhat Arabized.
The indigenous Assyrians resisted Arabization in Upper Mesopotamia, The Assyrians of the nort
The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria referred to as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northeastern Syria. It consists of self-governing sub-regions in the areas of Afrin, Euphrates, Tabqa and Deir Ez-Zor; the region gained its de facto autonomy in 2012 in the context of the ongoing Rojava conflict and the wider Syrian Civil War, where its official military force, the Syrian Democratic Forces has taken part. While entertaining some foreign relations, the region is not recognized as autonomous by the government of Syria or any international state or organization. Northeastern Syria is polyethnic and home to sizeable ethnic Kurdish and Assyrian populations, with smaller communities of ethnic Turkmen and Chechens; the supporters of the region argue that it is an secular polity with direct democratic ambitions based on a libertarian socialist ideology promoting decentralization, gender equality, environmental sustainability and pluralistic tolerance for religious and political diversity, that these values are mirrored in its constitution and politics, claiming it to be a model for a federalized Syria as a whole, rather than outright independence.
Some of the criticism against the region has included claims of authoritarianism, forced recruitment, the imprisonment and harassment of dissidents and journalists, the promotion of a radical anti-capitalist ideology, influence from the militant Kurdistan Workers' Party. Much of northern Syria is regarded by Kurdish nationalists as Western Kurdistan or Rojava, one of the four parts of Greater Kurdistan, parts of northeastern Syria are considered by Syriac-Assyrians as Gozarto, part of the historical Assyrian homeland. On 17 March 2016, its de facto administration self-declared the establishment of a federal system of government as the Democratic Federation of Rojava – Northern Syria; the updated December 2016 constitution of the polity uses the name Democratic Federation of Northern Syria. Since 6 September 2018, the Syrian Democratic Council has adopted a new name for the region, naming it the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, encompassing the Euphrates and Jazira regions as well as the local civil councils in the regions of Raqqa, Manbij and Deir ez-Zor.
The region's administration is sometimes referred to as the "Democratic Autonomous Administration". The region lies to the west of the Tigris along the Turkish border and borders Iraqi Kurdistan to the southeast; the region is at latitude 36°30' north and consists of plains and low hills, however there are some mountains in the region such as Mount Abdulaziz as well as the western part of the Sinjar Mountain Range in the Jazira Region. In terms of governorates of Syria, the region is formed from parts of the al-Hasakah, Deir ez-Zor and the Aleppo governorates. Northern Syria is part of the Fertile Crescent, includes archaeological sites dating to the Neolithic, such as Tell Halaf. In antiquity, the area was part of the Mitanni kingdom, its centre being the Khabur river valley in modern-day Jazira Region, it was part of Assyria, with the last surviving Assyrian imperial records, from between 604 BC and 599 BC, were found in and around the Assyrian city of Dūr-Katlimmu. It was ruled by the Achaemenids, Artaxiads, Parthians, Sasanians and successive Arab Islamic caliphates.
Kurdish settlement in Syria goes back to before the Crusades of the 11th century. A number of Kurdish military and feudal settlements from before this period have been found in Syria; such settlements have been found in the Alawite and north Lebanese mountains and around Hama and its surroundings. The Crusade fortress of Krak des Chevaliers, known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad, was a Kurdish military settlement before it was enlarged by the French Crusaders; the Kurd-Dagh has been inhabited by Kurds for more than a millennium. In the 12th century and other Muslim regiments accompanied Saladin, a Kurd from Tikrit, on his conquest of the Middle East and establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty, administered from Damascus; the Kurdish regiments that accompanied Saladin established self-ruled areas around Damascus. These settlements evolved into the Kurdish sections of Damascus of Hayy al-Akrad and the Salhiyya districts located in the north-east of Damascus on Mount Qasioun; the Kurdish community’s role in the military continued under the Ottomans.
Kurdish soldiers and policemen from the city were tasked with both maintaining order and protecting the pilgrims’ route toward Mecca. Many Kurds from Syria’s rural hinterland joi
Nusaybin is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey. The population of the city is 83,832 as of 2009; the population is predominantly Kurdish, Sunni as well as Yezidi, but a small Christian community can be found. With a history going back nearly 3,000 years, Nusaybin was settled by various groups. First mentioned as an Aramean settlement Naşibīna in 901 BCE, it was captured by Assyria in 896 BCE. In the 4th and 5th centuries CE it was one of the great centers of Syriac scholarship, along with nearby Edessa. First mentioned in 901 BCE, Naşibīna was an Aramaean kingdom captured by the Assyrian king Adad-Nirari II in 896. By 852 BCE, Naṣibina had been annexed to the Neo-Assyrian Empire and appeared in the Assyrian Eponym List as the seat of an Assyrian provincial governor named Shamash-Abua, it remained part of the Assyrian Empire until its collapse in 608 BCE. It was under Babylonian control until 536 BCE, when it fell to the Achaemenid Persians, remained so until taken by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE.
The Seleucids refounded the city as Antiochia Mygdonia, mentioned for the first time in Polybius' description of the march of Antiochus III the Great against Molon. Greek historian Plutarch suggested. Around the 1st century CE, Nisibis was the home of Judah ben Bethera, who founded a famous yeshiva there. Like many other cities in the marches where Roman and Parthian powers confronted one another, Nisibis was taken and retaken: it was captured by Lucullus after a long siege from the brother of Tigranes. Lost in 194, it was again conquered by Septimius Severus, who made it his headquarters and re-established a colony there; the last battle between Rome and Parthia was fought in the vicinity of the city in 217. With the fresh energy of the new Sassanid dynasty, Shapur I conquered Nisibis, was driven out, returned in the 260s. In 298, by a treaty with Narseh, the province of Nisibis was acquired by the Roman Empire. Nisibis had an Assyrian Christian bishop from 300, founded by Babu. War was begun again by Shapur II in 337, who besieged the city in 338, 346, 350, when St Jacob or James of Nisibis, Babu's successor, was its bishop.
Nisibis was the home of Ephrem the Syrian, who remained until its surrender to the Sassanid Persians by Roman Emperor Jovian in 363. The Roman historian of the 4th century, Ammianus Marcellinus, gained his first practical experience of warfare as a young man at Nisibis under the master of the cavalry, Ursicinus. From 360 to 363, Nisibis was the camp of Legio I Parthica; because of its strategic importance on the Persian border Nisibis was fortified. Ammianus lovingly calls Nisibis the "impregnable city" and "bulwark of the provinces". In 363 Nisibis was ceded back to the Persians after the defeat of Emperor Julian. Before that time the population of the town was forced by the Roman authorities to leave Nisibis and move to Amida. Emperor Jovian allowed them only three days for the evacuation. Historian Ammianus Marcellinus was again an eyewitness and condemns Emperor Jovian for giving up the fortified town without a fight. Marcellinus' point-of-view is in line with contemporary Roman public opinion.
The bishop of Nisibis was the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Ecclesiastical province of Bit-Arbaye. In 410 it had six suffragan sees and as early as the middle of the 5th century was the most important episcopal see of the Church of the East after Seleucia-Ctesiphon, many of its Nestorian, Assyrian Church of the East or Jacobite bishops were renowned for their writings: Barsumas, Narses and Ebed-Jesus. According to Al-Tabari some 12,000 Persians of good lineage from Istakhr and other regions settled at Nisibis in the 4th century, their descendants were still there at the beginning of the 7th century; the first theological and medical School of Nisibis, founded at the introduction of Christianity into the city by ethnic Assyrians of the Assyrian Church of the East, was closed when the province was ceded to the Persians. Ephrem the Syrian, an Assyrian poet, commentator and defender of orthodoxy, joined the general exodus of Christians and reestablished the school on more securely Roman soil at Edessa.
In the 5th century the school became a center of Nestorian Christianity, was closed down by Archbishop Cyrus in 489. Those that have been discovered and published belong to Osee, the successor of Barsauma in the See of Nisibis, bear the date 496. In 590 they were again modified; the monastery school was under a superior called Rabban, a title given to the instructors. The administration was confided to a majordomo, steward, prefect of discipline and librarian, but under the supervision of a council. Unlike the Jacobite schools, devoted chiefly to profane studies, the school of Nisibis was above all a school of theology; the two chief masters were the instructors in reading and in the interpretation of Holy Scripture, explained chiefly with the aid of Theodore
Noah's Ark is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative through which God spares Noah, his family, examples of all the world's animals from a world-engulfing flood. The story in Genesis is repeated, with variations, in the Quran, where the ark appears as Safina Nūḥ. Searches for Noah's Ark have been made from at least the time of Eusebius, believers in the Ark continue to search for it in modern times. Many searches have been mounted for the ark, but no confirmable physical proof of the ark has been found. There is no scientific evidence that Noah's Ark existed as it is described in the Bible, nor is there evidence in the geologic record for the biblical global flood; the structure of the ark are homologous with Temple worship. Accordingly, Noah's instructions are given to him by God: the ark is to be 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide, 30 cubits high; these dimensions are based on a numerological preoccupation with the number sixty, the same number characterising the vessel of the Babylonian flood-hero.
Its three internal divisions reflect the three-part universe imagined by the ancient Israelites: heaven, the earth, the underworld. Each deck is the same height as the Temple in Jerusalem, itself a microcosmic model of the universe, each is three times the area of the court of the tabernacle, leading to the suggestion that the author saw both ark and tabernacle as serving for the preservation of human life, it has a door in the side, a tsohar, which may be either a roof or a skylight. It is to be made of Gopher wood a word which appears nowhere else in the Bible - and divided into qinnim, a word which always refers to birds' nests elsewhere in the Bible, leading some scholars to emend this to qanim, reeds; the finished vessel is to be smeared with koper, meaning pitch or bitumen: in Hebrew the two words are related, kaparta... bakopper. For well over a century scholars have recognised that the Bible's story of Noah's ark is based on older Mesopotamian models; because all these flood stories deal with events that happened at the dawn of history, they give the impression that the myths themselves must come from primitive origins, but the myth of the global flood that destroys all life only begins to appear in the Old Babylonian period.
The reasons for this emergence of the typical Mesopotamian flood myth may have been bound up with the specific circumstances of the end of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BCE and the restoration of order by the First Dynasty of Isin. There are nine known versions of the Mesopotamian flood story, each more or less adapted from an earlier version. In the oldest version, inscribed in the Sumerian city of Nippur c.1600 BCE, the hero is King Ziusudra. This is known as the Sumerian Flood Story and derives from an earlier version; the Ziusudra version tells how he rescues life when the gods decide to destroy it. This remains the basic plot for several subsequent heroes, including Noah. Ziusudra's Sumerian name means "He of long life". In Babylonian versions his name is Atrahasis. In the Atrahasis version, the flood is a river flood; the version closest to the biblical story of Noah, as well as its most source, is that of Utnapishtim in the Epic of Gilgamesh. The most complete text of Utnapishtim's story is a clay tablet dating from the 7th century BCE, but fragments of the story have been found from as far back as the 19th century BCE.
The last known version of the Mesopotamian flood story was written in Greek in the 3rd century BCE by a Babylonian priest named Berossus. From the fragments that survive, it seems little changed from the versions of two thousand years before; the parallels between Noah's Ark and the arks of Babylonian flood-heroes Atrahasis and Utnapishtim have been noted. Atrahasis' ark was circular, resembling an enormous quffa, had one or two decks. Utnapishtim's ark was a cube and had six decks with seven compartments on each, each divided into nine subcompartments. Noah's Ark had three decks. There is believed to be a linear progression from circular to square to rectangular; the most striking similarity is the near-identical deck areas of the three arks: 14,400 cubits2, 14,400 cubits2, 15,000 cubits2 for Atrahasis', Utnapishtim's, Noah's ark, respectively. This has led professor Finkel to conclude that "the iconic story of the Flood and the Ark as we know it today originated in the landscape of ancient Mesopotamia, modern Iraq."Linguistic parallels between Noah's ark and the ark of the Babylonian flood-hero Atrahasis have been noted.
The word used for "pitch" in Genesis is not the normal Hebrew word, but is related to the word used in the Babylonian story. The Hebrew word for "ark" is nearly identical to the Babylonian word for an oblong boat given that "v" and "b" are the same letter in Hebrew: bet. However, the causes for God/gods having sent the flood differ. In the Hebrew myth the flood comes as God's judgment on a wicked humanity. In the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, the reasons are not given and the flood appears to be the result of the caprice of the gods. In the Atrahasis version of the Babylonian flood story, the flood was sent by the gods to reduce human over-population, after the flood, other measures were introduced to prevent the problem recurring. There is consensus among scholars that the Torah wa
In geology and related fields, a stratum is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy; each layer is one of a number of parallel layers that lie one upon another, laid down by natural processes. They may extend over hundreds of thousands of square kilometers of the Earth's surface. Strata are seen as bands of different colored or differently structured material exposed in cliffs, road cuts and river banks. Individual bands may vary in thickness from a few millimeters to a kilometer or more. A band may represent a specific mode of deposition: river silt, beach sand, coal swamp, sand dune, lava bed, etc. Geologists categorize them by the material of beds; each distinct layer is assigned to the name of sheet based on a town, mountain, or region where the formation is exposed and available for study.
For example, the Burgess Shale is a thick exposure of dark fossiliferous, shale exposed high in the Canadian Rockies near Burgess Pass. Slight distinctions in material in a formation may be described as "members". Formations are collected into "groups" while groups may be collected into "supergroups". Archaeological horizon Geologic formation Geologic map Geologic unit Law of superposition Bed GeoWhen Database