The Sino-Soviet split was the breaking of political relations between the People's Republic of China and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, caused by doctrinal divergences that arose from their different interpretations and practical applications of Marxism–Leninism, as influenced by their respective geopolitics during the Cold War. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Sino–Soviet debates about the interpretation of orthodox Marxism became specific disputes about the USSR's policies of national de-Stalinization and international peaceful coexistence with the Western world, which Mao decried as Marxist revisionism. Against that ideological background, China took a belligerent stance towards the West, publicly rejected the USSR's policy of peaceful coexistence between the Eastern bloc and the Western bloc. In addition, China resented the closer Soviet ties with India, Moscow feared Mao was too nonchalant about the horrors of nuclear war. In 1956, Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalin and Stalinism in the speech On the Cult of Personality and its Consequences and began the de-Stalinization of the USSR.
Mao and the Chinese leadership was appalled as the PRC and the USSR progressively diverged in their interpretations and applications of Marxism. By 1961, their intractable ideological differences provoked the PRC's formal denunciation of Soviet communism as the work of "revisionist traitors" in the USSR. For the countries of the Eastern Bloc, the Sino–Soviet split was a question of who would lead the revolution for world communism, to whom the vanguard parties of the world would turn for political advice, financial aid, military assistance: to China or to Russia? In that vein, the USSR and the PRC competed for the leadership of world communism through the vanguard parties native to the countries in their spheres of influence. In the Western world, the Sino–Soviet split transformed the bi-polar cold war into a tri-polar cold war, a geopolitical event as important as the erection of the Berlin Wall, the defusing of the Cuban Missile Crisis, the end of the Vietnam War, because the rivalry – between Chinese Stalinism and Russian coexistence – facilitated Mao's realisation of Sino–American rapprochement with the 1972 Nixon visit to China.
Moreover, the occurrence of the Sino–Soviet split voided the concept of Monolithic Communism, the Western perception that the communist nations were collectively a unitary actor in post–Second World War geopolitics during the 1947–1950 period in the Vietnam War, when the US intervened to the First Indochina War. The Sino–Soviet split facilitated the Marxist–Leninist Realpolitik with which Mao established the tri-polar geopolitics of the late-period Cold War as well as the quad-polar geopolitics until the Suez Crisis of 1956. In the course of the Second World War, the Communist Party of China and the nationalist Kuomintang party set aside their civil war in order to fight and expel Imperial Japan from China. To that end, the leader of the USSR, Joseph Stalin, ordered Mao Zedong, leader of the CPC, to co-operate with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the KMT, in fighting the Second Sino-Japanese War. Following the surrender of Japan, the CPC and the KMT resumed their civil war, which the communists won.
At war's end, Stalin advised Mao to not seize political power at that time, instead, to collaborate with Chiang due to the USSR–KMT Treaty of Friendship and Alliance. Yet, three months after the Japanese surrender, in November 1945, when Chiang opposed the annexation of Tannu Uriankhai to the USSR, Stalin broke the treaty requiring the Red Army's withdrawal from Manchuria and ordered General Rodion Malinovsky to give to the Chinese communists the spoils of war captured from the Imperial Japanese Army. In the post-war 1945–1950 period, the United States had financed the KMT, his nationalist political party, the National Revolutionary Army, his armed forces in the civil war. S. sent General George Marshall to broker peace between the communist and anti-communist belligerents. In the concluding, three-year period of the Chinese Civil War, between the KMT and the CPC, the Chinese Communist Revolution defeated and expelled the KMT from continental China; the KMT retreated to Taiwan, where Gen. Chiang Kai-shek established the Republic of China, in 1950.
As a revolutionary theoretician of Communism seeking to realize a socialist state in China, Mao developed and adapted the urban ideology of Orthodox Marxism for practical application to the agrarian conditions of pre-industrial China and the Chinese people. Mao's Sinification of Marx, Socialism with Chinese characteristics, established political pragmatism as the first priority for realizing the accelerated modernization of a country and a people. In 1947, whilst fighting the Chinese Communist Revolution against the KMT nationalists, Mao dispatched the American journalist Anna Louise Strong to the West, bearing political documents explaining China's socialist future, asked that she "show them to Party leaders in the United States and Europe", for their better understanding of the Chinese Communist Revolution, but that it
The 1991 uprising in Basra was the scene of the beginning of the unrest in Iraq following the Gulf War. The uprising started after demoralized troops throughout Iraq began to rebel against Saddam Hussein, in particular after a tank driver in Basra fired at a public portrait of Saddam Hussein. Basra became a chaotic battlefield between military defectors and Iraqi Republican Guard, with most of the fighting taking place at close quarters. Most of Basra had been retaken by mid March, but rebels in parts such as Tanuma managed to hold out until mid April. After Ba'athist forces had regained control, they engaged in a crackdown against civilians and suspected supporters of the uprising; the turmoil began in Basra on 1 March 1991, one day after the Gulf War ceasefire, when a T-72 tank gunner returning home after Iraq's defeat in Kuwait fired a shell into an enormous portrait of Saddam Hussein hanging over the city's main square and the other soldiers applauded. By 4 March, the forces loyal to Saddam Hussein had managed to gain the upper hand in the battle, began a brutal counter-offensive characterised by the arbitrary killing of civilians, with government tanks firing at buildings and civilians and Republican Guardsmen engaging in massacres against the civilian population.
The fighting entered a stand-still by early April and the local resistance and the Republican Guardsmen entered a truce. The 1991 Uprising in Iraq And Its Aftermath
Mount Vernon Senior High School is a public high school in Mount Vernon, Indiana and is part of the M. S. D. of Mount Vernon. The current campus was expanded in the 1980s, it serves high school students from 4 townships in the southern half of Posey County. Mount Vernon's athletic teams are nicknamed the Wildcats and the school's colors are Maroon and Gray; the Wildcats compete in the Big Eight Conference in the following sports: baseball and girls basketball, cross country, golf and girls soccer, softball and girls swimming and girls tennis and field, wrestling. List of high schools in Indiana Indiana Department of Education: School Snapshot Metropolitan School District of Mount Vernon IHSAA Website
Angelo Dibona was a South Tyrolean mountaineer. He is remembered as one of the great pioneers of climbing in the Dolomites and is responsible for many first ascents throughout the Alps; the Aiguille Dibona in France and the Campanile Dibona in Italy are named after him. Dibona was born in Cortina d'Ampezzo in 1879. From 1905 he was a mountain guide and a ski instructor in the Cortina area, he became known for pioneering routes in the Dolomites, making more than 70 first ascents and becoming the leading climber during the heyday of climbing in the Dolomites. In 1910 he made the second ascent of the Christomannosturm in the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, 13 years after its first ascent. Dibona's route included a 600 m high rock face with fifth-degree passages, he made notable ascents of a number of peaks in other parts of the Alps in the early 1900s. One of his most notable first ascents was of the Pain de Sucre du Soreiller, a 3,130 m granite peak in the French Massif des Écrins, which he climbed in 1913 with Guido Mayer.
This mountain was renamed the Aiguille Dibona in his honor. Dibona developed a long-term and symbiotic friendship with Mayer and his brother. In the First World War he fought as a Kaiserschütze on the Austro-Hungarian side together with Luis Trenker and was awarded the "Iron Merit Cross with Crown". In the 1920s he climbed in the English Lake District, making first ascents of gills in the Honister Pass area. In 1947 the Appalachian Mountain Club reported that Dibona was still doing "spectacular" rock climbs at the age of 65. Campanile Dibona Torre Fiscalina Einser/Cima Una Croda dei Toni Campanile Rosa Tofana di Rozes Punta Michele
De Peyster Douw Brown DFC was an American fighter pilot who volunteered to fly for the Royal Canadian Air Force in World War II. He was one of 11 American pilots who flew with Fighter Command between 10 July and 31 October 1940, thereby qualifying for the Battle of Britain clasp to the 1939–45 campaign star. Brown joined the Royal Canadian Air Force claiming to be of Canadian nationality on 9 September 1939 and was posted to No. 112 Squadron RCAF. On arrival in England he was sent to No. 5 OTU RAF Aston Down to convert to Hurricanes and to No. 1 Squadron RCAF at RAF Northolt on 2 September 1940. On 27 September 1940 he claimed a Dornier Do 17 destroyed and a shared Junkers Ju 88. On 5 October he was badly shot up in combat with Bf109's but pursued one into cloud, being credited with a'damaged', his own aircraft crashed on landing back at Northolt but he was uninjured. Brown transferred to the United States Army Air Forces on 25 May 1942, he was given the rank of lieutenant promoted captain, held the rank of major when he retired.
He remained in the service for 12 years after the end of World War II and after the war was involved with the Berlin Airlift and served in Korea. Brown died in hospital in Santa Maria, California in August 1991. List of Battle of Britain pilots Non-British personnel in the RAF during the Battle of Britain
"Seize the Day" is a song by Avenged Sevenfold, the song is released as a promotional single from their third studio album City of Evil."Seize the Day" has been released on July 27, 2010 as a downloadable track in Rock Band 2 along with "Nightmare" and "Scream". The video depicts a couple in love and expecting a child. Matt's friends come to his house to make plans to rob a liquor store. In the process, Matt gets caught by the police while the others drive off. Matt goes to jail, they get into a fight. A funeral scene follows, her casket is lowered into the ground. At the end of the video, Matt is at her grave, with their son, who had survived the crash, is standing over her grave when the rest of the band come over to him. Matt picks up his son, they all walk away; the video tells a story, similar to the Guns N' Roses' video'November Rain'. M. Shadows said, "It's not us driving around in cool cars and just chilling, you know? It has a story and Guns N' Roses did those videos the best, it wasn't about looking cool and being flashy, it was about being real and showing the scenario and being true to the video."
They made a remake of the video from the band Anderson's song "Trial and Temptation", where they go and rob the store. The girl in the video is Matt's wife in real life. In 2007, the video won a Metal Hammer Golden Gods Award for Best Video. Avenged SevenfoldM. Shadows - lead vocals Zacky Vengeance - acoustic guitar The Rev - drums, piano Synyster Gates - lead guitars, backing vocals Johnny Christ - bassProductionProduced by Andrew Murdock Music video directed by Wayne Isham Artwork by Cam Rackam Seize the Day official music video on YouTube.com