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Sino-Tibetan languages

Sino-Tibetan, in a few sources known as Trans-Himalayan, is a family of more than 400 languages, second only to Indo-European in number of native speakers. The Sino-Tibetan language with the most native speakers is Mandarin Chinese, although since not all forms of Mandarin are mutually-intelligible, it may be regarded as a complex series of dialect continua. Other Sino-Tibetan languages with large numbers of speakers include Burmese and the Tibetic languages. Other languages of the family are spoken in the Himalayas, the Southeast Asian Massif, the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. While most linguists do not include Kra–Dai and Hmong–Mien languages within Sino-Tibetan, Chinese linguists do include them. Several low-level subgroups have been securely reconstructed, but reconstruction of a proto-language for the family as a whole is still at an early stage, so the higher-level structure of Sino-Tibetan remains unclear. Although the family is traditionally presented as divided into Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman branches, a common origin of the non-Sinitic languages has never been demonstrated.

Several links to other language families have been proposed. A genetic relationship between Chinese, Tibetan and other languages was first proposed in the early 19th century and is now broadly accepted; the initial focus on languages of civilizations with long literary traditions has been broadened to include less spoken languages, some of which have only or never, been written. However, the reconstruction of the family is much less developed than for families such as Indo-European or Austroasiatic. Difficulties have included the great diversity of the languages, the lack of inflection in many of them, the effects of language contact. In addition, many of the smaller languages are spoken in mountainous areas that are difficult to access, are also sensitive border zones. During the 18th century, several scholars had noticed parallels between Tibetan and Burmese, both languages with extensive literary traditions. Early in the following century, Brian Houghton Hodgson and others noted that many non-literary languages of the highlands of northeast India and Southeast Asia were related to these.

The name "Tibeto-Burman" was first applied to this group in 1856 by James Richardson Logan, who added Karen in 1858. The third volume of the Linguistic Survey of India, edited by Sten Konow, was devoted to the Tibeto-Burman languages of British India. Studies of the "Indo-Chinese" languages of Southeast Asia from the mid-19th century by Logan and others revealed that they comprised four families: Tibeto-Burman, Mon–Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian. Julius Klaproth had noted in 1823 that Burmese and Chinese all shared common basic vocabulary but that Thai and Vietnamese were quite different. Ernst Kuhn envisaged a group with Chinese-Siamese and Tibeto-Burman. August Conrady called this group Indo-Chinese in his influential 1896 classification, though he had doubts about Karen. Conrady's terminology was used, but there was uncertainty regarding his exclusion of Vietnamese. Franz Nikolaus Finck in 1909 placed Karen as a third branch of Chinese-Siamese. Jean Przyluski introduced the French term sino-tibétain as the title of his chapter on the group in Meillet and Cohen's Les langues du monde in 1924.

He divided them into three groups: Tibeto-Burman and Tai, was uncertain about the affinity of Karen and Hmong–Mien. The English translation "Sino-Tibetan" first appeared in a short note by Przyluski and Luce in 1931. In 1935, the anthropologist Alfred Kroeber started the Sino-Tibetan Philology Project, funded by the Works Project Administration and based at the University of California, Berkeley; the project was supervised by Robert Shafer until late 1938, by Paul K. Benedict. Under their direction, the staff of 30 non-linguists collated all the available documentation of Sino-Tibetan languages; the result was eight copies of a 15-volume typescript entitled Sino-Tibetan Linguistics. This work was never published, but furnished the data for a series of papers by Shafer, as well as Shafer's five-volume Introduction to Sino-Tibetan and Benedict's Sino-Tibetan, a Conspectus. Benedict completed the manuscript of his work in 1941, but it was not published until 1972. Instead of building the entire family tree, he set out to reconstruct a Proto-Tibeto-Burman language by comparing five major languages, with occasional comparisons with other languages.

He reconstructed a two-way distinction on initial consonants based on voicing, with aspiration conditioned by pre-initial consonants, retained in Tibetic but lost in many other languages. Thus, Benedict reconstructed the following initials: Although the initial consonants of cognates tend to have the same place and manner of articulation and aspiration is unpredictable; this irregularity was attacked by Roy Andrew Miller, though Benedict's supporters attribute it to the effects of prefixes that have been lost and are unrecoverable. The issue remains unsolved today, it was cited together with the lack of reconstructable shared morphology, evidence that much shared lexical material has been borrowed from Chinese into Tibeto-Burman, by Christopher Beckwith, one of the few scholars still arguing that Chinese is not related to Tibeto-Burman. Benedict reconstructed, at least for Tibeto-Burman, prefixes such as the causative s-, the intransitive m-, r-, b- g- and d- of uncertain function, as well as suffixes -s, -t and -n.

Old Chinese is by far the oldest recorded Sino-Tibetan language, with inscriptions dating from 1

Global Media AIDS Initiative

The Global Media AIDS Initiative is an umbrella organization that unites and motivates media companies around the world to use their influence and creative talent to address AIDS. The GMAI creates a framework for sharing television and radio programming among media companies in order to increase public health messaging; the organization educates journalists and producers on how to cover the issue. HIV is preventable, GMAI members aim to improve public awareness and knowledge to help stem the spread of HIV/AIDS. Within the GMAI, there are five regional coalitions of media companies; as of July 2009, the media initiatives in Africa, Russia, Latin America and the Caribbean included over 300 member broadcasters total. The GMAI was conceived and organized by the Kaiser Family Foundation and UNAIDS with financial support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Ford Foundation and the Elton John AIDS Foundation; the mission of the GMAI is to leverage the power of media to help prevent the spread of HIV and reduce the stigma facing those living with the disease.

United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan convened a meeting in New York in January 2004 to launch the GMAI. At the meeting, the Secretary-General asked the executives of 20 media corporations from 13 countries to pledge their companies’ commitment and resources to raising the level of public awareness and understanding about AIDS. By the Spring of 2005, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan decide to hand over the leadership of the GMAI to media leaders, as envisaged by its founders; the transfer of leadership was made official during a second GMAI Summit at the annual MIP TV festival in Cannes, France. Bill Roedy, Vice Chair of MTV Networks and President of MTV Networks International, took over as Chairman. Bill Roedy formed the Leadership Committee of media executives to oversee the GMAI. Over the next 18 months, he challenged media companies on five fronts, including a commitment to airtime of HIV prevention messages, production of content offered right-free and cost-free, appropriate messaging tailored for local audiences, a workplace policy and an active partnership.

In December 2006, Bill Roedy handed over the chair of the GMAI Leadership Committee to Dali Mpofu, former CEO of the South African Broadcasting Corporation. Today, implementing partners from each of the GMAI's five regional partnerships coordinate and oversee the GMAI. Since its first inauguration, regional coalitions have been forming within the GMAI; the regional coalitions produce and share culturally relevant public service announcements and entertainment programming on HIV/AIDS. Campaigns include not only radio and television pieces, but a range of platforms like consumer product labeling, billboard advertising, mobile phone messaging. Many coalitions provide training for media representatives in their region. Below are the official links to these campaigns. Global Media Aids Initiative Africa Broadcast Media Partnership Against HIV/AIDS Asia-Pacific Media AIDS Initiative Caribbean Broadcast Media Partnership on HIV/AIDS Latin American Media AIDS Initiative Russian Media Partnership on HIV/AIDS The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation UNAIDS Ford Foundation The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation The Elton John AIDS Foundation The British Medical Journal published an article on determining the most cost and health effective way of treating HIV patients and preventing further spread of HIV.

The article concluded that the most cost-effective way of reducing HIV transmission could be using mass media campaigns - reaching the greatest number of people using the lowest budget. Using the power of the media, the GMAI can be a significant contributor to preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS; the Global Media AIDS Initiative Hogan, D. R. Baltussen, R. Hayashi, C. Lauer, J. A. & Salomon, J. A.. Achieving the millennium development goals for health - Cost-effectiveness analysis of strategies to combat HIV/AIDS in developing countries. British Medical Journal, 331, 1431–1435

Wellington—Grey

Wellington—Grey, renamed Wellington—Grey—Dufferin—Waterloo in 1970, was a federal electoral district represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1968 to 1979. It was located in the province of Ontario; this riding was created in 1966 from parts of Dufferin—Simcoe, Grey—Bruce, Waterloo North, Wellington South and Wellington—Huron ridings. Wellington—Grey consisted of: the Townships of Amarath, East Luther and East Garafraxa excepting the Town of Orangeville in the County of Dufferin, the Town of Durham and the Townships of Artemesia, Glenelg and Proton in the County of Grey, the Townships of Wellesley and Woolwich in the County of Waterloo, the Townships of Arthur, West Garafraxa, West Luther, Minto, Nichol and Pilkington in the County of Wellington, the Town of Palmerston; the electoral district was abolished in 1976 when it was redistributed between Bruce—Grey, Dufferin—Wellington, Grey—Simcoe and Waterloo ridings. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts Website of the Parliament of Canada