Justus Vingboons was an Amsterdam architect. He was the brother of the better-known architect Philips Vingboons, like his brother, Justus built in the Dutch Classicism style. The most important work of Vingboons is Kloveniersburgwal 29, in which Dutch Classicism finds its purest and richest expression, the entire sandstone front has been given very detailed decoration and has eight colossal Corinthian pilasters. Examples of other houses attributed to Justus Vingboons include Herengracht 257 and he drew the facade of the House of Nobility in Stockholm during his visit there 1653-1656. Bureau Monumentenzorg Amsterdam Jacobine E. Huisken, Friso Lammertse, Het kunstbedrijf van de familie Vingboons
Cornelis van der Voort
Cornelis van der Voort or van der Voorde was a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter from the early 17th century. Very little is known about Van der Voorts early life and he was born in Antwerp, his father was Pieter van der Voort, a painter. It is thought he studied with Cornelis Ketel, as a young man he was praised by Karel van Mander. In 1606 his brother Hans, a tailor, bought three parcels on which two houses were built, Hans moved into the one on the corner, and Cornelis in the one next to it. Only a few years Cornelis sold the house, in 1639 Rembrandt, today it is the Rembrandt House Museum. Around 1613 he was a member of the schutterij and painted a few schuttersstukken, at some time he inherited the house on the corner of the Sint Antoniesbreestraat from his brother. Van der Voort probably had seven children and married twice, in 1598 with Geertrui Willems, who died in 1609 and he died in Amsterdam and was buried on 2 November 1624. In August 1625 his inventory was sold, in 1626 his art business was taken over by Hendrick van Uylenburgh.
Van der Voort painted full-length portraits in contemporary interiors, e. g. of Jan Cornelisz, geelvinck as one of the regenten of a hospital, of Joan Huydecoper and his late wife and of Nicolaes Tulp. His work was in demand and held in high esteem. In 1619 Van der Voort was the head of the Guild of St. Luke and he had a strong influence on the early portraits of Rembrandt, as well as the work of Nicolaes Eliasz. His own students included David Bailly, who copied his collection of paintings, Pieter Luyx, Dirk Harmensz. and probably Pieter Codde. Judikje Kiers and Fieke Tissink, “Companion Pieces” exhibition catalogue Rijksmuseum, The Glory of the Golden Age,15 April –17 September 2000, zijn leven, zijn schilderijen, p.26,30,138,139,141,174,210,213
Rapid transit, known as heavy rail, subway, tube, or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas. The stations typically have high platforms, without steps inside the trains and they are typically integrated with other public transport and often operated by the same public transport authorities. However, some transit systems have at-grade intersections between a rapid transit line and a road or between two rapid transit lines. It is unchallenged in its ability to transport large numbers of people quickly over short distances with little use of land, variations of rapid transit include people movers, small-scale light metro, and the commuter rail hybrid S-Bahn. The worlds first rapid-transit system was the partially underground Metropolitan Railway which opened as a railway in 1863. In 1868, New York opened the elevated West Side and Yonkers Patent Railway, china has the largest number of rapid transit systems in the world. The worlds longest single-operator rapid transit system by length is the Shanghai Metro.
The worlds largest single rapid transit service provider by both length of revenue track (665 miles and number of stations is the New York City Subway. The busiest rapid transit systems in the world by annual ridership are the Tokyo subway system, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, the Moscow Metro, the Beijing Subway, Metro is the most common term for underground rapid transit systems used by non-native English speakers. One of these terms may apply to a system, even if a large part of the network runs at ground level. In Scotland, the Glasgow Subway underground rapid transit system is known as the Subway, in the US, underground mass transit systems are primarily known as subways, whereas the term metro is a shortened reference to a metropolitan area. In that vein, Chicagos commuter rail system, serving the area, is called Metra. Exceptions in naming rapid transit systems are Washington DCs subway system the Washington Metro, Los Angeles Metro Rail, and the Miami Metrorail, the opening of Londons steam-hauled Metropolitan Railway in 1863 marked the beginning of rapid transit.
Initial experiences with steam engines, despite ventilation, were unpleasant, experiments with pneumatic railways failed in their extended adoption by cities. Electric traction was more efficient and cleaner than steam, in 1890 the City & South London Railway was the first electric-traction rapid transit railway, which was fully underground. Both railways were merged into London Underground. The 1893 Liverpool Overhead Railway was designed to use electric traction from the outset, budapest in Hungary and Glasgow and New York all converted or purpose-designed and built electric rail services. Advancements in technology have allowed new automated services, hybrid solutions have evolved, such as tram-train and premetro, which incorporate some of the features of rapid transit systems
Guild of Saint Luke
The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city guild for painters and other artists in early modern Europe, especially in the Low Countries. They were named in honor of the Evangelist Luke, the saint of artists. One of the most famous such organizations was founded in Antwerp and it continued to function until 1795, although by it had lost its monopoly and therefore most of its power. In most cities, including Antwerp, the government had given the Guild the power to regulate defined types of trade within the city. Guild membership, as a master, was required for an artist to take on apprentices or to sell paintings to the public. Similar rules existed in Delft, where members could sell paintings in the city or have a shop. The guild of Saint Luke not only represented painters and other artists, but also—especially in the seventeenth century—dealers, amateurs. In traditional guild structures, house-painters and decorators were often in the same guild, however, as artists formed under their own specific guild of St.
Luke, particularly in the Netherlands, distinctions were increasingly made. In general, guilds made judgments on disputes between artists and other artists or their clients, in such ways, it controlled the economic career of an artist working in a specific city, while in different cities they were wholly independent and often competitive against each other. Although it did not become an artistic center until the sixteenth century, Antwerp was one of, if not the first. It is first mentioned in 1382, and was given privileges by the city in 1442. The registers, or Liggeren, from the guild exist, cataloging when artists became masters, who the dean for each year was, what their specialities were, and the names of any students. Perhaps because of this link, for a period they had a rule that all miniatures needed a tiny mark to identify the artist, only under special privileges, such as court artist, could an artist effectively practice their craft without holding membership in the guild. Membership allowed members to sell works at the guild-owned showroom, for example, opened a market stall for selling paintings in front of the cathedral in 1460, and Bruges followed in 1482.
Guilds of St. Luke in the Dutch Republic began to reinvent themselves as cities there changed over to Protestant rule, many St. Luke guilds reissued charters to protect the interests of local painters from the influx of southern talent from places like Antwerp and Bruges. Many cities in the republic became more important artistic centres in the late sixteenth. Amsterdam was the first city to reissue a St. Lukes charter after the reformation in 1579, and it included painters, engravers, for example, Gouda and Delft, all founded guilds between 1609 and 1611. On the other hand, these distinctions did not take effect at that time in Amsterdam or Haarlem, in the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke, however, a strict hierarchy was attempted in 1631 with panel painters at the top, though this hierarchy was eventually rejected
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Esaias Boursse, was a Dutch painter. His paintings were genre works. He was born in Amsterdam, the youngest son of immigrants from Wallonia and his parents, Jacques Boursse and Anna des Forest, married in 1618 in Amsterdam. We know nothing more about the education of Esaias Boursse, other than the fact that he travelled to Italy in about 1650 to study the great Renaissance examples, no reminders of those examples is to be found in his work. In the past art historians have tried to place him among Rembrandts pupils, there is no objective evidence at all to prove this though. Maybe this opinion has been inspired by the fact that the painters were neighbours in the Sint Antoniebreestraat in Amsterdam, Boursses financial position will not have been good, since in 1661 he sailed with the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, on the ship Amersfoort. Boursse drew the inhabitants and city views, which have preserved in an album which can be found in the print room of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam. In 1663, the painter was back in Amsterdam, in 1672, Boursse sailed with Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie again.
The fact that he was no exception is proven by the stories of for example Jan Steen. A major difference though, is the fact that Steen and Vermeer had to feed, Boursse seems to have remained unmarried and childless. Financially, Boursses career was a success and he remains one of the highest paid artists in living memory. Boursses work mainly deals with family life, women spinning or sewing and families around a fireplace are examples of what to expect. Stylistically, his work is reminiscent of Pieter de Hooch, Quiringh van Brekelenkam, about 28 paintings remain of his work, mostly in private collections
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. The style of architecture that was created, though characterised as Neo-Renaissance, was essentially of its own time. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain about 1802 by John Nash and this small country house is generally accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from which is derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barrys Italianate style drew heavily for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, the style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved popularity in the United States. A late intimation of Nashs development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon.
Later examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building often enhanced by a belvedere complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor, unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew heavily on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and his most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden. Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Charles Barry into many of his London terraces. Following the completion of Osborne House in 1851, the became a popular choice of design for the small mansions built by the new. These were mostly built in cities surrounded by large but not extensive gardens, on occasions very similar, if not identical, designs to these Italianate villas would be topped by mansard roofs, and termed chateauesque. However, after a modest spate of Italianate villas, and French chateaux by 1855 the most favoured style of an English country house was Gothic, the Italianate style came to the small town of Newton Abbot in Devon, with Isambard Brunels atmospheric railway pumping houses.
An example that is not very known, but a clear example of Italianate architecture, is St. Christophers Anglican church in Hinchley Wood, Surrey. When the Ottomans exiled Fakhreddine to Tuscany in 1613, he entered an alliance with the Medicis, upon his return to Lebanon in 1618, he began modernising Lebanon. He developed an industry, upgraded olive-oil production, and brought with him numerous Italian engineers who began the construction of mansions. The cities of Beirut and Sidon were especially built in the Italianate style, the influence of these buildings, such as the ones in Deir el Qamar, influenced building in Lebanon for many centuries and continues to the present time
The name in English was derived from the Dutch burgemeester. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign city-state, contemporary titles are commonly translated into English as mayor. Bürgermeister, in German, in Germany and formerly in Switzerland, in Switzerland, the title was abolished mid-19th century, various current titles for roughly equivalent offices include Gemeindepräsident, Stadtpräsident and Stadtamtmann. Oberbürgermeister is the most common version for a mayor in a big city in Germany, the Ober- prefix is used in many ranking systems for the next level up including military designations. The mayors of cities, which comprise one of Germanys 112 urban districts usually bear this title. Urban districts are comparable to independent cities in the English-speaking world, the mayors of some cities, which do not comprise an urban district, but often used to comprise one until the territorial reforms in the 1970s, bear the title Oberbürgermeister.
In the Netherlands nominated by the council but appointed by the crown. In theory above the parties, in practice a high-profile party-political post, bourgmestre in Belgium and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Bürgermeister Burmistras, derived from German. Burmistrz, a title, derived from German. The German form Oberbürgermeister is often translated as Nadburmistrz, the German-derived terminology reflects the involvement of German settlers in the early history of many Polish towns. Borgmästare, kommunalborgmästare, the title is not used in Sweden in present times, boargemaster Pormestari In history in many free imperial cities the function of burgomaster was usually held simultaneously by three persons, serving as an executive college. One of the three being burgomaster in chief for a year, the second being the prior burgomaster in chief, präsidierender Bürgermeister is now an obsolete formulation sometimes found in historic texts
Rembrandt House Museum
The Rembrandt House Museum is a historic house and art museum in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. Painter Rembrandt lived and worked in the house between 1639 and 1656, the 17th-century interior has been reconstructed. The collection contains Rembrandts etchings and paintings of his contemporaries, the museum had 237,383 visitors in 2014. The house is located in the Jodenbreestraat in Amsterdam, where Rembrandt lived and painted for a number of years, Rembrandt purchased the house in 1639 and lived there until he went bankrupt in 1656, when all his belongings went on auction. The auction list enabled the reconstructions of all his belongings which are on display in the house, a few years ago the house was thoroughly reconstructed on the inside to show how the house would have looked in Rembrandts days. Adjoining the house is a building where work of Rembrandt is on display, mainly etchings. Michael Huijser is the director and David de Witt is the curator. Since 2008, the museum had around 200,000 visitors per year, with a record number of 237,383 visitors in 2014
Roelant Savery, was a Flanders-born Dutch Golden Age painter. Like so many artists, he belonged to an Anabaptist family that fled north from the Spanish-occupied Southern Netherlands when Roelant was about 4 years old. He was taught painting by his older brother Jacob Savery and Hans Bol, after his schooling, Savery traveled to Prague around 1604, where he became court painter of the Emperors Rudolf II and Mathias, who had made their court a center of mannerist art. Between 1606-1608 he traveled to Tyrol to study plants, before 1616 Savery moved back to Amsterdam, and lived in the Sint Antoniesbreestraat. In 1618 he settled in Utrecht, where he joined the artists guild a year and his nephew Hans would become his most important assistant. In 1621 Savery bought a house on the Boterstraat in Utrecht. The house had a garden with flowers and plants, where a number of fellow painters. Savery had kept his house in Amsterdam, and had one child baptized in Nieuwe Kerk, Savery was friends with still life painters like Balthasar van der Ast and Ambrosius Bosschaert.
In the 1620s he was one of the most successful painters in Utrecht, though he would have pupils until the late 1630s, amongst which Allaert van Everdingen and Roelant Roghman, he went bankrupt in 1638 and died in Utrecht half a year later. He painted multiple flower still lifes, bouquets in stone niches, sometimes with lizards, insects or fallen petals and regarded as his best work. His unique style of painting, related to the reigning Mannerism, has been popular with collectors and can be found in many museums in Europe. His preparatory drawings are valued highly, among his best-known works are several depictions of the now-extinct dodo painted between 1611 and 1628. Jan Savery was known for his paintings of the dodo, Savery is famous for being the most prolific and influential illustrator of the extinct dodo, having made at least ten depictions, often showing it in the lower corners. A famous painting of his from 1626, now called Edwards Dodo as it was owned by the ornithologist George Edwards, has since become the standard image of a dodo.
It is housed in the Natural History Museum and this and his other images are the source for many other dodo illustrations
National Socialism, more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi Germany, as well as other far-right groups. Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying Germans as part of what Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race and it aimed to overcome social divisions and create a homogeneous society, unified on the basis of racial purity. The term National Socialism arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of socialism, the Nazi Partys precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and anti-Semitic German Workers Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s, Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organisation, following the Holocaust and German defeat in World War II, only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis, still describe themselves as following National Socialism. The full name of Adolf Hitlers party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, the shorthand Nazi was formed from the first two syllables of the German pronunciation of the word national.
The term was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a peasant, characterizing an awkward. It derived from Ignaz, being a version of Ignatius, a common name in Bavaria. Opponents seized on this and shortened the first word of the name, Nationalsozialistische. The NSDAP briefly adopted the Nazi designation, attempting to reappropriate the term, the use of Nazi Germany, Nazi regime, and so on was popularised by German exiles abroad. From them, the spread into other languages and was eventually brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, Nazism is a name for the ideology the party advocated. The majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as a form of far-right politics, far-right themes in Nazism include the argument that superior people have a right to dominate over other people and purge society of supposed inferior elements. Adolf Hitler and other proponents officially portrayed Nazism as being neither left- nor right-wing, but the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach.
It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews who came into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms, a major inspiration for the Nazis were the far-right nationalist Freikorps, paramilitary organisations that engaged in political violence after World War I. The Nazis stated the alliance was purely tactical and there remained substantial differences with the DNVP, the Nazis described the DNVP as a bourgeois party and called themselves an anti-bourgeois party. After the elections in 1932, the alliance broke after the DNVP lost many of its seats in the Reichstag, the Nazis denounced them as an insignificant heap of reactionaries. The DNVP responded by denouncing the Nazis for their socialism, their violence. Kaiser Wilhelm II, who was pressured to abdicate the throne and flee into exile amidst an attempted communist revolution in Germany, there were factions in the Nazi Party, both conservative and radical
The Zuiderkerk is a 17th-century Protestant church in the Nieuwmarkt area of Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands. The church played an important part in the life of Rembrandt and was the subject of a painting by Claude Monet, the Zuiderkerk was the citys first church built specifically for Protestant services. It was constructed between 1603 and 1611 and stands on the Zuiderkerkhof square near the Sint Antoniesbreestraat, the design of the church in Amsterdam Renaissance style is by Hendrick de Keyser, who was buried in the church in 1621. A memorial stone was placed on top of his tomb in 1921, De Keyser designed the church as a pseudo-basilica in Gothic style, with a central nave and two lower side aisles, six bays long, with Tuscan columns, timber barrel vaults and dormers. The stained glass in the windows was replaced by transparent glass in the 17th Century. The richly detailed tower is a square stone substructure, on which an octagonal sandstone section stands with free-standing columns on the corners, on top of this is a wooden, lead-covered spire.
French Impressionist painter Claude Monet painted the church during a visit to the Netherlands, there is some confusion about the date of this painting, but it was probably one of 12 paintings made by Monet in 1874 during a visit to Amsterdam. The composition is centred on the spire, with the Groenburgwal canal leading up to it in the foreground. The reflections of the buildings on the water are represented by yellow brushstrokes only, the painting now hangs in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Three of Rembrandts children were buried in the Zuiderkerk, which is very near to Rembrandts house in the Jodenbreestraat, ferdinand Bol, one of Rembrandts most famous pupils, was buried in the Zuiderkerk in 1680. According to local legend, Rembrandt painted the Night Watch at the church because his own studio was too small, the story is highly disputed and most likely untrue. The Zuiderkerk was used for services until 1929. The church was closed in 1970 because it was at the point of collapse, since June 2006, the church houses the Wall of Fame, a homage to Dutch celebrities who have made a positive contribution to society, such as charitable work.
The honourees include Amsterdam mayor Job Cohen, renowned former soccer player Johan Cruijff, the church is open to the public and currently serves as a municipal information center with exhibitions on housing and the environment. Richard Clyfton Hendrick de Keyser Amsterdam Heritage Informatiecentrum De Zuiderkerk Archimon