An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United
Cedar Creek (North Dakota)
Cedar Creek is a tributary of the Cannonball River in southwestern North Dakota in the United States. It rises near White Butte, south of Amidon in the badlands of Slope County, it flows ESE, north of Whetstone Butte east, north of the Cedar River National Grassland, forming the northern border of Sioux County and the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. It joins the Cannonball 15 mi southwest of Shields. List of North Dakota rivers
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Adams County, North Dakota
Adams County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2,343; the county seat is Hettinger. The county was created on April 17, 1907, organized one week later, it was named for John Quincy Adams, a railroad official for the Milwaukee Road Railroad and distant relative of sixth U. S. President John Quincy Adams. Adams County lies on the south line of North Dakota, its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of South Dakota. Its terrain consists of semi-arid low rolling hills, its terrain slopes eastward, its highest point is on its upper west boundary line, at 3,002' ASL. The county has a total area of 989 square miles, of which 988 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 12 North Dakota Highway 8 North Dakota Highway 22 North Lemmon Lake State Game Management Area North Lemmon Lake Mirror Lake As of the 2000 United States Census there were 2,593 people, 1,121 households, 725 families in the county.
The population density was 2.6 people per square mile. There were 1,416 housing units at an average density of 1.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.50% White, 0.54% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, 0.35% from two or more races. 0.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 40.6 % were of 27.9 % Norwegian and 5.6 % English ancestry. There were 1,121 households out of which 26.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.3% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.85. The county population contained 23.2% under the age of 18, 4.1% from 18 to 24, 21.7% from 25 to 44, 27.0% from 45 to 64, 24.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females there were 91.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,079, the median income for a family was $34,306. Males had a median income of $23,073 versus $18,714 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,425. About 8.5% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,343 people, 1,098 households, 658 families in the county; the population density was 2.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,377 housing units at an average density of 1.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.3% white, 0.7% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 51.8% were German, 29.9% were Norwegian, 8.0% were Irish, 7.4% were Swedish, 7.1% were English, 5.4% were Russian, 4.6% were American.
Of the 1,098 households, 22.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.1% were non-families, 36.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.69. The median age was 49.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $35,966 and the median income for a family was $50,227. Males had a median income of $31,290 versus $25,145 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,118. About 5.7% of families and 10.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.1% of those under age 18 and 14.2% of those age 65 or over. Petrel North Lemmon Petrel Adams County voters have been reliably Republican for decades. In only two national elections since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Adams County, North Dakota Atlas of Historical County Boundaries Official 1968 Adams County, North Dakota Farm & Ranch Directory Directory Service Company Provided by Farm and Home, 1968
North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 3, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to reduced unemployment. North Dakota contains the tallest human-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource, it is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth.
But North Dakota has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000's, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than are the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state’s merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed, it is the country’s top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets.
Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870's because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870's, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870's. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state.
North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam; the central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.
As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness is low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of year
Corson County, South Dakota
Corson County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 4,050, its county seat is McIntosh. The county was named for Dighton Corson, a native of Maine, who came to the Black Hills in 1876, in 1877 began practicing law at Deadwood; the county is encompassed within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, which extends into North Dakota. The Lakota people reside in the South Dakota part of the reservation; the Grand River, a tributary of the Missouri River, runs through the reservation. Corson County lies on the north line of South Dakota, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of the state of North Dakota. The Missouri River flows south-southeastward along its eastern boundary line; the county terrain consists of semi-arid rolling hills. A portion of the land is dedicated to agriculture; the Grand River flows eastward through the central part of the county to discharge into the river, Standing Cloud Creek flows eastward through the county's lower SW area.
The terrain slopes to the east and south. Corson County has a total area of 2,530 square miles, of which 2,470 square miles is land and 60 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county in South Dakota by area. The entire county lies within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, which includes Sioux and Dewey counties; the eastern portion of South Dakota's counties observe Central Time. Corson County is the easternmost of the SD counties to observe Mountain Time. Grand River National Grassland C. C. Lee State Game Production Area As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 4,181 people, 1,271 households, 949 families in the county; the population density was 1.7 people per square mile. There were 1,536 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 60.80% Native American, 37.19% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.05% Asian, 0.22% from other races, 1.65% from two or more races. 2.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
27.3% were of German ancestry. There were 1,271 households out of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.3% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.29 and the average family size was 3.82. The county population contained 36.9% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,654, the median income for a family was $23,889. Males had a median income of $22,717 versus $19,609 for females; the per capita income for the county was $8,615. About 32.80% of families and 41.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.60% of those under age 18 and 32.70% of those age 65 or over.
The county's per-capita income makes it one of the poorest counties in the United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,050 people, 1,260 households, 939 families in the county; the population density was 1.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,540 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 67.0% American Indian, 29.7% white, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.3% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry,Of the 1,260 households, 45.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 21.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were non-families, 22.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 3.21 and the average family size was 3.73. The median age was 29.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $30,877 and the median income for a family was $36,500.
Males had a median income of $32,037 versus $23,167 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,359. About 24.1% of families and 35.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.7% of those under age 18 and 16.9% of those age 65 or over. McIntosh McLaughlin Morristown Bullhead Little Eagle Like Ziebach County, unlike the arch-Republican white West River counties, Corson is a competitive, fluctuating swing county, it voted Democratic in the three elections from 2004 to 2012 – doing so by over twenty percentage points for Barack Obama in 2008 – but as with most Native American counties there was a substantial swing against Hillary Clinton in 2016. National Register of Historic Places listings in Corson County, South Dakota
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive